Monday, March 28, 2011

Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie, or, a shot in the dark ???

Volume 17, Number 4–April 2011




Dispatch



Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie



Laura Pirisinu, Sergio Migliore, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Elena Esposito, Thierry Baron, Claudia D'Agostino, Luigi De Grossi, Gabriele Vaccari, Umberto Agrimi, and Romolo Nonno Author affiliations: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy (L. Pirisinu, S. Migliore, M.A. Di Bari, E. Esposito, C. D'Agostino, G. Vaccari, U. Agrimi, R. Nonno); Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire, Lyon, France (T. Baron); and Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, Rome (L. De Grossi)



Abstract



Sheep CH1641-like transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolates have shown molecular similarities to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates. We report that the prion protein PrPSc from sheep BSE is extremely resistant to denaturation. This feature, combined with the N-terminal PrPSc cleavage, allowed differentiation of classical scrapie, including CH1641-like, from natural goat BSE and experimental sheep BSE.



snip...please see full text ;



http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/17/4/695.htm




" Although based on a limited set of samples, our study supports the notion that CH1641-like isolates can be convincingly discriminated from small ruminant BSE on molecular grounds. "



THAT depends on WHO is doing the testing, and IF they are testing to find. here in the USA, seems to be just the opposite. I have lost all faith and hope that the USDA et al can discriminate between anything but cover up, when it comes to testing for TSE in the bovine, and or which pit to bury the mad cow in i.e. SSS policy. in my opinion, this ''3 mad cow only theory'' in the USA, was bought and paid for by the USDA et al $$$. in my opinion, it would be scientifically impossible for the USA to have only 3 cases of mad cow disease, considering the amount of mad cow protein in commerce up until, and as late as ;



10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007



Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST



RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II



___________________________________



PRODUCT



Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007



CODE



Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007



RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER



Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.



Firm initiated recall is ongoing.



REASON



Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE



42,090 lbs.



DISTRIBUTION



WI



___________________________________



PRODUCT



Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007



CODE



The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.



RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER



Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.



REASON



Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE



9,997,976 lbs.



DISTRIBUTION



ID and NV



END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007



http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/EnforcementReports/2007/ucm120446.htm




BANNED MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE IN ALABAMA (where h-g-BSEalabama mad cow was documented)



Date: September 6, 2006 at 7:58 am PST PRODUCT



a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6;



b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6;



c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6;



d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6.



CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.



REASON



Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein.



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 477.72 tons



DISTRIBUTION AL



______________________________



http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00968.html



PRODUCT Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes,



Recall # V-120-6 CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 350 tons



DISTRIBUTION AL and MS



______________________________



PRODUCT



a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;



b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;



c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;



d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;



e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-125-6;



f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-126-6;



g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6



CODE All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006. Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.



REASON Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 7,541-50 lb bags



DISTRIBUTION AL, GA, MS, and TN



END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006



###



http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ENFORCE/2006/ENF00964.html



Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006



Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST PRODUCT



a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;



b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;



c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;



d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;



e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;



f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;



g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;



h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;



i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;



j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;



k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;



l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;



m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 CODE



Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006



RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.



REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons



DISTRIBUTION AL and FL



END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006



###



http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00963.html



MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248.128.67



RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II



______________________________



PRODUCT



a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6;



b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6;



c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6;



d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 CODE



a) Bulk



b) None



c) Bulk



d) Bulk



RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.



REASON



Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.



VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons



DISTRIBUTION Nationwide



END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006



###



http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00960.html



Friday, January 7, 2011



MEAT AND BONE MEAL AND MINERAL FEED ADDITIVES MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF ORAL PRION DISEASE TRANSMISSION



Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 74:161–166, 2011 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1528-7394 print / 1087-2620 online DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2011.529066



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/meat-and-bone-meal-and-mineral-feed.html




Saturday, November 6, 2010



TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010



TAFS



INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation



http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2010/11/tafs1-position-paper-on-position-paper.html




Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie, or, a shot in the dark in the USA $$$



Technical Abstract:



Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various antibodies, or molecular profile (electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio). Recent work on two U.S. isolates of sheep scrapie supports that at least two distinct strains exist based on differences in incubation time and genotype of sheep affected. One isolate (No. 13-7) inoculated intracerebrally caused scrapie in sheep AA at codon 136 (AA136) and QQ at codon 171 (QQ171) of the prion protein in an average of 19 months post-inoculation (PI) whereas a second isolate (No. x124) caused disease in less than 12 months after oral inoculation in AV136/QQ171 sheep. Striking differences were evident when further strain analysis was done in R111, VM, C57Bl6, and C57Bl6xVM (F1) mice. No. 13-7 did not induce disease in any mouse strain at any time post-inoculation (PI) nor were brain tissues positive by western blot (WB). Positive WB results were obtained from mice inoculated with isolate No. x124 starting at day 380 PI. Incubation times averaged 508, 559, 601, and 633 days PI for RIII, C57Bl6, VM, and F1 mice, respectively. Further passage will be required to characterize these scrapie strains in mice. This work provides evidence that multiple scrapie strains exist in U.S. sheep.



http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=227516




One of these isolates (TR316211) behaved like the CH1641 isolate, with PrPres features in mice similar to those in the sheep brain. From two other isolates (O100 and O104), two distinct PrPres phenotypes were identified in mouse brains, with either high (h-type) or low (l-type) apparent molecular masses of unglycosylated PrPres, the latter being similar to that observed with CH1641, TR316211, or BSE. Both phenotypes could be found in variable proportions in the brains of the individual mice. In contrast with BSE, l-type PrPres from "CH1641-like" isolates showed lower levels of diglycosylated PrPres. From one of these cases (O104), a second passage in mice was performed for two mice with distinct PrPres profiles. This showed a partial selection of the l-type phenotype in mice infected with a mouse brain with predominant l-type PrPres, and it was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportions of the diglycosylated band. These results are discussed in relation to the diversity of scrapie and BSE strains.



http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/81/13/7230?view=long&pmid=17442721




In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.



http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=182469




Wednesday, February 16, 2011



IN CONFIDENCE



SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES



http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2011/02/in-confidence-scrapie-transmission-to.html




Sunday, March 27, 2011



SCRAPIE USA UPDATE FEBRUARY 2011



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/scrapie-usa-update-february-2011.html




Tuesday, November 02, 2010



BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992



http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/bse-atypical-lesion-distribution-rbse.html




Friday, February 18, 2011



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VS GALEN J. NIEHUES FAKED MAD COW FEED TEST ON 92 BSE INSPECTION REPORTS FOR APPROXIMATELY 100 CATTLE OPERATIONS ''PLEADS GUILTY"



http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/02/united-states-of-america-vs-galen-j.html




Subject: USDA BSE inconclusive MRR policy



Date: August 25, 2006 at 3:52 pm PST



USDA BSE inconclusive MRR policy



BESIDES THE TEXAS MAD COW THAT WAS RENDERED AND NEVER TESTED;



http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2007/10/bse-base-mad-cow-testing-texas-usa-and.html




PAUL BROWN COMMENT TO ME ON THIS ISSUE



Tuesday, September 12, 2006 11:10 AM



"Actually, Terry, I have been critical of the USDA handling of the mad cow issue for some years, and with Linda Detwiler and others sent lengthy detailed critiques and recommendations to both the USDA and the Canadian Food Agency." ........TSS



http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2009/07/mad-cow-cover-up-usa-masked-as-sporadic.html




OR, what the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG found ;



Audit Report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program ­ Phase II and Food Safety and Inspection Service



Controls Over BSE Sampling, Specified Risk Materials, and Advanced Meat Recovery Products - Phase III



Report No. 50601-10-KC January 2006



Finding 2 Inherent Challenges in Identifying and Testing High-Risk Cattle Still Remain



http://www.usda.gov/oig/webdocs/50601-10-KC.pdf




Wednesday, March 9, 2011



27 U.S. Senators want to force feed Japan Highly Potential North America Mad Cow Beef TSE PRION CJD



March 8, 2011



President Barack Obama The White House



1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, W Washington, DC 20500



Dear President Obama:



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/27-us-senators-want-to-force-feed-japan.html




Friday, March 4, 2011



Alberta dairy cow found with mad cow disease



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/alberta-dairy-cow-found-with-mad-cow.html




Saturday, March 5, 2011



MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html




Thursday, February 10, 2011



TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY REPORT UPDATE CANADA FEBRUARY 2011 and how to hide mad cow disease in Canada Current as of: 2011-01-31



http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2011/02/transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy.html




Opinion & Contributed Articles



Fong's Folly: Trying to Test Our Way Out



by Chuck Jolley
Mar 08, 2011



http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/03/fongs-folly-trying-to-test-our-way-out/




Saturday, December 18, 2010



OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and Biodiversity - Preparing for the Future (TSE AND PRIONS) Paris (France), 23-25 February 2011



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/12/oie-global-conference-on-wildlife.html




Monday, November 22, 2010



Atypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants: a challenge for disease surveillance and control



REVIEW ARTICLES



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/11/atypical-transmissible-spongiform.html




Sunday, December 12, 2010



EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/12/efsa-reviews-bsetse-infectivity-in.html




Tuesday, September 14, 2010



Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting October 28 and 29, 2010 (COMMENT SUBMISSION)



http://tseac.blogspot.com/2010/09/transmissible-spongiform_14.html




Monday, February 7, 2011



FDA's Currently-Recommended Policies to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of CJD and vCJD by Blood and Blood Products 2011 ???



http://tseac.blogspot.com/2011/02/fdas-currently-recommended-policies-to.html




PLEASE NOTE *



Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.



snip...



The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...



http://web.archive.org/web/20030516051623/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf




14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -



Final Abstract Number: ISE.114



Session: International Scientific Exchange



Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America



update October 2009



T. Singeltary



Bacliff, TX, USA



Background:



An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.



Methods:



12 years independent research of available data



Results:



I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.



Conclusion:



I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.



http://ww2.isid.org/Downloads/14th_ICID_ISE_Abstracts.pdf




Wednesday, January 5, 2011



ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions



http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html




TSS

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