Getting the Farm Out of Pharma for Heparin Production
Jeremy E. Turnbull
+ Author Affiliations
Centre for Glycobiology and Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK.
Heparins derived from animal sources have been used effectively as anticoagulants for more than 70 years. However, a recent contamination scare (1, 2) has highlighted the difficulties of monitoring the quality control and safety of such complex natural products. This issue has been at least partially addressed by more stringent testing requirements (3), but there is now a clear drive to find alternatives to animal sources of heparin (4). Synthetic chemistry has provided one approach, but this route is difficult and its products are expensive, especially for larger heparin saccharides. On page 498 of this issue, Xu et al. (5) describe a tractable chemoenzymatic approach that could dramatically alter the landscape for producing these kinds of products as alternatives to conventional heparins and as a new class of therapeutics for a number of disease areas.
Greetings Science Mag., Jeremy E. Turnbull, et al,
Thank You for this article !
I have been very concerned for over a decade about heparin and other injectable drugs that could carry the TSE prion aka mad cow agent.
please see why as follows ;
"The fact that certain medicinal products could be injected directly into the body (most commonly intramuscularly) meant that in theory they would pose a greater risk than beef products in food."
Infectivity of bovine materials used in medicinal products and the importance of inoculation route
3.221 The risk from infectivity present in medicinal products was considered by the Southwood Working Party. They noted that ‘the greatest risk . . . would be from the parenteral injection of material derived from bovine brain or lymphoid tissue’.538 (As described previously, it was generally accepted that the oral route was considerably less efficient than the parenteral route.539)
3.222 In reality, different routes exist within the parenteral category – intracerebral, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intravenous, intraspinal and subcutaneous. Experiments in 1978 looking at several of these routes found the efficiency between them to vary. Intracerebral and intraspinal were generally the most efficient, followed by intravenous, intraperitoneal and then subcutaneous.540 The fact that certain medicinal products could be injected directly into the body (most commonly intramuscularly) meant that in theory they would pose a greater risk than beef products in food.
3.223 Various cattle tissues were of relevance to medicinal products, including insulin, heparin, surgical catgut sutures and serum. The consideration given to these materials prior to March 1996 is addressed in vol. 7: Medicines and Cosmetics.
533 SEAC 22/5 534 Wells, G. (1998) Preliminary Observations on the Pathogenesis of Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE): An Update, Veterinary Record, 142, 103 535 Wells, G., Hawkins, S., Green, P., Spencer, Y., Dexter, I. and Dawson, D. (1999) Limited Detection of Sternal Bone Marrow Infectivity in the Clinical Phase of Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Veterinary Record, 144, 292–4 536 Scott, M.R., Will, R., Ironside, J., Nguyen, H.-O., Tremblay, P., DeArmond, S.J. and Prusiner, S.B. (1999) Compelling Transgenetic Evidence for Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions to Humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 15137–42 537 Scott, M.R., Safar, J., Telling, G., Nguyen, H.-O., Groth, D., Torchia, M., Kochler, R., Tremblay, P., Walther, D., Cohen, F., DeArmond, S. and Prusiner, S. (1997) Identification of a Prion Protein Epitope Modulating Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions to Transgenic Mice, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 14279–84 538 IBD1 tab 2 para. 5.3.3 539 Kimberlin, R. and Walker, C. (1989) Pathogenesis of Scrapie in Mice after Intragastric Infection, Virus Research, 12, 213–20; Diringer, H., Beekes, M. and Oberdieck, U. (1994) The Nature of the Scrapie Agent: The Virus Theory, Annals of The New York Academy of Science, 724, 246–58; Prusiner, S., Cochran, S. and Alpers, S. (1985) Transmission of Scrapie in Hamsters, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 152, 971–8 540 Kimberlin, R.H. and Walker, C.A. (1978) Pathogenesis of Mouse Scrapie: Effect of Route of Inoculation on Infectivity Titres and Dose-Response Curves, Journal of Comparative Pathology, 88, 39–47
COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE
NOT FOR PUBLICATION
COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINES
WORKING PARTY ON BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
3. Products for injection using bovine tissue
This category includes tissue derived products, other than from brain or lymphoid tissue and excludes bovine blood.
3.1 Bovine Pancreas
The following companies hold licences for bovine insulin.
Denmark, Sweden, USA, Italy, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands
In 1988 a sample consignment from UK was used. UK source material is no longer used.
There are no bovine insulins manufctured from UK sourced material.
Bovine insulin is not widely prescribed, but has a niche in the market for diabetics unable to tolerate other products.
bovine pancreas from USA.
as for insulin - Scandinavia, USA, Italy, Canada, Portugal and Netherlands.
Miscellaneous products containing Bovine Pancreas
188.8.131.52 Zonulysin (Chymotrypsin) - sourced from Canada
184.108.40.206 Streptokinase - culture medium, containing bovine muscle and pancreas are used in process - all sourced from Germany
220.127.116.11 Fibrinogen + Desoxyribonuclease - bovine pancreas sourced from Canada and S Africa.
3.2. Vaccines using Bovine Products in process
snip...see full text ;
Sunday, May 18, 2008
MAD COW DISEASE BSE CJD CHILDREN VACCINES
Sunday, May 1, 2011
W.H.O. T.S.E. PRION Blood products and related biologicals May 2011
Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.
[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?
[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]
[host Richard] could you repeat the question?
[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?
[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?
[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.
[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary
[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?
[not sure whom speaking] NO
from this point, i was still connected, got to listen and tape the whole conference. at one point someone came on, a woman, and ask again;
[unknown woman] what group are you with?
[TSS] CJD Watch and my Mom died from hvCJD we are trying to tract down CJD and other human TSE's world wide. i was invited to sit in on this from someone inside the USDA/APHIS and that is why i am here. do you intend on banning me from this conference now?
at this point the conference was turned back up, and i got to finish listening. They never answered or even addressed my one question, or even addressed the issue. BUT, i will try and give you a run-down for now, of the conference.
snip...full text ;
EFSA Journal 2011
The European Response to BSE: A Success Story
This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it's ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;
Monday, October 10, 2011
EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story
EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.
see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;
Saturday, June 25, 2011
Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque
"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.
The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
Sunday, June 26, 2011
Risk Analysis of Low-Dose Prion Exposures in Cynomolgus Macaque
U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? (see video at bottom)
USA sporadic CJD cases rising ;
There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection.
He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.
The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.
CJD USA RISING, with UNKNOWN PHENOTYPE ;
5 Includes 41 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases;
*** 6 Includes 46 cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.
Saturday, March 5, 2011
MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA
Thursday, August 4, 2011
Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011 (SEE VIDEO)
Sunday, August 21, 2011
The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease (SEE VIDEO)
Tuesday, March 29, 2011
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY EXPOSURE SPREADING VIA HOSPITALS AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES AROUND THE GLOBE
Wednesday, August 24, 2011
There Is No Safe Dose of Prions
Wednesday, August 24, 2011
All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD
Wednesday, March 31, 2010
Atypical BSE in Cattle
To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE.
When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.
This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.
Thursday, August 12, 2010
Seven main threats for the future linked to prions
The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.
***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.
Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee
The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government's decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010
2.65 At its hearing on 14 May 2010, the committee heard evidence from Dr Alan Fahey who has recently submitted a thesis on the clinical neuropsychiatric, epidemiological and diagnostic features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.48 Dr Fahey told the committee of his concerns regarding the lengthy incubation period for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the inadequacy of current tests and the limited nature of our current understanding of this group of diseases.49
2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo-has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50
14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -
Final Abstract Number: ISE.114
Session: International Scientific Exchange
Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009
Bacliff, TX, USA
An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.
12 years independent research of available data
I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.
I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.
A REVIEW OF THE USDA FDA BSE MAD COW FEED TRIPLE FIREWALL, a firewall that was nothing more than ink on paper ;
Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II
Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007
Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007
Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.
Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007
The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.
Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.
Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
ID and NV
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007
Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 2010 (11)
PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11)
SEE TONNAGE OF MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE IN 2007 ALONE, A DECADE POST PARTIAL AND VOLUNTARY MAD COW FEED BAN ;
Saturday, November 6, 2010
TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS
INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation
Saturday, July 23, 2011
CATTLE HEADS WITH TONSILS, BEEF TONGUES, SPINAL CORD, SPECIFIED RISK MATERIALS (SRM's) AND PRIONS, AKA MAD COW DISEASE
Sunday, September 25, 2011
Mad Cow Scaremongers
Mad Cow Scaremongers by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. a review of the TSE prion agent 2003-2011
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
Conflict of Interest:
None declared Published 31 October 2011
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