Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Action Plan National Program 103 Animal Health 2012-2017 PRIONS AND TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

Action Plan National Program 103 Animal Health 2012-2017


Problem Statement 2E: Genetics of Prion Disease Susceptibility


Prion diseases have stimulated intense scientific scrutiny since it was first proposed that the infectious agent was devoid of nucleic acid. Despite this finding, host genetics has played a key role in understanding the pathobiology and clinical aspects of prion diseases through the effects of a series of polymorphisms and mutations in the prion protein gene. The advent of vCJD confirmed a powerful human genetic susceptibility factor, as all patients with clinical disease have an identical genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion gene. The alternative variant at codon 129 is not protective, however, and abnormal prions have been found in lymphoid tissues of individuals of other prion genotypes after exposure to transfused blood products from patients who later succumbed to the disease. Familial forms of prion diseases are also known to be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the altered gene from one affected parent. In some people, familial forms of prion disease are caused by a new mutation in the prion gene. Although such people most likely do not have an affected parent, they can pass the genetic change to their children. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease.

Genetic studies in animals have uncovered similar polymorphisms and mutations in the prion protein gene. Genetic information has led to the discovery of genotypes with relative susceptibility and resistance to Scrapie in sheep. Current Scrapie control programs in the United States and Europe are based on the elimination of susceptible genotypes from the breeding pool. The 2006 U.S. H.-type atypical BSE cow had a polymorphism at codon 211 of the bovine prion gene, resulting in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution (E211K). This substitution is analogous to a human polymorphism associated with the most prevalent form of heritable TSE in humans, and it is considered to have caused BSE in the 2006 U.S. atypical BSE animal.

Research Needs:

The functional genomics of disease resistance are not completely understood, and recent research suggests genetic variations may lead to different clinical outcomes (e.g., vCJD, atypical BSE, atypical Scrapie). This research area is aimed at utilizing powerful computational biology and bioinformatic approaches, along with traditional animal breeding experiments, to steadily improve our understanding of mechanisms of genetic disease resistance. 18

Anticipated Products:

Genetic variations associated with disease susceptibility.

Scientific information on the correlation between host genotypes and the phenotypes of prion agents.

Genetic factors controlling susceptibility of goats to sheep Scrapie.

Scientific information to evaluate the effectiveness of disease resistance breeding programs in sheep.

Scientific information to evaluate sheep ARR/ARR genotype for resistance to different TSE strains.

Scientific information on the influence of genetics on BSE incubation time and the frequency of animals carrying the E211K allele.

Potential Benefits:

These studies will yield critical genetic information that influences disease susceptibility, clinical outcomes, surveillance programs, and the discovery of diagnostic techniques as well as preventative and treatment programs.

Component 2 Resources:

The following ARS locations have research projects addressing the problem statements identified under Component 2:

Ames, IA

Clay Center, NE

Pullman, WA

East Lansing, MI

Beltsville, MD

Athens, GA

Component 3: Zoonotic Diseases

Zoonotic diseases, by definition encompassing all infectious diseases transmitted from animals to man, represent one of the leading causes of illness and death in people. In developing countries, zoonotic diseases stand out as the most prevalent and important threat to public health. Zoonoses also have a negative impact on commerce, travel, and economies worldwide. In industrialized nations, zoonotic diseases are of particular concern to the agricultural sector. Priority diseases include those that are especially difficult to diagnose and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, resulting in significant economic costs to producers when they persist or reemerge. Because many determinants of zoonotic diseases lie outside the purview of the health sector, agriculture and the animal health community must play an important role in preventing these diseases from propagating in domestic animals, starting with proper surveillance systems. Over the years, USDA has invested significant resources in attempts to eradicate endemic zoonoses from livestock populations in the United States (e.g., brucellosis and tuberculosis). However, their persistence in wildlife reservoirs continues to pose challenges. Moreover, some zoonotic agents have been identified as having the potential to be used for bioterrorism. Effective countermeasures are needed to eliminate zoonotic

19

agents at their animal source and protect our Nation from these important public health threats.

The ARS zoonotic bacterial diseases research program focuses on brucellosis, leptospirosis, and tuberculosis with the strategic goal of developing countermeasures to prevent disease transmission in domestic livestock and wildlife reservoir hosts. Zoonotic viral diseases that pose a significant threat to the Nation (e.g., avian influenza, Rift Valley fever) and are exotic to the United States are addressed under Component 1: Biodefense Research. Additional zoonotic diseases are addressed under Component 6B (Hemoparasitic Diseases) and Component 7 (BSE).

According to rankings at the March 2010 Animal Health Program Planning Workshop, zoonoses are the 2nd priority of the swine industry, 1st of the wildlife industries, 3rd of the dairy industry, and 2nd of the beef industry.

snip...

Component 7: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) include several fatal diseases of people and animals involving degeneration of the nervous system and brain function. TSEs are caused by agents known as prions, or what appear to be primarily infectious proteins that cause normal protein (cellular-prion protein PrPc) molecules to convert into an abnormally structured form (disease-prion protein PrPsc) that can include inducement of the formation of proteinaceous deposits and plaques in the brain. TSEs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the primary human prion disease; Scrapie of sheep and goats; Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also called "mad cow," which is the cause of variant CJD (vCJD) in people and the only TSE known to have crossed the species barrier from animals to people.

Our understanding of TSEs continues to evolve with ongoing research efforts. TSEs are progressive but long developing diseases. In humans, for example, incubation periods from the time of contact with an infectious prion may be decades long. Consequently, completion of research plans in natural hosts may require several years. Improvements have been made with the development of experimental rodent models to shorten the time required to obtain experimental results, but the relevance of any findings in mouse models remains uncertain unless confirmed and validated in natural hosts. In 2004, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies published a report entitled: Advancing Prion Science, Guidance for the National Prion Research Program. Several federal agencies have directed resources to implement recommendations in the report, including HHS-NIH-, USDA-REE-ARS, HHS-FDA, HHS-CDC, DoD, and EPA. Although significant scientific advances have been made, the research conducted to date has yet to deliver many of the concrete solutions needed to safeguard people and animals from these devastating diseases. A critical concern is the potential for environmental, genetic, or iatrogenic events to lead to new variant TSEs that are infectious and zoonotic.

The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Prion Science identified the following research priorities to maximize the impact of the National Prion Research Program:

Identification of the nature and origin of prion agents

Studies on the pathobiology of prion strains

Research on the determinants of transmissibility and epidemiology

Development of diagnostics, detection, and surveillance

39

These interrelated priorities represent areas with critical gaps in our knowledge base. They were selected with the aim of establishing strategic collaborations that will produce benefits by aligning core competencies across Federal agencies. Especially notable are the potential benefits to be derived from collaboration between animal health and human -biomedical research.

Stakeholders representing the sheep industries at our March 2010 Animal Health Workshop ranked research to eradicate Scrapie as their 2nd priority, and the goat industry listed it as their 6th priority.

Problem Statement 7A: Nature and Origin of Prion Agents

Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the nature and origin of disease-causing prions. Proving especially problematic is that the normal prion protein is widely expressed, particularly on neurons in the brain, and is found on cell surfaces but its function is unclear. Moreover, the origin of BSE remains a mystery, although spontaneous conversion of bovine prion to the diseased form as occurs in human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is one researchable hypothesis. In addition, recent evidence indicates that some forms of BSE may be genetic in nature. Another enigma of TSEs in general is that different strains are found within the same animal species.

Research Needs:

The newly discovered strains of BSE and Scrapie, so-called 'atypical' strains, have yet to be fully characterized. There are also fundamental differences between TSEs in different animal species. The factors responsible for host restrictions (species-barrier) are also not fully understood. An investment in this area of research is of paramount importance and will inform all other areas of prion research.

Anticipated Products:

Scientific information on:

The physiological functions of normal prion proteins.

The biophysical and biochemical properties of abnormal prion agents.

Mechanisms of prion protein misfolding.

The origin and prevalence of scrapie in goats.

The origin and prevalence of atypical scrapie in sheep.

The origin of atypical BSE and relationship to classical disease form.

The basis for multiple TSE strains within a host species.

Potential Benefits:

This research will inform the field of prion science and is critical for advancing research programs in countermeasure discovery (see Problem Statement 7D below). Additional benefits will be derived from collaborations between animal health and biomedical research scientists resulting in animal disease models that will enhance our understanding of protein misfolding diseases, molecular neurology and genetics. 40

Problem Statement 7B: Pathobiology of Prion Strains

Important gaps remain in our basic understanding of the pathobiology of animal prion diseases. One critical need is that of understanding the invasion routes of prions and resolving the variations seen in different animal species.

Research Needs:

It is widely assumed that the oral route of infection is important in the pathogenesis of naturally occurring TSEs of livestock and cervids; however, the mechanism of transmission of TSE agents from the initial site of entry to the central nervous system is not known. A notable feature of prion diseases is a lack of detectable immune responses and inflammation during the course of a prion infection, even though immune system cells may carry prions to target tissues. To date, research in animals suggests that prion accumulation may be largely influenced by the host species affected rather than the TSE involved. An investment in comparative pathology, which has not received much experimental attention, is needed to advance research programs in epidemiology and diagnostic discovery.

Anticipated Products:

Scientific information on:

The manner in which prions enter the nervous system from peripheral sites of exposure such as a host’s gastrointestinal tract, nasal mucosa, skin, and eyes.

Mechanisms of prion spread within the nervous system.

Mechanisms controlling disease incubation time.

Mechanisms of neuropathogenesis.

The molecular underpinnings of prion strains and species barriers.

Prion distribution in goats with scrapie.

Prion distribution in cattle with atypical BSE.

Prion distribution in sheep with atypical scrapie and BSE.

Potential Benefits:

This research will inform the field of prion science of potential risks to human health associated with the newly emerging strains of TSE in various animal hosts and is critical for advancing research programs in epidemiology and diagnostic discovery (see Problem Statements 7C and 7D below).

Problem Statement 7C: Determinants of Transmissibility and Epidemiology

In interspecies transmission studies of TSEs (e.g., Scrapie, CWD) into new hosts (e.g., cattle and rodent models that have proved useful in experimental protocols), scientists have demonstrated the extent of prion accumulation in tissues. There appears to be fundamental differences between hosts but also similarities within animal species, regardless of which TSE is affecting them.

Research Needs: 41

An essential research need is the development of infection models that represent real TSEs in real target hosts. The results of this research would add insight into human transmissibility and epidemiology.

Anticipated Products:

Scientific information on:

Mechanisms by which abnormal prions are present in biological fluids.

The infectious potential of prions from biological fluids.

Infectivity time course and transmission.

The potential for transmitting scrapie prions to cervids naturally (orally).

The transmission routes of goat scrapie.

The transmission routes of CWD.

The transmission route of atypical scrapie and atypical BSE.

The transmissibility of sheep scrapie to goats and vice versa, including the effects of age and genetic factors on transmissibility.

The transmissibility of atypical BSE isolates to cattle.

Potential Benefits:

This research will directly impact the development of improved diagnostic tests (see Problem Statement 7D below), as well as surveillance programs and future measures to prevent the dissemination of TSEs in animal and human populations. The development of infection models in natural hosts will also build national capacity to implement research programs that target host-pathogen interactions and the discovery of countermeasures. Results from such studies could directly translate into a better understanding of the potential for the transmissibility of animal TSEs to humans.

Problem Statement 7D: Diagnostics, Detection, and Surveillance

Important gaps remain in our arsenal of diagnostic tools to detect TSEs. Current diagnostic tests were validated for use only on post-mortem samples; sensitive ante mortem tests have yet to be developed. Because there is no detectable immune response or inflammation during the course of TSE infection, direct tests are needed to confirm a diagnosis. At present, only highly-infected tissues, such as brain material or lymph tissue, are suitable for providing accurate diagnoses.

Research Needs:

Diagnostic approaches currently in use include techniques such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). IHC is one of the original tests developed and is considered the gold standard, but it is more labor intensive and time consuming than the other two, whereas the Western blot and particularly ELISA tests are more efficient for the initial screening of large numbers of samples. Another method is the Conformation-Dependent Immunoassay (CDI), currently a research technique that claims to discriminate between normal prion and the abnormal prion on the basis of its shape, but this has yet to be validated as a diagnostic test in animals. New 42

technologies and methods have been described using protein misfolding cyclic amplification techniques (PMCA), similar in concept to gene/DNA amplification, which effectively increases the concentration of prions in normal or pathological conformations. There is a critical need to improve diagnostics methods for surveillance, including the discovery of an ante mortem test for early detection and implementation of intervention strategies.

Anticipated Products:

TSE diagnostic test capable of detecting low levels of abnormal prions (i.e., key step to enable the development of an ante mortem test that can identify disease during the early stages of incubation).

Validation of existing biopsy-based TSE tests in goats, deer, and elk.

Rapid biochemical methods for strain typing.

Validated murine models for strain typing.

Improved diagnostics for TSEs in bodily fluids, including blood in host species where this might be possible.

Technologies to distinguish infectious prions from normal cellular prion proteins.

Determination of the prevalence of proteinase K sensitive prion in the various TSEs and potential of this form to cause disparate results between IHC, WB, and ELISA tests.

Potential Benefits:

The discovery of an ante mortem diagnostic test would enable the medical community to test and discover effective treatments in people. Importantly, new and improved diagnostic platforms and an ante mortem diagnostic test for susceptible livestock will enable early detection and the implementation of effective surveillance programs, a critical step that will allow the deployment of disease prevention measures.

Component 7 Resources:

The following ARS locations have research projects addressing the problem statements identified under Component 7:

Ames, IA

Albany, CA

Ames, IA

Pullman, WA

http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Program/103/NP103ActionPlanFY12-FY17.pdf


Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE. When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

http://www.prionetcanada.ca/detail.aspx?menu=5&dt=293380&app=93&cat1=387&tp=20&lk=no&cat2


SEE FULL TEXT ;

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/03/atypical-bse-in-cattle-position-post.html


please see ;

http://usdameatexport.blogspot.com/2010/10/australia-mad-cow-assessments-come-to.html


Saturday, December 18, 2010

OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and Biodiversity - Preparing for the Future (TSE AND PRIONS) Paris (France), 23-25 February 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/12/oie-global-conference-on-wildlife.html


The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.

http://www.oie.int/boutique/extrait/06heim937950.pdf


Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health

SIR - Atypical forms (known as H- and L-type) of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently appeared in several European countries as well as in Japan, Canada and the United States. This raises the unwelcome possibility that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) could increase in the human population. Of the atypical BSE cases tested so far, a mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) has been detected in just one, a cow in Alabama with BSE; her healthy calf also carried the mutation (J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008). This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine-human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks. Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: maf12@cam.ac.uk Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA

NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n7233/full/4571079b.html


Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

The NeuroPrion network has identified seven main threats for the future linked to prions.

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed. *** Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

Second threat...

see full text ;

http://www.neuroprion.org/en/np-neuroprion.html


Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/2010/08/seven-main-threats-for-future-linked-to.html


14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -

Final Abstract Number: ISE.114

Session: International Scientific Exchange

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

T. Singeltary

Bacliff, TX, USA

Background:

An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.

Methods:

12 years independent research of available data

Results:

I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.

Conclusion:

I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

http://ww2.isid.org/Downloads/14th_ICID_ISE_Abstracts.pdf


Friday, March 4, 2011

Alberta dairy cow found with mad cow disease

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/alberta-dairy-cow-found-with-mad-cow.html


Wednesday, August 11, 2010

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SIXTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/08/report-on-investigation-of-sixteenth.html


Thursday, August 19, 2010

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SEVENTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA

http://bseusa.blogspot.com/2010/08/report-on-investigation-of-seventeenth.html


Thursday, February 10, 2011

TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY REPORT UPDATE CANADA FEBRUARY 2011 and how to hide mad cow disease in Canada Current as of: 2011-01-31

http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2011/02/transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy.html


Saturday, March 12, 2011

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in a Canadian resident Infectious Diseases News Brief - March 11, 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/variant-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in.html


Saturday, January 29, 2011

Atypical L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (L-BSE) Transmission to Cynomolgus Macaques, a Non-Human Primate

Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 64 (1), 81-84, 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/atypical-l-type-bovine-spongiform.html



Saturday, March 5, 2011

ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

Greetings,

WITH more and more atypical Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy cases showing up in more and more species here in North America, and the enormous monumental amount of banned mad cow protein in commerce since the infamous partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban inked on paper, with tons and tons crossing back and forth between the USA, Canada, and Mexico, it just does not surprise me of all these "PENDING CLASSIFICATIONS" of human TSE in Canada, and the USA. UK c-BSE transmitted to humans became nvCJD. WE now have atypical strains of BSE in cattle. Mission Texas experiments long ago showed that transmitted USA sheep scrapie to USA bovine, produced a TSE much different than the UK typical c-BSE. SO why would human TSE in the USA look like UK human TSE ? The corruption is mind boggling. The UK saw a suspicious TSE in humans, and science linked it to cattle. North America is awash with human and animal TSE, CJD is rising in young and old, with the same pathology and same symptoms, and none of it is related to the other. isn't that nice. who, what, bestowed such miracles upon North
America $


Archive Number 20100405.1091 Published Date 05-APR-2010

Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 1010 (04)

snip...

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241545887.pdf


The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?"



http://www.promedmail.org/pls/apex/f?p=2400:1001:568933508083034::NO::F2400_P1001_BACK_PAGE,F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,82101



CANADA CJD UPDATE 2011

CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20112 As of January 31, 2011

3. Final classification of 49 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 is pending.

snip...

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/cjd-mcj/cjdss-ssmcj/pdf/stats_0111-eng.pdf


USA 2011

USA

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

Cases Examined1

(November 1, 2010)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 & earlier 51 33 28 5 0 0

1997 114 68 59 9 0 0

1998 87 51 43 7 1 0

1999 121 73 65 8 0 0

2000 146 103 89 14 0 0

2001 209 119 109 10 0 0

2002 248 149 125 22 2 0

2003 274 176 137 39 0 0

2004 325 186 164 21 0 13

2005 344 194 157 36 1 0

2006 383 197 166 29 0 24

2007 377 214 187 27 0 0

2008 394 231 205 25 0 0

2009 425 258 215 43 0 0

2010 333 213 158 33 0 0

TOTAL 38315 22656 1907 328 4 3

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;

2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;

3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;

4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf


Please notice where sporadic CJD cases in 1996 went from 28 cases, to 215 cases in 2009, the highest recorded year to date. sporadic CJD is on a steady rise, and has been since 1996.

I also urge you to again notice these disturbing factors in lines 5 and 6 ;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

========end=====tss=====2011



Monday, August 9, 2010

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined (July 31, 2010)

(please watch and listen to the video and the scientist speaking about atypical BSE and sporadic CJD and listen to Professor Aguzzi)

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/08/national-prion-disease-pathology.html


THE steady rise of sporadic CJD cases in Canada AND USA, with many unusual cases of ''PENDING CLASSIFICATIONS" which have been pending now FOR 3 YEARS. HOW long can this cover-up continue $$$


Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html


Tuesday, March 29, 2011

TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY EXPOSURE SPREADING VIA HOSPITALS AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES AROUND THE GLOBE

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy.html


The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.

http://www.oie.int/boutique/extrait/06heim937950.pdf



snip...see full text ;

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html


Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions

Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto5,* + Author Affiliations

1 University of Texas Medical School at Houston, United States; 2 University of Kentucky, United States; 3 Case Western Reserve University, United States; 4 University of Chicago, United States; 5 University of Texas Medical School, United States * Corresponding author; email: claudio.soto@uth.tmc.edu

Received October 28, 2010. Accepted January 4, 2011. Copyright © 2011, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2011/01/04/jbc.M110.198465.long



Our findings demonstrate that cervid PrPSc, upon strain adaptation by serial passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice, is capable of converting human PrPC to produce PrPSc with unique biochemical properties, likely representing a new human prion strain. The newly generated CWD-huPrPSc material has been inoculated into transgenic mice expressing human PrP to study infectivity and disease phenotype and this data will be published elsewhere. ...end


PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT ;

Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions

Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto5,* + Author Affiliations

1 University of Texas Medical School at Houston, United States; 2 University of Kentucky, United States; 3 Case Western Reserve University, United States; 4 University of Chicago, United States; 5 University of Texas Medical School, United States * Corresponding author; email: claudio.soto@uth.tmc.edu

Received October 28, 2010. Accepted January 4, 2011. Copyright © 2011, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology eneration

http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2011/01/04/jbc.M110.198465.long



Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/01/generation-of-new-form-of-human-prpsc.html


UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN

Wednesday, September 08, 2010

CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html


Monday, February 7, 2011

FDA's Currently-Recommended Policies to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of CJD and vCJD by Blood and Blood Products 2011 ???

http://tseac.blogspot.com/2011/02/fdas-currently-recommended-policies-to.html


Thursday, August 12, 2010

USA Blood products, collected from a donor who was at risk for vCJD, were distributed July-August 2010

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/08/usa-blood-products-collected-from-donor.html


LET'S take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow.


This new prionopathy in humans? the genetic makeup is IDENTICAL to the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow, the only _documented_ mad cow in the world to date like this, ......wait, it get's better. this new prionpathy is killing young and old humans, with LONG DURATION from onset of symptoms to death, and the symptoms are very similar to nvCJD victims, OH, and the plaques are very similar in some cases too, bbbut, it's not related to the g-h-BSEalabama cow, WAIT NOW, it gets even better, the new human prionpathy that they claim is a genetic TSE, has no relation to any gene mutation in that family. daaa, ya think it could be related to that mad cow with the same genetic make-up ??? there were literally tons and tons of banned mad cow protein in Alabama in commerce, and none of it transmitted to cows, and the cows to humans there from ??? r i g h t $$$

ALABAMA MAD COW g-h-BSEalabama

In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156


http://www.plospathogens.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156&representation=PDF


Saturday, August 14, 2010

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/2010/08/bse-case-associated-with-prion-protein.html


2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2006/08/bse-atypical-texas-and-alabama-update.html



her healthy calf also carried the mutation (J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008).


This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine–human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks.

Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: maf12@cam.ac.uk Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA

NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n7233/full/4571079b.html


Monday, May 11, 2009

Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/05/rare-bse-mutation-raises-concerns-over.html

IF we go further and look at some of the other documented BSE countries, you will see the increase of sporadic CJD there as well, at the time nvCJD was rising. better surveillance, or potential source transmission ?

http://www.eurocjd.ed.ac.uk/sporadic.htm


P26

TRANSMISSION OF ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN HUMANIZED MOUSE MODELS

Liuting Qing1, Fusong Chen1, Michael Payne1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5*, and Qingzhong Kong1 1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; 2CEA, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology Department, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. *Previous address: USDA National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA

Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Two atypical BSE strains, BSE-L (also named BASE) and BSE-H, have been discovered in three continents since 2004. The first case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PrP gene (termed BSE-M) was also found in 2006 in the USA. The transmissibility and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains/isolates in humans were unknown. We have inoculated humanized transgenic mice with classical and atypical BSE strains (BSE-C, BSE-L, BSE-H) and the BSE-M isolate. We have found that the atypical BSE-L strain is much more virulent than the classical BSE-C. The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible in the humanized transgenic mice with distinct phenotype, but no transmission has been observed for the BSE-M isolate so far.

III International Symposium on THE NEW PRION BIOLOGY: BASIC SCIENCE, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY 2 - 4 APRIL 2009, VENEZIA (ITALY)

http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf


P02.35

Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE

Biacabe, A-G1; Jacobs, JG2; Gavier-Widén, D3; Vulin, J1; Langeveld, JPM2; Baron, TGM1 1AFSSA, France; 2CIDC-Lelystad, Netherlands; 3SVA, Sweden

Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK-resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2007/abstract_book.pdf


Thursday, October 07, 2010

Experimental Transmission of H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Bovinized Transgenic Mice

Thursday, October 07, 2010 Experimental Transmission of H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Bovinized Transgenic Mice

Vet Pathol 0300985810382672, first published on October 4, 2010

Experimental Transmission of H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Bovinized Transgenic Mice

H. Okada okadahi@affrc.go.jp Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, K. Masujin Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Y. Imamaru Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, M. Imamura Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Y. Matsuura Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, S. Mohri Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, S. Czub Animal Disease Research Institute, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, T. Yokoyama Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba,

Abstract

To characterize the biological and biochemical properties of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a transmission study with a Canadian H-type isolate was performed with bovinized transgenic mice (TgBoPrP), which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from cattle with H-type BSE. All mice exhibited characteristic neurologic signs, and the subsequent passage showed a shortened incubation period. The distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot. Biochemical properties and higher molecular weight of the glycoform pattern were well conserved within mice. Immunolabeled granular PrPSc, aggregates, and/or plaque-like deposits were mainly detected in the following brain locations: septal nuclei, subcallosal regions, hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the reticular formation of the midbrain. Weak reactivity was detected by immunohistochemistry and PET blot in the cerebral cortex, most thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. These findings indicate that the H-type BSE prion has biological and biochemical properties distinct from those of C-type and L-type BSE in TgBoPrP mice, which suggests that TgBoPrP mice constitute a useful animal model to distinguish isolates from BSE-infected cattle.

© 2010 Sage Publications, Inc.

http://vet.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/10/02/0300985810382672.abstract


I have been most interested to see IF the h-BSE (h-BSE or g-h-BSEalabama???), but i have been most interested to see if in fact this atypical h-BSE is more virulent than c-BSE, as is the L-BSE (Italian strain) has been documented to be. We know from the studies of Kong et al that h-BSE will transmit to TG human mice;


BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice.

The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.

Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.

http://www.prion2009.com/sites/default/files/Prion2009_Book_of_Abstracts.pdf


HOWEVER, as to the virulance of it one way or the other compared to c-BSE and or L-BSE, i don't think no one has said yet or not? interesting this debate of the h-BSE TEXAS (2nd mad cow finally confirmed 7 months after the fact, and an act of Congress), compared to the g-h-BSEalabama strain documented in Alabama, that is identicle to the new human CJD in the USA that is killing the young and old, with clinical long duration, and different symptoms in some cases too, but not related to this ??? ALSO, this IBNC BSE, might this be the g-h-BSEalabama strain?

see full text ;


Thursday, October 07, 2010

Experimental Transmission of H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Bovinized Transgenic Mice

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/10/experimental-transmission-of-h-type.html


10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II

___________________________________

PRODUCT

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007

CODE

Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON

Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

42,090 lbs.

DISTRIBUTION

WI

___________________________________

PRODUCT

Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007

CODE

The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.

REASON

Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

9,997,976 lbs.

DISTRIBUTION

ID and NV

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007

http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/EnforcementReports/2007/ucm120446.htm


Thursday, November 18, 2010

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VS GALEN J. NIEHUES FAKED MAD COW FEED TEST ON 92 BSE INSPECTION REPORTS FOR APPROXIMATELY 100 CATTLE OPERATIONS

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/united-states-of-america-vs-galen-j.html


Wednesday, November 17, 2010

MAD COW TESTING FAKED IN USA BY Nebraska INSPECTOR Senator Mike Johanns STATE

http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2010/11/mad-cow-testing-faked-in-usa-by.html


Wednesday, November 17, 2010

MAD COW TESTING FAKED IN USA BY Nebraska INSPECTOR Senator Mike Johanns STATE

http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2010/11/mad-cow-testing-faked-in-usa-by.html


Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Atypical prion proteins and IBNC in cattle DEFRA project code SE1796 FOIA Final report

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/07/atypical-prion-proteins-and-ibnc-in.html


IBNC

"All of the 15 cattle tested showed that the brains had abnormally accumulated prion protein."

Saturday, February 28, 2009

NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS "All of the 15 cattle tested showed that the brains had abnormally accumulated PrP" 2009

SEAC 102/2

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/02/new-results-on-idiopathic-brainstem.html



P.9.21

Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.

Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. *It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

http://www.prion2009.com/sites/default/files/Prion2009_Book_of_Abstracts.pdf


Saturday, November 6, 2010

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS

INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2010/11/tafs1-position-paper-on-position-paper.html


Saturday, June 12, 2010

PUBLICATION REQUEST AND FOIA REQUEST Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Study of Atypical Bse

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/06/publication-request-and-foia-request.html


Wednesday, July 28, 2010

re-Freedom of Information Act Project Number 3625-32000-086-05, Study of Atypical BSE UPDATE July 28, 2010

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/07/re-freedom-of-information-act-project.html


Sunday, March 27, 2011

SCRAPIE USA UPDATE FEBRUARY 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/scrapie-usa-update-february-2011.html


Tuesday, February 01, 2011

Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie

Research article

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/7/7/abstract


http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-6148-7-7.pdf


"In spite of the poorly defined effects of PRNP genetics, scrapie strain, dose, route and source of infection, the caprine placenta may represent a source of infection to progeny and herd mates as well as a source of persistent environmental contamination."


Could this route of infection be the cause of the many cases of Goat scrapie from the same herd in Michigan USA ?

Has this been investigated ?

(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...

Kind Regards, Terry


SNIP...


Scrapie Nor-98 like case in California FY 2011 AS of December 31, 2010.

Scrapie cases in goats FY 2002 - 2011 AS of December 31, 2010 Total goat cases = 21 Scrapie cases, 0 Nor-98 like Scrapie cases (21 field cases, 0 RSSS cases)

Last herd with infected goats disignated in FY 2008 Michigan 8 cases

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/downloads/monthly_scrapie_rpt.pps


UPDATED RESPONSE ON MY CONCERNS OF GOAT SCRAPIE IN MICHIGAN ;

----- Original Message -----

From: "BioMed Central Comments"

To:

Sent: Wednesday, February 16, 2011 4:13 AM

Subject: Your comment on BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7:7

Your discussion posting "Scrapie cases Goats from same herd USA Michigan" has been rejected by the moderator as not being appropriate for inclusion on the site.

Dear Mr Singeltary,

Thank you for submitting your comment on BMC Veterinary Research article (2011, 7:7). We have read your comment with interest but we feel that only the authors of the article can answer your question about further investigation of the route of infection of the five goats in Michigan. We advise that you contact the authors directly rather than post a comment on the article.

With best wishes,

Maria

Maria Kowalczuk, PhD Deputy Biology Editor BMC-series Journals

BioMed Central 236 Gray's Inn Road London, WC1X 8HB

+44 20 3192 2000 (tel) +44 20 3192 2010 (fax)

W: www.biomedcentral.com E: Maria.Kowalczuk@biomedcentral.com

Any queries about this decision should be sent to comments@biomedcentral.com

Regards

BMC Veterinary Research

SNIP...PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT ;


Tuesday, February 01, 2011

Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie

Research article

http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2011/02/sparse-prp-sc-accumulation-in-placentas.html


Monday, March 21, 2011

Sheep and Goat BSE Propagate More Efficiently than Cattle BSE in Human PrP Transgenic Mice

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/03/sheep-and-goat-bse-propagate-more.html


Friday, February 11, 2011

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/02/atypicalnor98-scrapie-infectivity-in.html


Wednesday, February 16, 2011

IN CONFIDENCE

SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES

http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2011/02/in-confidence-scrapie-transmission-to.html


March 8, 2011

President Barack Obama The White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, W Washington, DC 20500

Dear President Obama:

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/27-us-senators-want-to-force-feed-japan.html


Sunday, April 3, 2011

PRION 2011 NEWWORLD MONTREAL CANADA MAY 16 - 19

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/04/prion-2011-newworld-montreal-canada-may.html


Interpretation

We suggest that PRNP mutations that result in a truncation of PrP lead to a prolonged clinical course consistent with a clinical diagnosis of AD and severe AD-like NFTs. Ann Neurol 2010;

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.22264/abstract


I suggest it's a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy i.e. prion disease. ...TSS


strictly NOT private and confidential $$$


Saturday, January 22, 2011

Alzheimer's, Prion, and Neurological disease, and the misdiagnosis there of, a review 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/alzheimers-prion-and-neurological.html



Friday, September 3, 2010

Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2010/09/alzheimers-autism-amyotrophic-lateral.html



Thursday, December 23, 2010

Alimentary prion infections: Touch-down in the intestine, Alzheimer, Parkinson disease and TSE mad cow diseases $ The Center for Consumer Freedom

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2010/12/alimentary-prion-infections-touch-down.html



Saturday, March 22, 2008

10 Million Baby Boomers to have Alzheimer's in the coming decades

snip...

Alzheimer’s disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans older than the age of 65 years. More than 5 million Americans are estimated to have Alzheimer’s disease. Every 71 seconds someone in America develops Alzheimer’s disease; by 2050 it is expected to occur every 33 seconds. During the coming decades, baby boomers are projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. By 2050, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million persons. Significant cost implications related to Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (eg, caregiver lost wages and out-of-pocket expenses, decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures are the estimated 10 million caregivers who annually provide $89 billion in unpaid services to individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.

snip...

http://www.alzheimersanddementia.org/webfiles/images/journals/jalz/JALZ_739.pdf


see full text and more ;

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2008/03/10-million-baby-boomers-to-have.html


Wednesday, January 5, 2011

ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011

Prions

David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2

----- Original Message -----

From: David Colby

To: flounder9@verizon.net

Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

Dear Terry Singeltary,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.

Warm Regards, David Colby

--

David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware


====================END...TSS==============


re-ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions


CWD to cattle figures CORRECTION


Greetings,

I believe the statement and quote below is incorrect ;

"CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures."

Please see ;

Within 26 months post inoculation, 12 inoculated animals had lost weight, revealed abnormal clinical signs, and were euthanatized. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a unique pattern of the disease agent in tissues of these animals. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=194089


"although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001])."


shouldn't this be corrected, 86% is NOT a low rate. ...


kindest regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518


Thank you!

Thanks so much for your updates/comments. We intend to publish as rapidly as possible all updates/comments that contribute substantially to the topic under discussion.

http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/letters/submit

re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

1Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 Correspondence: stanley@ind.ucsf.edu

http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/3/1/a006833.full.pdf+html


snip...full text ;


Wednesday, January 5, 2011

ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions

David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2


http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/3/1/a006833.full.pdf+html


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/


All Other Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases CDC's FY 2012 request of $52,658,000 for all other emerging and zoonotic infectious disease activities is a decrease of $13,607,000 below the FY 2010 level, which includes the elimination of Prion activities ($5,473,000), a reduction for other cross-cutting infectious disease activities, and administrative savings. These funds support a range of critical emerging and zoonotic infectious disease programs such Lyme Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Special Pathogens, as well as other activities described below.

http://www.cdc.gov/fmo/topic/Budget%20Information/appropriations_budget_form_pdf/FY2012_CDC_CJ_Final.pdf



" the FY 2010 level, which includes the elimination of Prion activities ($5,473,000), "


PROBLEMS SOLVED $$$


TSS

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