Sunday, November 13, 2011

COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011

COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011

October 2011

Research Looks at Test to Identify Chronic Wasting Disease in Wildlife

Dr. Ed Hoover

A Colorado State University study is developing and evaluating a more sensitive test for chronic wasting disease – including the potential to test for infection in live animals, animal products, and the environment – through a project funded by Denver-based Morris Animal Foundation.

The disease, which affects deer, moose and elk and is related to similar diseases in cattle and sheep, is a primary concern for hunters and wildlife ranchers and now affects wildlife in 19 states, two Canadian provinces and one Asian country.

Prions are rogue proteins that cause the family of diseases that include CWD. The diseases are known as spongiform encephalopathies. While this Morris Animal Foundation-funded study would be the first in several steps to develop and evaluate a potential new test, it will look at a method that shows promise in detecting a wider array of prions at lower levels than are currently detected.

The research into the potential test may allow detection of CWD prions in live animals, animal products and the environment.

“Developing this test may eventually lead to a more rapid and sensitive to test for CWD,” said Dr. Ed Hoover, a Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology. “But, just as significantly, it may lead to a substantial gain in our understanding of how prions spread, survive in natural habitats, and impact animal and public health.”

Currently, CWD can only be identified either by testing brain after an animal is deceased or by surgical sampling and testing lymphatic tissues. While researchers don’t know exactly how CWD is passed from animal to animal, CSU scientists discovered that body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine and feces harbor infectious prions. Animals can then be exposed by direct contact with an infected animal or by contact with a contaminated environment.

Current tests also don’t detect all levels of or kinds of infectious prions or prions in the environment, and the test being evaluated in this study has the potential to be developed into a process that would detect those prions.

The test is being researched in collaboration with Dr. Byron Caughey at the National Institutes of Health’s Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Mont. Dr. Caughey’s laboratory developed the strategy for the study. Dr. Hoover, Dr. Caughey and colleagues will focus first on determining if their proposed test detects prions in body fluids with greater sensitivity, accuracy and faster output than is currently possible.

It is unknown why an infectious prion from one species, such as deer or elk, can “jump” to infect another species, and the potential risk to other species such as cattle, or even humans, remains uncertain.

http://www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/ns/pubs/einsight/2011/october/hoover_ed.aspx



For Immediate Release Thursday, September 29, 2011 Contact for Reporters: Dell Rae Moellenberg 970.491.6009 DellRae.Moellenberg@ColoState.EDU


Colorado State University Study Looks at Test to Identify Chronic Wasting Disease in Wildlife


FORT COLLINS - A Colorado State University study is developing and evaluating a more sensitive test for chronic wasting disease – including the potential to test for infection in live animals, animal products and the environment – through a project funded by Denver-based Morris Animal Foundation.

The disease, which affects deer, moose and elk and is related to similar diseases in cattle and sheep, is a primary concern for hunters and wildlife ranchers and now affects wildlife in 19 states, 2 Canadian provinces and one Asian country.

Prions are rogue proteins that cause the family of diseases that include CWD. The diseases are known as spongiform encephalopathies. While this Morris Animal Foundation-funded study would be the first in several steps to develop and evaluate a potential new test, it will look at a method that shows promise in detecting a wider array of prions at lower levels than are currently detected.

The research into the potential test may allow detection of CWD prions in live animals, animal products and the environment.

“Developing this test may eventually lead to a more rapid and sensitive to test for CWD,” said Dr. Ed Hoover, a Colorado State University veterinarian and researcher with 30 years of experience in researching infectious diseases of animals. “But, just as significantly, it may lead to a substantial gain in our understanding of how prions spread, survive in natural habitats, and impact animal and public health.”

Currently, CWD can only be identified either by testing brain after an animal is deceased or by surgical sampling and testing lymphatic tissues. While researchers don’t know exactly how CWD is passed from animal to animal, CSU scientists discovered that body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine and feces harbor infectious prions. Animals can then be exposed by direct contact with an infected animal or by contact with a contaminated environment.

Current tests also don’t detect all levels of or kinds of infectious prions or prions in the environment, and the test being evaluated in this study has the potential to be developed into a process that would detect those prions.

The test is being researched in collaboration with Dr. Byron Caughey at the National Institutes of Health’s Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Mont. Caughey’s laboratory developed the strategy for the study. Hoover, Caughey and colleagues will focus first on determining if their proposed test detects prions in body fluids with greater sensitivity, accuracy and faster output than is currently possible.

It is unknown why an infectious prion from one species, such as deer or elk, can “jump” to infect another species, and the potential risk to other species such as cattle, or even humans, remains uncertain. -30-

http://www.news.colostate.edu/release.aspx?id=5913



Effective April 2010

COLORADO BOARD OF HEALTH CONDITIONS REPORTABLE BY ALL LABORATORIES COLLECTING SPECIMENS OR PERFORMING TESTS IN COLORADO

http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/dc/Reportables%20laboratories%202010.pdf


COLORADO BOARD OF HEALTH CONDITIONS REPORTABLE BY ALL PHYSICIANS AND HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN COLORADO

http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/dc/Reportables%20physicians%202010.pdf


http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/dc/reportable.html



Diseases and Conditions Reported to Colorado Public Health Agencies by State Law Important notice for patients receiving health care services in Colorado: The following list of diseases and conditions must be reported to state or county public health agencies by health care providers, hospitals and laboratories, according to Colorado Board of Health regulations

http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/op/regs/diseasecontrol/index.html


By law, this reporting does not require patient consent or notification. The confidentiality of personal health information reported to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) is protected by law. If you have questions regarding these reporting requirements, please call CDPHE at (303) 692-2700. If you have questions about whether you might have a condition that must be reported, discuss this with your health care provider.

Infectious Diseases

Crutchfield-Jacob Disease (CJD) or variant CJD

http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/dc/medlistpatients.pdf


please note, cjd spelling above, that's how it is on the site...really...tss

===============================

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN COLORADO: 2010 & 2011 SURVEILLANCE UPDATE Colorado Division of Parks & Wildlife 9 August 2011

As of July 2011, at least one case of CWD has been detected in 24 of 55 deer (Odocoileus spp.) data analysis units (DAUs), 14 of 46 elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) DAUs, and 2 of 5 moose (Alces alces) DAUs. Within affected DAUs, prevalence estimated from 2010ƒ{11 harvest survey data ranged from <1ƒ{25% among male mule deer, <1ƒ{17% among male elk, and <1% among moose; most current prevalence estimates have wide confidence intervals because sample sizes in many sampled DAUs are small. Prevalence appears to be stable or increasing among harvested male mule deer in two DAUs monitored since 1996 (Figure). A more extensive analysis of temporal trends in CWD prevalence in select DAUs is ongoing. Maps showing estimated prevalence by DAU are posted on the Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife¡¦s web site

http://wildlife.state.co.us/Hunting/BigGame/CWD/


http://wildlife.state.co.us/SiteCollectionDocuments/DOW/Hunting/BigGame/CWD/PDF/TestResults/CWDReport2010-2011.pdf


http://wildlife.state.co.us/hunting/biggame/cwd/Pages/CWDHome.aspx



CWD POSTIVE Elk Meat Sold in Boulder Colorado Recalled


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Wednesday, Dec. 24, 2008

CONTACT Mark W. Salley Communications Director 303-692-2013



Elk Meat Sold in Boulder Recalled DENVER-The Boulder County Health Department and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment are issuing an advisory to customers who purchased elk meat at a farmers’ market at the Boulder County Fairgrounds on Dec. 13. Testing has shown that one of the elk sold that day was infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although there is no known human health risk associated with exposure to CWD, as a precaution, the state health department has recommended against consuming meat from animals known to be infected with CWD.


Fifteen elk were purchased from a commercial Colorado elk ranch and processed in early December at a USDA licensed meat-processing plant. All 15 animals were tested for CWD as required under Colorado law. Preliminary testing indicated only one animal of the 15 was infected with CWD. Confirmatory testing is being conducted.


The vendor at the farmers’ market where the meat was sold, indicated that meat from three or four elk, including the infected elk, all was sold on Dec. 13. The labeling on the product would have the following information:


Seller: High Wire Ranch


The type of cut: “chuck roast,” “arm roast,” “flat iron,” “ribeye steak,” “New York steak,” “tenderloin,” “sirloin tip roast,” “medallions” or “ground meat.”


Processor: Cedaredge Processing


The USDA triangle containing the number “34645”


CWD is among several diseases believed to be caused by prions, misshaped proteins that cause damage to nerve cells in the brain. CWD has been found in elk, deer and moose. Other prion diseases include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. BSE, also known as mad-cow disease, has been shown to cause disease in people.


Scientific studies over the past 10 years have not found any human health risk from exposure to CWD. But as a precaution, consumers who purchased elk meat at the Boulder farmer’s market on Dec. 13 should consider discarding the meat. There is no way to test the meat, and consumers would be unable to tell whether their meat came from an infected or uninfected animal by looking at it.


Only meat with the above package markings, sold at the Boulder County Fairgrounds farmers’ market on Dec. 13 is affected by this advisory. People with questions about this meat can contact John Pape, epidemiologist at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, 303-692-2628. ---30---



http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/release/2008/122408.html



Oral.40: Monitoring the Potential Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease to Humans


Ermias D. Belay,1,† Joseph Abrams,1 Janell Kenfield,2 Kelly Weidenbach,3 Ryan A. Maddox,1 Elisabeth Lawaczeck2 and Lawrence B. Schonberger1 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA USA; 2 Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment; Denver, CO USA; 3 Wyoming Department of Health; Cheyenne, WY USA†Presenting author; Email: EBelay@cdc.gov Introduction:


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been occurring for several decades among wild cervids in Colorado and Wyoming. The increasing detection of CWD in an additional 12 US states and two Canadian provinces may have resulted in increased human exposure to CWD. Although studies have evaluated the possible transmission of CWD to humans in laboratory models, a reliable assessment requires conducting epidemiologic and laboratory studies designed to identify prion disease among humans exposed to CWD and generating scientific evidence causally linking the two illnesses. Methods: In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Wyoming Department of Health and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment established a long-term follow-up study of hunter data to monitor the potential CWD transmission to humans. Personal identifiers from deer or elk hunter database are cross-checked with mortality data to determine their mortality status and causes of death. Results: In Colorado, the hunter data include about 4.9 million records of licenses purchased during 1995–2008, representing about 1.1 million hunters. Overall, 48% of hunters purchased a license to hunt in areas that included CWD positive game units and 47% to hunt anywhere in Colorado. In Wyoming, the data include about 1.2 million records of licenses purchased during 1996-2009, representing about 0.5 million hunters; 34% of hunters purchased a license to hunt in areas that included CWD positive game units and 28% to hunt anywhere in Wyoming. During the study period three Colorado hunters (expected number: 3-15 cases) and three Wyoming hunters (expected number: 0-6 cases) were identified to have died of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Conclusions: No evidence suggests that the CJD incidence is higher than expected among persons who hunted in Colorado or Wyoming. The hunter data are valuable for monitoring the potential transmission of CWD to humans. Ongoing assessment and long-term follow-up of the hunter population is necessary because human prion diseases are associated with long latency periods and the pathogenicity of CWD might change over time.



http://www.prion2011.ca/files/PRION_2011_-_Posters_(May_5-11).pdf




Saturday, November 12, 2011


IN REPLY TO ; Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease


Fri, 22 Sep 2006 09:05:59 -0500



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/human-prion-disease-and-relative-risk.html



"We used Colorado death certificate data from 1979 through 2001 to evaluate rates of death from the human prion disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)."



HOW RELIABLE IS REVIEWING DEATH CERTIFICATE DATA FOR SURVIELLANCE OF CJD, instead of making CJD and all Prion disease reportable Nationally ???



it's not reliable at all. PLEASE SEE ;



*** Tuesday, November 08, 2011



Can Mortality Data Provide Reliable Indicators for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance? A Study in France from 2000 to 2008


Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 2011 Original Paper



Conclusions:These findings raise doubt about the possibility of a reliable CJD surveillance only based on mortality data.




http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/can-mortality-data-provide-reliable.html



Friday, November 04, 2011


Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid protein markers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Canada: a 6-year prospective study


Research article


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cerebrospinal.html




PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ;



Thursday, May 26, 2011



Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007

FoodNet Population Survey


Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html



NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;



Wednesday, March 18, 2009


Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html




Monday, June 27, 2011


Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/06/zoonotic-potential-of-cwd-experimental.html



Thursday, April 03, 2008


A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease


2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.



snip...



*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,



snip... full text ;



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html




CJD9/10022 October 1994


Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ


Dear Mr Elmhirst,


CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT


Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.


The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.


The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.


The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.


I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.


http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf



From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To:

Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS



Dear Sir/Madam,



In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.


That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.



Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



-----Original Message-----



From:

Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM


......snip........end..............TSS



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html



Wednesday, October 12, 2011


White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/10/white-tailed-deer-are-susceptible-to.html


http://www.mad-cow.org/colorado_exp.html



Wednesday, July 06, 2011


Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/07/swine-are-susceptible-to-chronic.html



THE ROLE OF PREDATION IN DISEASE CONTROL: A COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE REMOVAL ON PRION DISEASE DYNAMICS IN DEER

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(1), 2011, pp. 78-93 © Wildlife Disease Association 2011


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/02/role-of-predation-in-disease-control.html




Wednesday, September 21, 2011


Evidence for distinct CWD strains in experimental CWD in ferrets


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/09/evidence-for-distinct-cwd-strains-in.html




Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents


Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu



We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in “rigid loop” structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/third-international-cwd-symposium-july.html



please see ;


http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/3rd_CWD_Symposium_utah.pdf



Thursday, June 09, 2011


Detection of CWD prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/06/detection-of-cwd-prions-in-salivary.html



Sunday, November 13, 2011


Atypical Scrapie Isolates Involve a Uniform Prion Species with a Complex Molecular Signature



http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/11/atypical-scrapie-isolates-involve.html




Saturday, June 25, 2011



Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque "BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/transmissibility-of-bse-l-and-cattle.html




Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.


snip...


The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...



http://web.archive.org/web/20030516051623/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf



Sunday, July 27, 2008

DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability



-------- Original Message --------

Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov

Greetings FDA,

i would kindly like to comment on;

Docket 03D-0186

FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

Several factors on this apparent voluntary proposal disturbs me greatly, please allow me to point them out;

1. MY first point is the failure of the partial ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban of 8/4/97. this partial and voluntary feed ban of some ruminant materials being fed back to cattle is terribly flawed. without the _total_ and _mandatory_ ban of all ruminant materials being fed back to ruminants including cattle, sheep, goat, deer, elk and mink, chickens, fish (all farmed animals for human/animal consumption), this half ass measure will fail terribly, as in the past decades...

2. WHAT about sub-clinical TSE in deer and elk? with the recent findings of deer fawns being infected with CWD, how many could possibly be sub-clinically infected. until we have a rapid TSE test to assure us that all deer/elk are free of disease (clinical and sub-clinical), we must ban not only documented CWD infected deer/elk, but healthy ones as well. it this is not done, they system will fail...

3. WE must ban not only CNS (SRMs specified risk materials), but ALL tissues. recent new and old findings support infectivity in the rump or ass muscle. wether it be low or high, accumulation will play a crucial role in TSEs.

4. THERE are and have been for some time many TSEs in the USA. TME in mink, Scrapie in Sheep and Goats, and unidentified TSE in USA cattle. all this has been proven, but the TSE in USA cattle has been totally ignored for decades. i will document this data below in my references.

5. UNTIL we ban all ruminant by-products from being fed back to ALL ruminants, until we rapid TSE test (not only deer/elk) but cattle in sufficient numbers to find (1 million rapid TSE test in USA cattle annually for 5 years), any partial measures such as the ones proposed while ignoring sub-clinical TSEs and not rapid TSE testing cattle, not closing down feed mills that continue to violate the FDA's BSE feed regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) and not making freely available those violations, will only continue to spread these TSE mad cow agents in the USA. I am curious what we will call a phenotype in a species that is mixed with who knows how many strains of scrapie, who knows what strain or how many strains of TSE in USA cattle, and the CWD in deer and elk (no telling how many strains there), but all of this has been rendered for animal feeds in the USA for decades. it will get interesting once someone starts looking in all species, including humans here in the USA, but this has yet to happen...

6. IT is paramount that CJD be made reportable in every state (especially ''sporadic'' cjd), and that a CJD Questionnaire must be issued to every family of a victim of TSE. only checking death certificates will not be sufficient. this has been proven as well (see below HISTORY OF CJD -- CJD QUESTIONNAIRE)

7. WE must learn from our past mistakes, not continue to make the same mistakes...

snip...

Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus ) Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3, Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523- 1671, USA1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA 2 Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, USA3 Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1671, USA4 Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 337 Bustad Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, USA5

Author for correspondence: Edward Hoover.Fax +1 970 491 0523. e-mail ehoover@lamar.colostate.edu

Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42 days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.

snip...

These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay. Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node. He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.

snip...

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/80/10/2757


===================================

now, just what is in that deer feed? _ANIMAL PROTEIN_

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: BSE-L To: BSE-L

8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions

snip...

_animal protein_

http://www.surefed.com/deer.htm

BODE'S GAME FEED SUPPLEMENT #400 A RATION FOR DEER NET WEIGHT 50 POUNDS 22.6 KG.

snip...

_animal protein_

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod7.htm

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products 15%, Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Pyosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Panothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Soduim Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydorchloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, d-Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Sacchoromyces Berevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod6.htm

===================================

MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS FOR DEER

Bode's #1 Game Pellets A RATION FOR DEER F3153

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Crude Protein (Min) 16% Crude Fat (Min) 2.0% Crude Fiber (Max) 19% Calcium (Ca) (Min) 1.25% Calcium (Ca) (Max) 1.75% Phosphorus (P) (Min) 1.0% Salt (Min) .30% Salt (Max) .70%

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products, 15% Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D3) Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Roboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, e - Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Saccharyomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.

FEEDING DIRECTIONS Feed as Creep Feed with Normal Diet

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod8.htm

INGREDIENTS

Grain Products, Roughage Products (not more than 35%), Processed Grain By-Products, Plant Protein Products, Forage Products, __Animal Protein Products__, L-Lysine, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Monocalcium/Dicalcium Phosphate, Yeast Culture, Magnesium Oxide, Cobalt Carbonate, Basic Copper Chloride, Manganese Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Potassium Iodide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Mineral Oil, Mold Inhibitor, Calcium Lignin Sulfonate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Mineral Oil, Chromium Tripicolinate

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Deer Builder Pellets is designed to be fed to deer under range conditions or deer that require higher levels of protein. Feed to deer during gestation, fawning, lactation, antler growth and pre-rut, all phases which require a higher level of nutrition. Provide adequate amounts of good quality roughage and fresh water at all times.

http://www.profilenutrition.com/Products/Specialty/deer_builder_pellets.html

===================================================

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER

01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT

Tel: 215-597-4390

Dear Mr. Raymond:

Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).

Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.

In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.

The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1115d.pdf

==================================

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES

Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

now, what about those 'deer scents' of 100% urine', and the prion that is found in urine, why not just pass the prion with the urine to other deer...

Mrs. Doe Pee Doe in Estrus Model FDE1 Mrs. Doe Pee's Doe in Estrus is made from Estrus urine collected at the peak of the rut, blended with Fresh Doe Urine for an extremely effective buck enticer. Use pre-rut before the does come into heat. Use during full rut when bucks are most active. Use during post-rut when bucks are still actively looking for does. 1 oz.

www.gamecalls.net/hunting...lures.html

ELK SCENT/SPRAY BOTTLE

snip...

REFERENCES

snip...see full text ;

Sunday, July 27, 2008

DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability



-------- Original Message --------

Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov

Greetings FDA,

i would kindly like to comment on;



Docket 03D-0186

FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2008/07/docket-03d-0186-fda-issues-draft.html



Article

Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer

(Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution

of protease-resistant prion protein

Aru Balachandran, Noel P. Harrington, James Algire, Andrei Soutyrine, Terry R. Spraker,

Martin Jeffrey, Lorenzo González, Katherine I. O’Rourke

Abstract — Chronic wasting disease (CWD), an important emerging prion disease of cervids, is readily transmitted by intracerebral or oral inoculation from deer-to-deer and elk-to-elk, suggesting the latter is a natural route of exposure. Studies of host range susceptibility to oral infection, particularly of those species found in habitats where CWD currently exists are imperative. This report describes the experimental transmission of CWD to red deer following oral inoculation with infectious CWD material of elk origin. At 18 to 20 months post-inoculation, mild to moderate neurological signs and weight loss were observed and animals were euthanized and tested using 3 conventional immunological assays. The data indicate that red deer are susceptible to oral challenge and that tissues currently used for CWD diagnosis show strong abnormal prion (PrPCWD) accumulation. Widespread peripheral PrPCWD deposition involves lymphoreticular tissues, endocrine tissues, and cardiac muscle and suggests a potential source of prion infectivity, a means of horizontal transmission and carrier state.

SNIP...

There is a strong correlation between the presence of PrPTSE and infectivity in prion diseases. Although the epidemiologic evidence strongly suggests that CWD is not transmissible to humans, this study and others suggest caution in this regard. The finding of PrPCWD in various organs, albeit in clinical CWD, suggests that humans who consume or handle meat from CWD-infected red deer may be at risk of exposure to CWD prions. This study found that red deer tissues other than nervous and lymphoid tissue can support CWD prion replication and accumulation. As a result, the consumption or handling of meat from CWD-infected red deer will put humans at risk of exposure to CWD prions. In spite of a well-documented species barrier, a cautious approach would involve preventing such tissues from entering the animal and human food chains. Future studies will require sensitive and quantitative techniques such as bioassays in transgenic mice that assess tissue infectivity and quantitative immunoassays adapted to PrPCWD detection in peripheral tissues.

SNIP...

The exact mode of transmission of CWD in nature remains unclear but is believed to involve direct animal-to-animal contact or environmental contamination. As TSE agents are extremely resistant in the environment (39), oral exposure is the most plausible pathway by which the CWD prion may be introduced to deer in nature and represents a significant obstacle to eradication of CWD from either farmed or free-ranging cervid populations. The distribution of PrPCWD in gut-associated lymphoid tissues, salivary glands, and nasal mucosa in the red deer of this study suggests potential routes of PrPCWD shedding into the environment via fluids such as saliva or feces. However, this study did not identify the point at which an animal may become infectious during the course of infection. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of shedding and transmission will be important in the future management of CWD.

SNIP...

In summary, this study demonstrates the potential for oral transmission of CWD to red deer and describes the pattern of PrPCWD accumulation for this species. The current surveillance testing regime for cervids would be expected to identify CWD-infected red deer should it occur in North America. These results confirm the usefulness of rapid tests such as ELISA but with generally slightly lower sensitivity when compared with IHC when testing tissues with patchy or sporadic PrPCWD deposition. The finding of PrPCWD in several extraneural tissues including cardiac muscle and the endocrine system suggests that further investigation and monitoring of the potential transmissibility to other species including humans is warranted.

SNIP...

(Traduit par Isabelle Vallières)

Can Vet J 2010;51:169–178

Ottawa Laboratory — Fallowfield, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Balachandran, Harrington, Algire,

Soutyrine); Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (Spraker); Veterinary

Laboratory Agency, Department for the Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, Lasswade, Midlothian, Scotland, United Kingdom

(Jeffrey, González); Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Pullman,

Washington, USA (O’Rourke).

Address all correspondence to Dr. Aru Balachandran; e-mail: BalachandranA@inspection.gc.ca

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=zoonoticspub



Saturday, November 6, 2010

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS

INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2010/11/tafs1-position-paper-on-position-paper.html



Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR;


Prion disease update 2010 (11)



PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11)



http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20101206.4364




This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it's ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;


Monday, October 10, 2011

EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story

snip...

EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.

snip...

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/e991.htm?emt=1


http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/e991.pdf




see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/10/efsa-journal-2011-european-response-to.html



Thursday, August 4, 2011

Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011 (SEE VIDEO)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/08/terry-singeltary-sr-on-creutzfeldt.html




Sunday, August 21, 2011

The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease (SEE VIDEO)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/08/british-disease-or-disease-gone-global.html



Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html



Wednesday, November 09, 2011

Case report Sporadic fatal insomnia in a young woman: A diagnostic challenge: Case Report TEXAS

HOW TO TURN A POTENTIAL MAD COW VICTIM IN THE USA, INTO A HAPPENSTANCE OF BAD LUCK, A SPONTANEOUS MUTATION FROM NOTHING.

OR WAS IT $$$

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/case-report-sporadic-fatal-insomnia-in.html




http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/


http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/


http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/


http://nor-98.blogspot.com/


http://bseusa.blogspot.com/


http://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/


http://felinespongiformencephalopathyfse.blogspot.com/


http://caninespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/


http://equinespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/


http://transmissible-mink-encephalopathy.blogspot.com/


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/


http://sporadicffi.blogspot.com/


http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/


http://prionopathy.blogspot.com/


http://vcjd.blogspot.com/


http://vcjdblood.blogspot.com/


http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/2007/11/cjd-questionnaire.html


http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/


TSS

layperson

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net

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