Thursday, November 10, 2011


Court Likely to Overturn Calif. Law on Livestock


Published: November 9, 2011 at 1:36 PM ET

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WASHINGTON (AP) — The Supreme Court seemed ready Wednesday to block a California law that would require euthanizing downed livestock at federally inspected slaughterhouses to keep the meat out of the nation's food system.

The court heard an appeal from the National Meat Association, which wants a 2009 state law blocked from going into effect. California barred the purchase, sale and butchering of animals that can't walk and required slaughterhouses under the threat of fines and jail time to immediately kill nonambulatory animals.

But justices said that encroached on federal laws that don't require immediate euthanizing.

"The federal law does not require me immediately to go over and euthanize the cow. Your law does require me to go over and immediately euthanize the cow. And therefore, your law seems an additional requirement in respect to the operations of a federally inspected meatpacking facility," Justice Stephen Breyer told a California lawyer.

California strengthened regulations against slaughtering so-called "downer" animals after the 2008 release of an undercover Humane Society video showing workers abusing cows at a Southern California slaughterhouse. Under California law, the ban on buying, selling and slaughter of "downer" cattle also extends to pigs, sheep and goats.

But pork producers sued to stop the law, saying the new law interfered with federal laws that require inspections of downed livestock before determining whether they can be used for meat.

"A slaughterhouse worker who is on the premises needs to have one set of rules that the worker follows," said Steven J. Wells, the association's lawyer.

About 3 percent of pigs that show up at slaughterhouses are nonambulatory, the National Meat Association says, but veterinarians normally give the nonwalking pigs a few hours to determine whether their problem is disease, or just stress, fatigue, stubbornness or being overheated from the trip to the slaughterhouse.

A federal judge agreed and blocked the law, but the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals threw out the hold.

The justices seemed ready to overturn that ruling.

The Federal Meat Inspection Act allows a federal meat inspector to examine and then determine whether a downed animal is fit to be slaughtered for meat. It also says states cannot add requirements "in addition to or different than" its requirements.

"When the federal law says you can, that pre-empts the rule from the states that says you can't," said Chief Justice John Roberts said.

"Well, the federal law doesn't say you must," said Susan K. Smith, a California deputy attorney general.

But the federal law "says in so many words no additional requirements," said Justice Antonin Scalia. "And I don't know how you can get around the fact that this is an additional requirement."

The justices are expected to rule soon.

The case is National Meat Association v. Harris, 10-224.

Supreme Court skeptical of California's slaughterhouse law


McClatchy Newspapers

Supreme Court seems ready to block California law that requires euthanization of ‘downer’ livestock

By Robert Barnes, Published: November 9


National Meat Association v. Harris Docket No., 10-224

Argument Date: Wednesday, November 9, 2011






Wednesday, July 06, 2011

Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation


In the US, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of ruminant materials to swine, mink and poultry still occurs. Although unlikely, the potential for swine to have access to TSE-contaminated feedstuffs exists.


Wednesday, July 06, 2011

Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation

(see tonnage of mad cow feed in commerce USA...tss)

In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy.

PLEASE NOTE, these old BSE Inquiry links take a while to open with the wayback machine, so be patient. ...tss

Title: Experimental Intracerebral and Oral Inoculation of Scrapie to Swine: Preliminary Report

In the United States, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of ruminant materials to swine and poultry still occurs. The potential for swine to have access to scrapie-contaminated feedstuffs exists, but the potential for swine to serve as a host for replication/accumulation of the agent of scrapie is unknown. The purpose of this study was to perform oral and intracerebral inoculation of the U.S. scrapie agent to determine the potential of swine as a host for the scrapie agent and their clinical susceptibility.




1. CMO should be aware that a pig inoculated experimentally (ic, iv, and ip) with BSE brain suspension has after 15 months developed an illness, now confirmed as a spongiform encephalopathy. This is the first ever description of such a disease in a pig, although it seems there ar no previous attempts at experimental inoculation with animal material. The Southwood group had thought igs would not be susceptible. Most pigs are slaughtered when a few weeks old but there have been no reports of relevant neurological illness in breeding sows or other elderly pigs. ...see full text ;


So it is plausible pigs could be preclinically affected with BSE but since so few are allowed to reach adulthood this has not been recognised through clinical disease. ...




While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...

we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.

May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. ...

3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. ...

But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. ...

Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....


It was not until . . . August 1990, that the result from the pig persuaded both SEAC and us to change our view and to take out of pig rations any residual infectivity that might have arisen from the SBOs.

4.303 The minutes of the meeting record that:

It was very difficult to draw conclusions from one experimental result for what may happen in the field. However it would be prudent to exclude specified bovine offals from the pig diet. Although any relationship between BSE and the finding of a spongiform encephalopathy in cats had yet to be demonstrated, the fact that this had occurred suggested that a cautious view should be taken of those species which might be susceptible. The 'specified offals' of bovines should therefore be excluded from the feed of all species. 17



1: J Comp Pathol. 2000 Feb-Apr; 122(2-3): 131-43. Related Articles,


Click here to read

The neuropathology of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the pig.

Ryder SJ, Hawkins SA, Dawson M, Wells GA.

Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.

In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of the brain, but mainly the forebrain. In addition, some vacuolar change was identified in the rostral colliculi and hypothalamic areas of normal control pigs. PrP accumulations were detected immunocytochemically in the brains of BSE-infected animals. PrP accumulation was sparse in many areas and its density was not obviously related to the degree of vacuolation. The patterns of PrP immunolabelling in control pigs differed strikingly from those in the infected animals.

PMID: 10684682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


In the United States, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of ruminant materials to swine and poultry still occurs. The potential for swine to have access to scrapie-contaminated feedstuffs exists, but the potential for swine to serve as a host for replication/accumulation of the agent of scrapie is unknown. The purpose of this study was to perform oral and intracerebral inoculation of the U.S. scrapie agent to determine the potential of swine as a host for the scrapie agent and their clinical susceptibility.

see full text and more transmission studies here ;

Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug; [Epub ahead of print]

The case for mad pigs in the US

From the Consumer Policy Institute and Consumers Union: March 24, 1997

Stephen F. Sundlof, D.V.M., Ph.D Center for Veterinary Medicine Food and Drug Administration 7500 Standish Place, Room 482, HFV 1 RockvLIle, MD 20855 Dear Dr. Sundlof:

We are writing to you to submit information that has recently come to our attention which suggests that a TSE like disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) might exist in pigs in the U.S. We believe this new informantion calls for intensive research and makes it urgent to ban the use of all mammalian proteins, including swine, in the feed of all food animals, until better answers are found.

The evidence for the potential PSE (porcine spongiform encephalopathy ) is as follows. In 1979, an FSQS veternarian, Dr. Masuo Doi, noticed some unusual central nervous system (CNS) symptoms in young (about 6 months old) hogs coming into a slaughter plant In Albany, New York. Since the plant received hogs from a wide variety of sources (New York, Canada, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, and other Midwestern states) and was not a plant used to dealing with diseased animals, Dr. Doi thought that the problem might be affecting hogs slaughtered nationwide. So, he decided to conduct a detailed study on central nervous system (CNS) symptoms/disease in young hogs coming into that slaughter plant. The study ran for 15 months (January, 1979 to March, 1980) and consisted of extended observations of the behavior of animals with suspected CNS symptoms at the plant, followed by pathological, histopatholpgical, and microbiological work on tissues from various organs of particular animals after slaughter.

For his behavioral observational work, Dr. Doi extended the usual two day observation period to three to four days, during which he took careful notes on the animals' behavior and other vital signs. During the 15 month period of the study, some 106 animals exhibiting CNS symptoms were retained during antemortem inspection.

A 1980 paper that summarized Dr. Doi's findings on the clinical symptoms and incidence of the 'disease," contained descriptions of these symptoms that sound remarkably similar to the symptoms noted for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE):

"Excitable or nervous temperament to external stimuli such as touch to the skin, handling and menacing approach to the animals is a common characteristic sign among swine affected with the disease.... In the advanced stage of the disease, manifestation of neurological signs are evidenced in the form of general ataxia . . . Many animals have been found to be "downers' at first observation; if the hindquarters of these downers are raised they may be able to walk one or two steps and then fall to the ground" (Doi et al., 1980: 2, 4). Indeed, a table of symptoms includes, for the early stage: "excitability and nervousness (squealing, smacking of lips, grinding of teath, chewing, gnawing ant foaming at mouth); stiffness of limbs . . . 'tic'; weakness of hindquarters; focal tremors of skeletal muscles"; and for the advanced stage: depression; ataxia; crossing over of limbs . . . kneeling posture . . . crawling". In addition to his clinical observations, Dr. Doi also made an 8 mm film of thirteen of the affected animals; film of two of the pigs was shown at the MPI National Pathology Meeting in Seattle, Washington on flay 20, 1979.

Dr. Doi sent tissue samples from suspect cases to the USDA's Eastern Laboratory in Athens, GA for pathological, histopathogical and microbiological work. Known infectious diseases were ruled out. As Dr. Doi points out, "Histopathological studies of tissue collected from the brain and spinal cord of these animals in the early stage of the disease show congestion, hemorrhage and neuronal degeneration. All animals in the advanced stage of the disease have been confined to have Encephalitis or Meningitis by MPI laboratory" (Doi et al., 1980: 5). Eventually some 60 animals were confirmed by the MPI Laboratory to have encephalitis or meningitis, with no ldentifiable cause. As pointed out in a paper presented at the 1979 MPI National Pathology Meetings,

"Since January, a number of hogs in this establishment have been found, in antemortem, to show what appears to be CNS. Sets of tissue samples were sent to the laboratory for examination, various tests were done which include histological study (E H stain), fluorescence antibody technique, virus neutralization and viral and bacteriological isolation. Differential diagnosis was also done to exclude vitamin B deficiency, post vaccination reaction, chlorinated hydrocarbon, arthritis, and transport stress" (Doi et al., 1979). The brains of the 60 animals were examined. The brain of one of these pigs, on histopathological analysis, exhibited signs reminiscent of a TSE. This histopathological work was performed by Dr. Karl Langheinrich, Pathologist-In-Charge at USDA's Eastern Laboratory in Athens, Georgia. According to the USDA FSQS laboratory report, dated early November, 1979, Dr. Langheinrich noted:

"Microscopic examination of the barrow tissues revealed a encephalopathy and diffuse gliosis characterized by vacuolated neurons, loss of neurons and gliosis in a confined region (nucleus) of the brain stem (anterior ventral midbrain). Only an empty sometimes divided vacuole was present instead of the normal morphology of a nerve cell. Occasionally a shriveled neuron was seen. According to . . . Pathology of Domestic Animals, . . . 'The degeneration of neurons, the reactivity of the glia .... are the classical hallmarks of viral infection of the central nervous system' .... Scrapie of sheep, and encephalopathy of mink, according to the literature, all produce focal vacuolation of the neurons similar to the kind as described for this pig. I was unable to locate any lead as to the cause of this interesting phenomenon in other species including swine'' (Langheinrich, 1979). Indeed, Dr. Langheinrich's main diagnosis was, " Encephalopathy and diffuse gliosis of undetermined etiology." Portions of the brain were sent for microbiological testing to a neurologist at the University of Georgia, where they came up negative for pseudo-rabies. The brain was unique enough that USDA scientists, such as Dr. Langheinrich and Or. Dot, mentioned it to student and scientific colleagues over the years.

In 1979-1980, BSE was completely unknown. However, both the behavior of the pigs, as well as the histopathology on at least one pig, both showed sign consistent with a porcine TSE. This raises particular concern became the affected animal was only 6 months old; in an animal this young, one would rust expect to see any physical signs of TSE in the brain. Histopathology of TSEs can be very variable, so that spongiform appearance (i.e. vacuolated neurons) are not always present. Behavioral changes can be seen in TSE-infected animals before any changes in brain morphology are visible. Dr. Clarence Gibbs, in testimony before a Congressional hearing on the TSE issue on January 29, 1997 made just this point:

''In the mid-1960s, we demonstrated with our French and English collaborators that during the early incubation of the TSEs, when the virus titer in the brain was very low, there were already marked functional changes, even though no pathology was yet detectable, even ultrastructurally. A month or hero later, polynucleation of neurons appeared in spider monkeys, incubating kuru, and somewhat later, microvacuolation and membrane changes visible only by electron microscopy. This preceded the pest appearance of astrogliosis and spongiform change. It was only much later that the classical scrapie TSE pathology appeared with virus titers in brain of 10 -5 or higher" (Gibbs, 1997; pg. 4). Given that TSEs can cause behavioral changes in infected animals before any physical changes in the brain can be seen, that the manifestation of TSE in the brain can be quite variable, and that changes in brain morphology are not usually seen in 6 month old animals, we are concerned that the brain of one pig actually showed physical evidence consistent with a TSE.

Following the announcement In March, 1996 of ten cases of new variant CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) in the United Kingdom and their possible connection to BSE, Drs. Doi, Langheinrich and others urged reinvestigation of this case.

In August, 1996, the USDA sent five slides, one of which was a histopathology slide, to Dr. Janice Miller of USDA's Agricultural Research Servicer . Dr. Miller stained four of the slides for prion protein (she didn't stain the H&E slide). Dr. Miller told Consumers Union that Dr. Patrick McCaskey, USDA/FSIS, in charge of the Research Center at Athens, GA, called her, told her that he had five slides that all showed "problems" and asked her to stain four of them. The H&E slide, which clearly show vacuoles in the neurons (one sign of TSE), wasn't stained because to stain for PrP entails removing the slide cover, baking the slide to destain it and then restaining it for PrP; they didn't want to risk destroying the H&E slide.

Dr. Doi had kept frozen samples of the brain and spinal chord of the suspect PSE pig in case the Eastern lab wanted more material for analysis. Unfortunately, these samples were discarded when the packing plant in Albany, NY closed in 1991. It appears that the brain material sent to the Univcrsity of Georgia may have been discarded. [pers com.. Dr. Doi 3/13/97]

Dr. Miller found that the PrP stained in the four pig slides was found only on the inside of neurons, while a positive control slide from a scrapie sheep showed massive amounts of extraneuronal staining. In a letter summarizing her results (copy attached), she concludes that the PrP stained in this pig was normal: "In the pig sections you will see a small particulate type of staining that is confined to neurons and as I indicated on the phone, I would interpret as normal PrP. It is in marked contrast to the massive amount of extraneuronal staining seen in the scrapie section" (Miller, 1996).

Unfortunately, Dr. Miller's finding toes not conclusively rule out a TSE. We are concerned that while British BSE and serapie create a massive amount of extraneuronal staining, there are TSEs where this isn't the case. Three experiments were done in He U.S. -- in Mission, TX (APHIS work), Pullman, Washington (ARS work), and Ames, Iowa (ARS work) -- to see whether sheep scrapie can possibly infect cows. In all the experiments, cattle were inoculated with tissue from scrapie -infected sheep primarily by intra-cranial injection, but in the case of the Texas and Iowa studies also by oral feeding -- to see if cattle were susceptible to scrapie at all. In all three experiments, the majority of cows injected in the brain with scrapie-infected sheep material (usually brains) also developed a fatal spongiform encephalopathy.

However, in all three examples, the symptoms of the spongifonn encephalopathy differed from "mad cow" disease ~ England, as did the appearances of slides from their brains. The brain lesions seen in all these animals were more variable than those seen in England. When Dr. Miller did similar staining for PrP from these brains (what she called "bovine scrapie") she only found PrP stains on the inside of the neurons, not the massive extraneuronal staining seen in BSE (Miller, pers. comm., March 7, 1997). Thus, Dr. Miller's finding of PrP stains only inside the neurons in the suspect pigs is not particularly reassuring.

In November 1996, USDA sent the single histopathology slide to Dr. William Hadlow, one of the foremost spongiform encephalopathy pathologists in the world. (For unknown reasons, Dr. Hadlow was only sent the one slide; he was not told of the existence of the other slides, nor of Dr. Miller's findings, nor was he told or given the behavioral report from Dr. Doi or the morphology work by Dr. Langheinrich, or shown film of the affected pigs [Dr. Hadlow, pers. com., 3/13/97] From this single slide, Dr. Hadlow found some evidence consistent with TSEs but not enough for a conclusive diagnosis. He noted that the slide contained vacuoles inside neurons, one of the signs of a TSE (Dr. Langheinrich had noted this as well).

However, since such vacuoles occasionally occur normally in pigs, he thought that was not something special: "About twelve (12) neurons in the parasympathetic nucleus have unilocular optically empty vacuoles in the perikaryon. This is the site where such vacuolated neurons have been seen in the swine (as well as in cats and sheep) as an incidental finding. So I do not think such cells have any significance in this pig" (Hadlow, 1996). However, he did see evidence, Including changes in astrocytes, that suggested a TSE, but without examining other parts of the brain to look for other evidence of TSE, he couldn't be sure:

"I am impressed, though, with what seems to be an increase in the number of astrocytes in the section. Some astrocytes are in clusters, some are enlarged and vesicular. Where they are most numerous, a few rod cells (activated microglia) are seen. These findings suggest some perturbation of the nervous tissue. Although such a global response occurs in the transmissible spongifonn encephalopathies, I do no! know its significance in this case without examining other parts of the brain for changes characteristic of these diseases. Thus, from looking; at this one (1) section of brain, I cannot conclude that the pig was affected with a scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy" (Hadlow, 1996). In sum, Dr. Hadlow~s letter does not rule out the possibility of a TSE. He says that there is suggestive evidence, but that he would need to look at other slides/sections of the brain, to make a conclusive diagnosis.

In our view, the implications of this data are extremely serious. Experiments in the United Kingdom have shown that pigs are susceptible to BSE. Pigs inoculated with BSE develop a TSE (Dawson et al., 1990). Feeding experiments are underway in the UK to see if BSE can be orally transmitted to pigs; as of March, 1997, some 6 years after the start of the experiment, none of the pigs fed BSE brain have come down with a TSE. Unfortunately the design of this experiment severely limits what we will learn from it, and will most likely not tell us conclusively if pigs can get BSE from feed. It turns out that the pigs were not fed BSE brain continuously. Rather, the pigs were only fed BSE brain material on three days, over a three week period (i.e.. one day each week). Following these three doses, the pigs were never fed contaminated material again. The total amount of infective material given to the pigs was therefore quite small. Thus, a negative finding would be hard to interpret and would not mean that BSE is not orally active in pigs.

We believe that as a top priority USDA should conduct follow-up studies to look for potential CNS/PSE cases in pigs (we plan to communicate about this to USDA separately). In brief, we feel that the following kinds of studies need to be done:

i) TSE pathology experts should examine all the slides from the suspect pig (2709). To our knowledge, at least 12 separate slides exist.

ii) Determine if any brain material from the suspect pig (2709) still exists at the Unlverslty of Georgia. If so, this material should be retrieved and used for transmission studies. In particular, suckling pigs should be inoculated with the material and then permitted to live unto they die of a disease or old age, at which point their brains should be examined for physical signs of a TSE as well as for immunchistochemical evidence (i.e. staining looking for the abnormal PrP).

iii) Increase antemortem inspection for CNS symptoms at hog facilities. Inspectors should be trained to detect the subtle CNS symptoms seen in the Doi et al. study. At a select number of slaughter facilities, animals exhibiting CNS symptoms should be removed and held for observation until they die, at which time their brains should be examined for evidence of a TSE.

iv) Research on CNS symptoms among Me 6,000 or so breeding sows which are permitted to live for 3+ years. Sows exhibiting CNS symptoms should be removed and held for observation until they die, at which time then brains should be exernined for evidence of a TSE.

While such work is underway, given the above inforrnabon, we believe that as a precutionary measure the FDA must expand the proposed ruminant plus mink-to-ruminnant feed ban to prevent protein from any material, including hogs, being fed to any food animal.


Michael Hansen, Ph.D Research Associate

Jean Halloran Director


Dawson, M., Wells, G.A.H., Parker, B.N;J. and A.C Scott. 1990. Primary parental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the pig. Veternary Record, pg. 338.

Doi, M., Matzner, N.D. and C. Rothaug. 1979. Observation of CNS disease in market hogs at Est. 893 Tobin Packing Co., Inc. Albany, New York. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Quality.Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection Service. 7pp.

Doi, M, Langheinrich, K. and F. Rellosa. 1980. Observations of CNS signs in hogs at Est. 893 Tobin Packing C:o., Inc. Presented by Dr. Lngheinrich at the MPI National Pathology Meeting in Seattle, Washington on July 20, 1979.

Gibbs, C. 1997. Statement to the Committee on Governnent Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, U.S. House of Representatives. January 29,1997.

Hadlow, WJ. 1996. Letter to Patrick McCaskey, USDA/FSIS/Eastem Lab, dated November 13, 1996.

Langheinrich, KA. 1979. USDA/FSQS Laboratory report on specimen 2709. Dated November 8, 1979

Miller, J. 1996. Letter to Patrick McCaskey, USDA/ESIS/Eastern Lab, dated September 6, 1996.

Dr. Janice Miller, ARS

Wednesday, February 16, 2011




Sunday, April 18, 2010


Monday, April 25, 2011

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011


This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........

Saturday, November 6, 2010

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS


Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 2010 (11)


Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque

"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"

Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.


The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...



Members of The HSUS are also concerned about the meat products provided to their children through the National School Lunch Program. More than 31 million school children receive lunches through the program each school day. To assist states in providing healthful, low-cost or free meals, USDA provides states with various commodities including ground beef.

As evidenced by the HallmarkNVestland investigation and recall, the potential for downed animals to make their way into the National School Lunch Program is neither speculative nor hypothetical.



you can check and see here ;

with an incubation period of up to 50 years or more, we will all just have to wait and see...

Monday, June 27, 2011

Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Evidence for distinct CWD strains in experimental CWD in ferrets

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque

"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"

EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story

This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it's ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;

Monday, October 10, 2011

EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story


EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.


see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;

Saturday, March 5, 2011


Thursday, August 4, 2011

Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011 (SEE VIDEO)

Tuesday, November 08, 2011

Can Mortality Data Provide Reliable Indicators for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance? A Study in France from 2000 to 2008 Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 2011

Original Paper

Conclusions:These findings raise doubt about the possibility of a reliable CJD surveillance only based on mortality data.

Wednesday, November 09, 2011

Case report Sporadic fatal insomnia in a young woman: A diagnostic challenge: Case Report TEXAS



kindest regards, terry


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