Tuesday, January 10, 2012

ESHRE position statement concerning prion detection in urinary gonadotropin formulations

ESHRE position statement concerning prion detection in urinary gonadotropin formulations


A recent laboratory evaluation, partly funded by a company producing recombinant human gonadotropin, questions the safety of urinary-derived human chorionic gonadotropin. Based on the detection of traces of normal prion protein in licensed urinary derived products, the authors surmise that these widely used gonadotropins might also harbor abnormally folded prion proteins that could result in cases of nosocomial transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD).


The ESHRE task-force for transmissible viral diseases has reviewed the study but found no convincing evidence that would support the concern raised by Dorsselaer et al. Biological and epidemiological evidence argues against the possibility of CJD-transmission through urine-derived gonadotropins. Prion proteins are normally found in human urine and are not associated with CJD. Dorsselaer et al. did not document the detection of the CJD-associated abnormally folded form of prion proteins. The incidence of CJD is extremely rare (1 case / mio/year) and there is no indication that abnormal prion proteins are found in urine prior to the manifestation of the disease. As for urine donors, those contributing samples for hCG extraction, who are pregnant women, are in the age range far before the age of 50 years, when the vast majority of CJD cases are diagnosed. Those contributing samples for FSH extraction are in the menopausal age range, when eventual clinical manifestation of CJD can be diagnosed.


One particular nature of the transmission of prions associated with the development of the diseases is the association between the infectious dose and the latency from infection to disease development (Klöhn et al.). This is a fundamental difference to the transmission of a virus or a bacteria. Thus, low level exposure to the transmissible agent does not result in the development of overt disease during a lifetime. Since urine-derived products are pooled from large numbers of urine samples any specific protein from one individual donor would be diluted. Thus, even in the unlikely event that a young woman donor is shedding abnormal prion protein in her urine, the potentially transmissible agent is so far diluted that it makes transmission of CJD biologically unlikely event. This theoretical concept is supported by epidemiological evidence. Despite the use of urine derived gonadotropins for more than 50 years by millions of women worldwide, there is not a single case of CJD associated with these products. More importantly, the M/F sex ratio of CJD has remained stable at one (or slightly above at 1.05 in a large french survey 1998-2000;




Further evidence against the suspected possibility of CJD transmission through urine-derived gonadotropins is also summarized in a position statement of the Candadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Based on this careful evaluation of the facts, the ESHRE task force does fully support the use of urine-derived gonadotropins and will continue to follow the published evidence.


Pietro Vernazza, Enrico Semprini For the Task Force Viral Diseases in ART Petra De Sutter Special Interest Group Safety and Quality in ART


Reference


Klöhn PC, Stoltze L, Flechsig E, Enari M, Weissmann C. A quantitative, highly sensitive cell-based infectivity assay for mouse scrapie prions. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2003, vol 100 (20); 11666-11671.









here we go again...




Posted by flounder on 29 Mar 2011 at 15:12 GMT


again, many many thanks to PLOS for open access !


Nice work Dr. Cashman and Dr. Vandors et al !


THIS is not surprising at all, and the warning shots for this risk factor of exposure to TSE were shot over the bow of the boat over a decade ago, but politics and the industry put up a good PR media blackout, or best they could. now look how many have become needlessly exposed around the globe. before synthetic growth hormones, CJD was killing via human growth hormone, this has been proven time and time again through death. the hospitals, medical, surgical procedures are spreading the TSE prion disease and their many different strains around the globe, as we speak, and the insanity, along with exposure continues. ...


how, why, has this been allowed to happen again ?


how many will die due to this needless exposure ?


how many times does science have to repeat itself, before our officials act ?


how many dead is enough ?


please see reference sources below ;




more than 1500 women were treated with the injectable fertility drug, human pituitary gonadotrophin (hPG) between the 1960s and 1985. It created miracle children, infamous multiple births - and tragedy.


This Federal Government-sponsored hormone extract, made from pituitary glands sliced from the brains of bodies in morgues, has killed four women, all in Australia where the most use of this drug was made, in the years 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991. One young man, among the 700-odd children who received hGH (human growth hormone) injections between 1967 and 1985 in Australia, has died.


Jennifer Cooke is the author of Cannibals, Cows & the CJD Catastrophe (Random House Australia) which won the 1999 Eureka Science Book Prize, Australia’s most prestigious award for popular science writing.


Background of Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Program From 1967 until 1985 2,100 Australians were treated with human pituitary hormones under the Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Program (AHPHP).


In similar programs in overseas countries the majority of recipients of human pituitary hormones (hPH) were treated with human growth hormone (hGH) for short statue. In Australia the Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Program (AHPHP) treated approximately 1570 woman and about 60 men for infertility using human pituitary gonadotrophin (hPG). Approximately 660 Australian children were treated for short statue with human growth hormone (hGH).


Five Australians may so far have developed and died from health-care associated (iatrogenic) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) after hPH treatment . The program was suspended in 1985 following CJD deaths of recipients of hGH in the United States and England.


All those treated with hPH are at low risk of developing CJD. There is no way of knowing if batches received by recipients were contaminated. To date there is no test to show if recipients are incubating CJD.


The AHPHP was run under the auspices of the Commonwealth Department of Health. The hormones were manufactured by the then government-owned Commonwealth Serum Laboratories in Melbourne.


The AHPHP was conceived and operated by the Human Pituitary Advisory Committee (HPAC) until its activities ceased in 1985 and the committee was disbanded.


From 1992 intense media and political pressure followed news of the first two deaths from iatrogenic CJD as the families demanded an explanation. The then Minister for Health, Senator Graham Richardson, ordered an independent inquiry.


Associate Professor Margaret Allars, an administrative law expert from the University of Sydney conducted the inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, which reported in June 1994.


The inquiry report made a number of recommendations concerning the care of recipients, the establishment of support services and the formation of a ministerial advisory council.


Recipients of hPH now live with a health status of being at “low risk” of CJD. Current infection control guidelines refer to “low risk” patients. Recipients and their families also live with anxiety linked to the threat of contracting a disease which can lie dormant for decades and for which there is no test, treatment or cure.








1: Dev Biol Stand 1996;88:237-41


Transmissible encephalopathies and biopharmaceutical production.


Robinson MM


USDA-ARS Animal Disease Research Unit, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.


The use of post-mortem tissues as sources for the production of biologicals, vaccines and feedstuffs has led to the transmission or generation of transmissible encephalopathies in some recipients. For example, the use of pituitary-derived human growth hormone and gonadotropins has resulted in the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to other humans [1], the use of formalin-inactivated sheep brain as a source for louping ill vaccine led to the transmission of scrapie to over 1,000 sheep from one vaccine lot [2], and the use of rendered products from ruminant carcasses in the domestic animal food chain led to the emergence and epizootic of bovine spongifrom encephalopathy in the United Kingdom [3]. Infection with transmissible encephalopathies by iatrogenic or other mechanisms is difficult to predict or control. The characteristics of these pathogens do not permit easy detection, clearance, or inactivation in routine biopharmaceutical production environments.


Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial


PMID: 9119144, UI: 97169782





PLUS, ARMOUR MADE A BOVINE THYROID MEDICATION SOME TIME BACK CALLED "THYRAR" MADE FROM DESSICATED BOVINE THYROID GLAND...






Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, CJD Support Group for short statured children of the 1970's and 1980's. Recommendations for Unapproved/Unregistered recipiants












SHORT REPORT


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 38 years after diagnostic use of human growth hormone






the warning shots fired over the bow of the boat that were never heard ;




PITUITARY EXTRACT


This was used to help cows super ovulate. This tissue was considered to be of greatest risk of containing BSE and consequently transmitting the disease...







NON-LICENSED HUMAN TISSUE DEVICES WERE NOT COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE


snip...


I was quite prepared to believe in unofficial pituitary hormones, also in the 1970's, whether as described by Dr. Little, or in other circumstances, for animal use.


snip...


The fact that there were jars of pituitaries (or extract) around on shelves is attested by the still potent 1943 pituitaries, described in Stockell Hartree et al. (J/RF/17/291) which had come from the lab. at Mill Hill. Having taken the trouble to collect them, they were not lightly thrown out...






B.S.E. and Veterinary Medicines


Thank you very much indeed for your letter of the 26th of January outlining to me the various steps that are proposing to take in order to reduce the risk from B.S.E. in veterinary medicines. It is, as you say, and extremely difficult problem. ....






Draft cover letter to product licence holders (considered by Human and Vet Medicines including deer)










(It was noted with concern that hormone extracts could be manufactured by a veterinary surgeon for administration to animals under his care without any Medicines Act Control.)


PITUITARY EXTRACT


This was used to help cows super ovulate. This tissue was considered to be of greatest risk of containing BSE and consequently transmitting the disease.


BEEF BRAIN AND BRAIN INFUSION BROTHS


Considered to be of great risk.






COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


MEDICINES ACT - VETERINARY PRODUCTS COMMITTEE


5 BLANK PAGES. ...TSS


7. Any Other Business






TWA LITTLE STATEMENT 331


8 June 1988 Internal CVL meeting to discuss the implications of BSE to Biologicals Products containing bovine extracted material (Annex 6). (YB 88/06.08/11.1-11.2) Following a detailed review of situation the following recommendations were made:


1. Specific concern over use of pituitary gland products by veterinary surgeons and companies. Paper to be produced for Tolworth (Veterinary Medicines Division).


2. Urgent review of all products both immunological and pharmaceutical for possible inclusion of ingredients of bovine origin.


3. Draft guidelines to be presented in full to the National Office of Animal Health (NOAH), the trade body representing the Veterinary Medicines part of the pharmaceutical industry, at next meeting on 11 July 1988






TWA LITTLE minute


2. We have identified one problem over where we are unable to act and this is the use of gonadotrophins in embryo transfer work. Some veterinary surgeons are quite legally using this exemption from the Medicines Act contained in Section 9(2) to prepare gonadotrophins from pituitary glands from various species, including cattle. These hormones are used to stimulate superovulation in donor cows.














COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


3.2 Minute 5.3 - 5.4 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


It was reported that some replies had been received from Companies using pituitary glands in their products. Copies of the BSE document had also been sent to DHSS and NIBSC.


and then another 3 + pages of blank space. ...TSS






COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


BSE - CURRENT POSITION WITH VETERINARY LICENCED PRODUCTS (MA.1968)


There are three areas of particular concern, vaccines (including emergency vaccines), pharmaceuticals which are covered by MA licences and unlicenses hormonal products produced under exemptions claimed under (Section 9(2) Medicines Act).


1) Vaccines






NOT FOR PUBLICATION


another 6 pages of blank space. ...TSS














COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE






COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


Medicines Act - Veterinary Products Committee






COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE






MANAGEMENT IN CONFIDENCE


CERTIFIED BSE-FREE HERDS FOR SOURCE OF MATERIAL FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS






Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001


Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de


[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.


[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]


[host Richard] could you repeat the question?


[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?


[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.


[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary


[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?


[not sure whom speaking] NO


from this point, i was still connected, got to listen and tape the whole conference. at one point someone came on, a woman, and ask again;


[unknown woman] what group are you with?


[TSS] CJD Watch and my Mom died from hvCJD we are trying to tract down CJD and other human TSE's world wide. i was invited to sit in on this from someone inside the USDA/APHIS and that is why i am here. do you intend on banning me from this conference now?


at this point the conference was turned back up, and i got to finish listening. They never answered or even addressed my one question, or even addressed the issue. BUT, i will try and give you a run-down for now, of the conference.


snip...full text ;








COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


NOT FOR PUBLICATION


COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINES


another 6 pages or so that are blank. ...TSS










COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE


NOT FOR PUBLICATION


COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINES


WORKING PARTY ON BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY


7.2.1. Products with bovine brain/lymphoid tissue as ingredients and administered by injection...[111]


7.2.2 Products with bovine ingredients (other than brain/lymphoid tissue) and administered by injection...[135]


7.2.3 Tissue implants, open wound dressings, surgical materials, dental and opthalmic products with bovine ingredients...[27]


7.2.4. Products with bovine ingredients and administered topically...[5]


7.2.5 Products with bovine ingredients and administered orally...[9]


7.2.6 Products with other animal/insect/bird ingredients and administered:


a. by injection a: 117


b. by topically b: 6


c. orally c: 8


7.2.7 Products with materials produced from animal material by chemical processes, eg stearic acid, gelatin and lanolin...[156]


With two exceptions, the replies to date have not given any immediate cause for concern, although 176 products do not conform to the CSM/VPC guidelines.


8. The first exception was from which gave very limited information about a very large number of homoepathic medicines with material obtained from cattle and a number with material from the brain. Of these, 53 were injectable products of which 20 were derived from cattle brain. A list of these products is attached as Appendix 1 to Annex D. The second exception relates to the product, 'Surgical Catgut', which is sourced from UK bovine intestines and will contain lymphoid material...


see full text ;






please see ;


Sunday, December 16, 2007


Risk factors for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


Increased risk was not associated with surgical categories chosen a priori but was confined to the residual category other surgery, in which the increase in risk appeared most marked for three subcategories: skin stitches, nose/throat operations, and removal of growths/cysts/moles.


snip...


which the increase in risk appeared most marked for three subcategories:


skin stitches, nose/throat operations, and removal of growths/cysts/moles.


10 January 1990


Other US BSE risks: the imported products picture


24 Jul 00 Trade Statistics: UK to US


Compiled by Terry S.Singeltary Sr of Bacliff, Texas


[Opinion (webmaster): The US has focused for years on tracing, containing, and eradicating live animal imports from the UK or other countries with acknowledged BSE like Belgium, including some 499 cattle and the Vermont sheep. This strategy does not acknowledge imports of rendered bovine products from England during the BSE period nor secondary products such as surgical catgut, which is to say surgical cowgut, or dairy cattle embryos, vaccines for veterinarian and human medicines. What has become of these?


Mr. Singeltary, who lost his mother to CJD of unexplained origin a few years back and went on to became a well-known TSE activist, has tracked down voluminous pertinent import data through correspondence with UK officials and searches of government web sites. Imports of such products are frequently cited by Europeans in rating BSE risks in the US and in shutting out US exports.


Many people's eyes glaze over when reviewing reams of sometimes older trade statistics. There is no proof that any of the imported products was contaminated with BSE nor if so, any evidence that any BSE product lead to infection in US livestock, surgical patients, or what not. Nonetheless, the data obtained by Mr. Singeltary establish that an appalling variety and tonnage of products that were imported by the US from the UK and othr BSE-affected countries during the peak of the BSE epidemic years.]


10 January 1990


NOT FOR PUBLICATION


COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINES


WORKING PARTY ON BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY


SURGICAL CATGUT SUTURES


2.1 At the first meeting of the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy on 6 September 1989, detailed consideration was given to XXXXX Surgical Catgut. This arose from the Company's response to the Letter to License Holders, indicating that the bovine small intestine source material was derived from UK cattle, unlike 8 other licensed catgut sutures. In contrast XXXXX Surgical Catgut was stated to hold over 90% share of the market for catgut sutures, and to constitute approximately 83% of all sutures used in U.K.


IMPORTS OF SUTURES FROM THE KNOWN BSE COUNTRY;


3006.10.0000: STERILE SURGICAL CATGUT, SIMILAR STERILE SUTURE MATERIALS AND STERILETISSUE ADHESIVES FOR SURGICAL WOUND CLOSURE; AND SIMILAR STERILE MATERIAL


U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date (Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)


<--- Dec 1998 ---> <--- 1998 YTD --->


Country Quantity Value Quantity Value


===================================================


WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 10,801 3,116 143,058 40,068


Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 107 14


France . . . . . . . . . 81 49 2,727 1,132


Switzerland . . . . . . . --- --- 1,357 1,693


United Kingdom . . . . . 1,188 242 35,001 5,564








see url now available at ;








Part II


2.1 Bovine Small Intestine


This is the largest single category, comprising 9 product licenses for surgical catgut, held by 3 Companies ;






2.2 Skin


Bovine dermal collagen is present in 2 products for correction of tissue contour deformities by injection and 4 implantable haemostates.


Source USA, USA, W Germany, W. Germany, France. ...






UPDATE ON SURGICAL CATGUT


MAY 1990






40,000 human heart valves a year from BSE herds


Sun, 3 Sep 2000.


Unpublished Inquiry documents obtained by CJD activist Terry S. Singeltary Sr. of Bacliff, Texas








The documents below were provided by Terry S. Singeltary Sr on 8 May 2000. They are optically character read (scanned into computer) and so may contain typos and unreadable parts.




TIP740203/l 0424 CONFIDENTIAL


snip...


The responses by the companies were presented by Ms Turner and were categorised by MCA standards, the products that were discussed were all low volume usage products eg sutures, heart valves.


8. As the responses included some materials of human origin it was decided that more information should be sought about CJD. There had been 2 recent deaths reported associated with human growth hormone. These were being investigated.



snip...








5.3.3 The greatest risk, in theory, would be from parenteral injection of material derived from bovine brain or lymphoid tissue. Medicinal products for injection or surgical implantation which are prepared from bovine tissues, or which utilise bovine serum albumin or similar agents in their manufacture, might also be capable of transmitting infectious agents. All medicinal products are licensed under the Medicines Act by the Licensing Authority following guidance, for example from the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), the Committee on Dental and Surgical Materials (CDSM) and their subcommittees. The Licensing Authority have been alerted to potential concern about BSE in medicinal products and will ensure that scrutiny of source materials and manufacturing processes now takes account of BSE agent.


see all 76 pages ;






EXPORT OF BRITISH BIOLOGICAL PHARMACEUTICALS


1. Please see the attached note of a recent meeting in Brussels. For Dr. Purford should read Dr. Purves (I think). If the Germans get their way, and it looks as if they might, because of worries about BSE we could end up with a ban on certain bovine materials being exported from the UK for pharmaceutical manufacture. Thse materials include cell cultures of bovine origin (? and also any cultures which have been fed bovine nutrient material), bovine serum, and fetal calf serum.


2. Whilst export of these raw materials may be very limited, it is only a small step to include in this export ban any finished product made from such materials. This would include virtually all biologicals and vaccines. This could have very serious effects on the export trade of British Manufacturers of biologicals because even where they source their bovine ingredients outside the UK it might be impossible or at least very difficult to bypass any export ban.


3. Our own line is that we have not used regulations to restrict the use of British bovine material for non-food use, although certain offals cannot be used for human consumption. ...






Export of British 'Biological' Pharmaceuticals










No papers were presented by our American guests and none covered the subject of pharmaceuticals. ...






STANDING COMMITTEE MEETING ON BSE


Thanks for your note. I am disappointed not to have been informed about this meeting in advance and am surprised that Dr. Tyrrell was not involved either. I find it insulting to be told the proceedings were in confidence and find your excuse about only hosting the meeting unconvincing.






The documents below were provided by Terry S. Singeltary Sr on 8 May 2000. They are optically character read (scanned into computer) and so may contain typos and unreadable parts.



TIP740203/l 0424 CONFIDENTIAL


Mr Cunningham CMP3 From: D O Hagger MBI Dr Salisbury MED/IMCD3 Mr Burton PD/STB/PG1B B/17/2 Date: 15.02.1989 Mr Dudley PD/AD4


snip...


89/06.19/8.1 BSE3/1 0191 Hr J Maslin (MAFF) Ref: Maslin3g


From: Dr H Pickles Med SEB/B Date: 3 July 1989


CATTLE BY-PRODUCTS AND BSE


I was interested to see the list of by-products sent to the HSE. Those of particular concern included:


* small intestines: sutures (I thought the source was ovine but you are checking this)


* spinal cord: pharmaceuticals


* thymus: pharmaceuticals


Are you able to give me more information on which UK manufacturers use these materials? Our proposed ban on bovine offal for human consumption would not affect these uses, I assume.


snip...see full text ;















USDA allows diseased animals into human food supply


Mon, 14 Aug 2000. Information provided by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Farm Sanctuary web site


In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - Report of a visit to the USA - April-May 1989 - G A H Wells [head of England's main veterinary lab -- webmaster]


2. Meeting with USDA, BSE Task Force










MAD COW DISEASE BSE CJD CHILDREN VACCINES


Sunday, May 18, 2008


MAD COW DISEASE BSE CJD CHILDREN VACCINES


TIP740203/l 0424 CONFIDENTIAL








2011




Friday, March 25, 2011


Detection of Prion Protein in Urine-Derived Injectable Fertility Products by a Targeted Proteomic Approach






Saturday, December 3, 2011


Candidate Cell Substrates, Vaccine Production, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies


Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011






Thursday, December 22, 2011


Risk of Prion Disease Transmission through Bovine-Derived Bone Substitutes: A Systematic Review


Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Dec 15. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2011.00407.x. [Epub ahead of print]






Thursday, December 29, 2011


Aerosols An underestimated vehicle for transmission of prion diseases?


PRION www.landesbioscience.com


please see more on Aerosols and TSE prion disease here ;






Monday, January 2, 2012


EFSA Minutes of the 6th Meeting of the EFSA Scientific Network on BSE-TSE Brussels, 29-30 November 2011






Sunday, July 03, 2011


J. Virol. doi:10.1128/JVI.05111-11 Copyright © 2011,American Society for Microbiology and/or the Listed Authors/Institutions. All Rights Reserved.


Prion Disease Detection, PMCA Kinetics, and IgG in Urine from Naturally/Experimentally Infected Scrapie Sheep and Preclinical/Clinical CWD Deer




Thursday, June 09, 2011


Detection of CWD prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission






Wednesday, March 18, 2009


Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay






Sunday, December 06, 2009


Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer






THEN YOU have water that has been contaminated from a CWD-endemic area ;




Wednesday, October 14, 2009


Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area






ALSO, NOTE MINERAL LICKS A POSSIBLE SOURCE AND TRANSMISSION MODE FOR CWD ;









Tuesday, September 02, 2008


Detection of infectious prions in urine (Soto et al Available online 13 August 2008.)






Wednesday, January 5, 2011


ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011


Prions


David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2






UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN


Wednesday, September 08, 2010


CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010






Saturday, May 14, 2011


Modeling Routes of Chronic Wasting Disease Transmission: Environmental Prion Persistence Promotes Deer Population Decline and Extinction






Tuesday, May 31, 2011


Chronic Wasting Disease


DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_159 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011






Saturday, November 12, 2011


Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease


Fri, 22 Sep 2006 09:05:59 –0500






Monday, June 27, 2011


Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates






EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story


This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it’s ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;


Monday, October 10, 2011


EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story


snip…


EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as “sporadic” CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.


snip…











see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;







Wednesday, August 24, 2011


There Is No Safe Dose of Prions








Wednesday, August 24, 2011




All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD










Thursday, December 08, 2011


A case of Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (iCJD) in a patient who had received a German-manufactured human dura mater graft 23 years ago







Monday, December 12, 2011


Second iatrogenic CJD case confirmed Korea







Monday, December 26, 2011


Prion Uptake in the Gut: Identification of the First Uptake and Replication Sites







Tuesday, November 08, 2011


Can Mortality Data Provide Reliable Indicators for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance? A Study in France from 2000 to 2008 Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 2011


Original Paper


Conclusions:These findings raise doubt about the possibility of a reliable CJD surveillance only based on mortality data.











tss

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