Thursday, June 20, 2013

atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update

atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION Sheraton Greensboro Hotel Greensboro, North Carolina October 18 – 24, 2012

 

 

 

 

Evaluation and Interpretation of Rectal Mucosa Biopsy Testing for Chronic Wasting Disease within Four White-Tailed Deer Herds in North America

 

 

Bruce V. Thomsen

 

 

USDA-APHIS-VS, National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL)

 

 

An effective live animal test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer in both Canada and the United States. Rectal biopsy sample testing for CWD has shown promising results in previous studies and rectal biopsy sample testing has also been utilized successfully as a live animal test to diagnose the closely related disease, scrapie in sheep. This study compared the test results of postmortem rectal mucosa biopsy samples to those from conventional postmortem samples of the brainstem at the obex; the medial retropharyngeal lymph node; and the palatine tonsil in four CWD-infected, captive white-tailed deer herds. Three of the herds were located in Canada and one of the herds was from the United States. The effects of age, sex, genotype at prion protein (PRNP) codon 96, and stage of disease progression were evaluated as possible factors that might influence test performance. Test sensitivity for CWD on rectal biopsy samples in whitetailed deer ranged from 63% to 100% in the four herds within this study. Test performance was influenced by genotype at PRNP codon 96 and by stage of disease progression. Test sensitivity was the highest for 96GG deer and lower for 96GS deer. Rectal biopsy test sensitivity was 100% for deer in the later stages of disease progression, as evidenced by abundant immunohistochemical staining for PrPCWD in sections of brainstem. Rectal biopsy test sensitivity was reduced for deer in the earlier stages of disease. Selective use of this test, in conjunction with conventional testing postmortem testing, could provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD suspect deer herds.

 

 

 

 

CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK

 

 

221

 

 

Review and Updates of the USDA-APHIS Veterinary Services (VS)

 

 

National Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program

 

 

Patrice Klein

 

 

USDA-APHIS-VS

 

 

CWD Rule Update

 

 

 

CWD Interim Final Rule was published on June 8, 2012, establishing a national voluntary CWD herd certification program (HCP) and consistent minimum interstate movement requirements. The rule became effective on August 13, 2012. Enforcement of the interstate movement regulations is delayed until December 10, 2012 to give States time to apply to APHIS to become an Approved State CWD HCP.

 

After reviewing the public comments, the APHIS will issue a final rule, and if needed, incorporate any changes made in response to comments on preemption. Comments received on other topics will be held for future rulemaking.

 

The goal of the CWD Program is to assist States, Tribes, and the cervid industry to prevent and control spread of CWD in farmed and wild cervid populations through establishment of a national CWD HCP and interstate movement requirements.

 

APHIS provides federal oversight of the voluntary national CWD HCP with program activities conducted by the Approved State CWD HCPs. APHIS will serve in an advisory capacity to Approved States for epidemiological investigations on CWD positive findings, development of herd plans, and assist (where possible) with herd inspections and inventories.

 

APHIS will continue to fund confirmatory testing on any presumptive CWD-positive samples from farmed and wild cervids, conducted by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL).

 

 

 

Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing

 

 

 

Through FY2012, CWD surveillance testing was conducted on approximately 22,585 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. This reflects testing that was funded by APHIS through December 2011 and the transition to these laboratory costs paid directly by the cervid owner beginning in January 2012 as a result of CWD program budget reductions in FY2012.

 

 

 

Farmed/captive cervid CWD status

 

 

 

To date, 60 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 13 states: Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Forty were elk herds, 19 were whitetail deer (WTD) herds, and one was the red deer herd. At this time, 15 CWD positive herds remain – seven elk herds in Colorado, three elk herds in Nebraska, three WTD herds in Iowa, one WTD herd in Pennsylvania, and one red deer herd in Minnesota.

 

 

 

On October 11, 2012, Pennsylvania reported a CWD positive three and one-half year old female white-tailed deer (WTD) in a farmed cervid herd in Adams County, Pennsylvania. NVSL conducted the confirmatory CWD testing and this represents the first report of CWD in PA. The index herd is

 

 

 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE

 

 

 

222

 

 

 

under state quarantine, and an epidemiological investigation and trace outs are in progress to identify epidemiologically-linked premises in Pennsylvania and other states.

 

 

 

In July, 2012, Iowa reported a CWD positive six year old male WTD in a hunt facility in Davis County, Iowa that was sourced from a deer breeding farm under the same ownership in Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Trace outs identified several other premises that purchased deer from the index herd. CWD testing of the traced out animals has begun. To date, one CWD positive doe was identified in the source herd that had direct contact with the index animal, and four additional CWD positive deer (including two purchased deer) have been identified on separately owned premises.

 

 

 

In May 2012, Minnesota reported CWD in a two and one-half year old male red deer from a breeding farm in Ramsey County, Minnesota. This represents the first report of CWD in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the United States. During the epidemiological investigation, 56 pen mates (cohorts) were tested and CWD was not detected in any of those animals. No point source of introduction yet has been determined. The herd remains under state imposed quarantine which is allowing for some animals to be transported directly to a slaughter facility. All slaughtered animals have been CWD tested and reported as ‘not detected’.

 

 

 

Wild Cervid surveillance

 

 

 

In FY2011, cooperative agreements were awarded to 46 State wildlife agencies (approximately $4.2 M) and 34 Native American Tribes (approximately $340,000). The Native American Fish and Wildlife Society received approximately $175,000 to support CWD outreach and education activities Cooperative agreement funds were eliminated in FY2012 due to federal budget reductions.

 

 

 

FY2010 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,900 wild cervids in 46 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for FY2011 due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS. To date, approximately 60,890 wild cervids have been tested in fiscal year 2011.

 

 

 

Budget: Commodity Health Line Structure

 

 

 

In FY2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. In the FY2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA were organized into ‘Commodity Health Line’ structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. In FY2012 approximately $1.925 million of ECSR funding was allocated for CWD program activities to provide Federal oversight of the national CWD herd certification program (HCP). The President’s FY2013 budget proposes further funding reductions.

 

 

 

 

 

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) rule: Clifford reported the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) wants an update and the rule will not preempt states.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 13 and 23 Combined – APPROVED

 

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Wildlife Diseases Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock

 

 

SUBJECT MATTER: Funding for Indemnity of Chronic Wasting Disease- Positive or Exposed Animals BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 

 

The Administrator is authorized to pay for the purchase and destruction of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) positive animals, CWD exposed animals, and CWD suspect animals (9 CFR 55.2). Subject to available funding, the amount of the Federal payment for any such animals will be 95 percent of the appraised value established in accordance with 55.3 of this part, but the Federal payment shall not exceed $3,000.00 per animal. In the past, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services has provided funding to pay for the purchase of farmed cervids that tested positive for CWD, were exposed to CWD positive animals, or were suspect animals, in order to mitigate the risk of the spread of CWD to other captive and wild cervids. Federal funding for this purpose is no longer available and farmed cervidae producers are no longer indemnified for the destruction of their animals. Without federal funding for the purchase of destroyed animals, producers will suffer considerable financial damages.

 

 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE

 

 

392

 

 

 

RESOLUTION:

 

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services to provide funding for a federal program to pay indemnity for animals euthanized because of infection or exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease.

 

 

 

*****

 

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 20– APPROVED

 

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock

 

 

SUBJECT MATTER: Chronic Wasting Disease Control

 

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 

 

It has been stated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services that

 

 

(1) the goal of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) program in the United States has now changed from eradication to controlling its spread,

 

 

(2) there is no longer federal funding available to pay for CWD testing or to pay indemnity for CWD infected or exposed animals, and

 

 

(3) depopulation of infected herds will no longer be required or expected.

 

 

With this major change in objectives, it is critical that we change the way we implement the CWD program in the United States. We now need a program that minimizes the risk of spreading CWD in farmed and wild cervidae without putting farmed cervidae producers out of business if their

 

 

 

 

NOMINATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS

 

 

397

 

 

 

herds become CWD infected or exposed. We need a CWD control program that includes plans for how to (1) handle infected or exposed herds, (2) clean up infected herds without depopulation, and (3) provide outlets so producers can continue to sell velvet antler and live animals to slaughter or specified terminal facilities.

 

 

 

 

RESOLUTION:

 

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services and state animal health regulatory officials to develop protocols for the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) control program that mitigate the risk of the spread of CWD and allow producers with CWD infected or exposed herds to continue operations under quarantine and which allow (1) addition of cervidae from CWD certified herds, (2) participation in herd plans such as test and removal, and (3) movement of velvet antler and live animals to slaughter or other approved terminal facilities.

 

 

 

*****

 

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 21 – APPROVED AS AMENDED

 

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock

 

 

SUBJECT MATTER: Funding for Chronic Wasting Disease Testing

 

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 

 

 

The requirements for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) herd certification (9 CFR 55) and for interstate movement of farmed cervidae (9 CFR 81) specify that all farmed cervidae greater than 12 months of age that die or are slaughtered must be tested for CWD.

 

 

 

The CWD testing protocol that is recommended for farmed cervidae is the immunohistochemistry test using formalin fixed samples of brain stem or a retropharyngeal lymph node. The test on either of these tissues is highly sensitive and specific for detecting the presence of CWD prion. The test costs at least $25.00 per slide to perform at United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) approved laboratories. In the past, USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services has provided funding to pay for CWD testing of wild and farmed cervids in the United States. Federal funding for this purpose is no longer available and farmed cervidae producers in most states must pay the entire cost for required CWD tests. Without federal funding for CWD testing, producer compliance with program requirements is likely to decrease. Without producer support, the program to control the spread of CWD in the United States may become less effective.

 

 

 

Funding for CWD testing was requested and approved in United States Animal Health Association 2011 resolution number 14.

 

 

 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE

 

 

398

 

 

RESOLUTION:

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association urges Congress to appropriate federal funding to pay the laboratory costs of testing farmed and wild cervidae for Chronic Wasting Disease.

 

 

 

*****

 

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 23 – Combined with 13

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock

 

 

SUBJECT MATTER: Funding for Indemnity of Chronic Wasting Disease Positive or Exposed Animals

 

 

*****

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 24 – APPROVED

 

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock S UBJECT MATTER: Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 

 

 

It has been stated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) that the goal of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) program in the United States has now changed from eradication to controlling its spread.

 

 

 

The document entitled, "Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards" was published by USDA-APHIS-VS in July 2012. It was developed before the shift of the CWD program from eradication to control and without adequate input from state wildlife and animal health officials or farmed cervidae producers. Sections of the document suggest placing restrictions on farmed cervidae producers that do nothing to further the effort to control the spread of CWD. The restrictions are not based on current scientific knowledge and could undermine the success of CWD control programs that have been in place in many states for more than a decade.

 

 

 

NOMINATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS

 

 

 

399

 

 

 

RESOLUTION:

 

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) to revise the document entitled, "Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards", and establish a Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program Standards Committee to review and rewrite the document within 90 days so that it more appropriately reflects the needs of producers and regulatory officials charged with implementation of a program to control, not eradicate, CWD in the United States.

 

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association suggests that the CWD Program Standards Committee should be made up of representatives from and appointed by each of the following organizations:

 

 

 

(1) the Exotic Wildlife Association,

 

 

 

(2) the North American Elk Breeders Association,

 

 

 

(3) the North American Deer Farmers Association,

 

 

 

(4) the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies,

 

 

 

(5) the National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials, and

 

 

 

(6) the USDA-APHIS-VS.

 

 

 

*****

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 26, 9 and 30 Combined – APPROVED

 

 

 

SOURCE: Committee on Scrapie

 

 

Committee on Import Export Committee on Sheep and Goats SUBJECT MATTER: Export of Sheep and Goats BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 

 

 

Under the National Scrapie Eradication Program the prevalence of scrapie in the United States flock has decreased significantly over the past 10 years. The funding for the Scrapie Flock Certification Program (SFCP) has been reduced and participation by sheep and goat breeders has dramatically decreased. It has become increasingly difficult to find breeding sheep and goats for export shipments that meet importing country protocols that rely on SFCP participation. Additionally, new tools such as genotyping and live-animal testing can be used to identify sheep that are at low risk for

 

 

 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE

 

 

400

 

 

 

scrapie. These approaches may provide an appropriate basis for revised export protocols.

 

 

 

RESOLUTION:

 

 

The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Health and Plant Inspection Services, Veterinary Services to expand their negotiating tools for the export of sheep and goats beyond those that rely on the Scrapie Flock Certification Program participation alone and to encourage other countries to recognize current National Scrapie Eradication Program prevalence and surveillance data along with the use of other tools such as genotyping when appropriate.

 

 

 

*****

 

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) surveillance: Clifford said that if it was up to USDA, surveillance testing would be scaled back. The US has requested negligible risk status, but OIE has been informed the US, that we will not get this status this year.

 

 

 

 

Activities

 

 

 

Magde Elshafie

 

 

 

USDA-APHIS-VS-NCIE

 

 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Comprehensive Rule

 

 

 

The BSE Comprehensive Rule was published March 2012, the comment period closed in June of 2012. It established BSE-related import provisions which are more closely aligned with OIE guidelines including country risk status classifications (Negligible, Controlled, and Undetermined). It also allows flexibility in the BSE risk classification process allowing Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to concur with World Animal Health Organization (OIE) BSE determinations. However, this will not eliminate independent APHIS evaluation of any country or region for BSE status. A country will be considered undetermined risk until such time that APHIS determines it to be Negligible or Controlled Risk. Recognition will be based on the following criteria;

 

 

1) APHIS concurrence with OIE classification, OR

 

 

2) APHIS evaluation, upon request, of countries not classified by the OIE.

 

 

 

The BSE Comprehensive Rule eliminates the need for formal rulemaking for each individual country/region. The importation of bovines and bovine products from BSE minimal-risk regions (Canada) and for boneless beef from Japan would be removed from the Federal Register and incorporated into the final rule. It will allow the importation of additional bovine and bovine products into the United States from all negligible and controlled risk regions using requirements based on OIE guidelines. • Hides/skins and Gelatin/Collagen from hides/skins

 

 

 

• Deboned meat (excluding methlysulfonylmethane (MSM) from cattle ≤30 months of age provided the animals pass ante- and post-mortem inspection, specified risk materials (SRM) are removed, and they were not subjected to an air injected stunning process or pithing

 

 

 

• Protein-free tallow and derivatives made from this tallow • Dicalcium phosphate with no trace of protein or fat

 

 

 

• Blood/blood by-products derived from cattle not subjected to an air injected stunning process or pithing, and collected in a manner that avoids contamination Ruminant meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and greaves from controlled and undetermined risk countries will remain as prohibited materials. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) Rule OIE Code does not address BSE risk for ovines/caprines.

 

 

 

Therefore, a separate rule and risk assessment currently under development that will address import requirements for TSEs and allow importation of sheep and IMPORT-EXPORT

 

 

 

301

 

 

 

goats, their embryos, and their products/by products from countries classified as Negligible or Controlled Risk for BSE under certain conditions.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, August 31, 2012

 

 

COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

 

 

Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, February 04, 2012

 

 

Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, June 13, 2013

 

 

WISCONSIN DEER FARMING Chronic Wasting Disease CWD DATCP

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

 

 

CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

 

 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013

 

 

6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

 

 

PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

> Ag is one of the agencies cooperating in the response plan because it has responsibility for regulating captive deer and deer farms, of which there are estimated to be more 23,000 on 1,100 Pennsylvania properties.

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, November 06, 2012

 

PA Department of Agriculture investigating possible 2nd case of chronic wasting disease

 


 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, November 01, 2012

 

PA GAME COMMISSION TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD Release #128-12

 


 

 

 

 

 

Friday, October 26, 2012

 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS

 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

 

PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free

 


 

 

 

 

 

Monday, October 15, 2012

 

PENNSYLVANIA GAME COMMISSION AND AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD MONITORING EFFORTS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 15, 2012 Release #124-12

 


 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, October 11, 2012

 

Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive

 


 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought

 

Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM

 


 

 

 

 

 

snip...see full history of this with references here ;

 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

 

PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA

 


 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, June 08, 2013

 

The battle against Chronic Wasting Disease continues in Southeast Iowa

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, June 09, 2013

 

Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, June 11, 2012

 

OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, September 28, 2012

 

Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

 

Dr. James C. Kroll Texas deer czar final report on Wisconsin

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, June 01, 2012

 

 

*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS

 

 

snip...

 

 

yep, while the Texas deer czar dr. dough was off to Wisconsin pushing the privately owned shooting pen industry (livestock cervids industry), Texas fell to CWD, and Texas just reported 4 more CWD postives. ...

 

 

for your information...

 

 

According to Wisconsin’s White-Tailed Deer Trustee Dr. James Kroll, people who call for more public hunting opportunities are “pining for socialism.” He further states, “(Public) Game management is the last bastion of communism.”

 

 

“Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.” Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas. The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world.

 

 

Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, March 29, 2012

 

TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK

 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

 

Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas

 


 


 

 

 

 

 

Monday, February 11, 2013

 

TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos

 


 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

 

A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk

 


 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, January 22, 2012

 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, November 09, 2012

 

*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Friday, November 09, 2012

 

*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, November 11, 2012

 

*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

P35

 

ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD

 

Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5

 

The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

PPo3-7:

 

Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent

 

Qingzhong Kong, Shenghai Huang,*Fusong Chen, Michael Payne, Pierluigi Gambetti and Liuting Qing Department of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA *Current address: Nursing Informatics; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; New York, NY USA

 

Key words: CWD, strain, human transmission

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in cervids (deer and elk) in North America where significant human exposure to CWD is likely and zoonotic transmission of CWD is a concern. Current evidence indicates a strong barrier for transmission of the classical CWD strain to humans with the PrP-129MM genotype. A few recent reports suggest the presence of two or more CWD strains. What remain unknown is whether individuals with the PrP-129VV/MV genotypes are also resistant to the classical CWD strain and whether humans are resistant to all natural or adapted cervid prion strains. Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains. Preliminary results on CWD transmission in transgenic mice expressing human PrP-129V will also be discussed.

 

Acknowledgement Supported by NINDS NS052319 and NIA AG14359.

 

 

 

 

 

PPo2-27:

 

Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions

 

Marcelo A. Barria,1 Glenn C. Telling,2 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain disorders; Dept of Neurology; University of Texas Houston Medical School; Houston, TX USA; 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics and Neurology; Sanders Brown Center on Aging; University of Kentucky Medical Center; Lexington, KY USA; 3Institute of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA; 4Dept of Neurology; University of Chicago; Chicago, IL USA

 

Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded and infectious prion (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. CWD is highly contagious and its origin, mechanism of transmission and exact prevalence are currently unclear. The risk of transmission of CWD to humans is unknown. Defining that risk is of utmost importance, considering that people have been infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the infectious form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the pathological conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, this newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc, indicating that it corresponds to a novel human prion strain. Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.

 

 

 

 

 

PPo2-7:

 

Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates

 

Martin L. Daus and Michael Beekes Robert Koch Institute; Berlin, Germany

 

Key words: CWD, strains, FT-IR, AFM

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease. The other two are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. CWD is contagious and affects captive as well as free ranging cervids. As long as there is no definite answer of whether CWD can breach the species barrier to humans precautionary measures especially for the protection of consumers need to be considered. In principle, different strains of CWD may be associated with different risks of transmission to humans. Sophisticated strain differentiation as accomplished for other prion diseases has not yet been established for CWD. However, several different findings indicate that there exists more than one strain of CWD agent in cervids. We have analysed a set of CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and could detect at least two biochemically different forms of disease-associated prion protein PrPTSE. Limited proteolysis with different concentrations of proteinase K and/or after exposure of PrPTSE to different pH-values or concentrations of Guanidinium hydrochloride resulted in distinct isolate-specific digestion patterns. Our CWD isolates were also examined in protein misfolding cyclic amplification studies. This showed different conversion activities for those isolates that had displayed significantly different sensitivities to limited proteolysis by PK in the biochemical experiments described above. We further applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy. This confirmed structural differences in the PrPTSE of at least two disinct CWD isolates. The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

Envt.06:

 

Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates

 

Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1

 

1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada

 

†Presenting author; Email: emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr

 

The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.

 

 

 

 

 

Envt.07:

 

Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease

 

Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany †Presenting author; Email: dausm@rki.de

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, December 14, 2012

 

Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, March 09, 2013

 

Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pens, pens, PENS ???

 

 

 

*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.

 


 

 

 

now, decades later ;

 

 

 

 

2012

 

PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

 

Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA

 

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

2011

 

*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

 

Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.

 

Committee Business:

 

The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:

 

Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids

 

Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement

 

Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

2011 Annual Report

 

 

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit

 

 

2011 Annual Report

 

In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.

 

snip...

 

4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.

 

 

 


 

 

 

White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

 

Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS

 

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.

 

 

see full text ;

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ???

 

 

howmany (?) game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ???

 

 

how many game farms, are too many game farms ?

 

 

when you have states handing out shooting pen permits like candy on halloween, just to advance their coffers, then other states wanting to do the same thing, with most all of them ignoring the science on shooting pens and cwd, what do you expect is going to happen.

 

 

when is enough, enough ?

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011

 

The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.

 

RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.

 

Form 1100-001

 

(R 2/11)

 

NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM

 

SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update

 

FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING

 

TUESDAY

 

TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief

 

 

 

SUMMARY:

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS

 

 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Friday, December 14, 2012

 

 

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

 

 

snip...

 

 

In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.

 

Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:

 

1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and

 

2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

 

Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.

 

The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.

 

Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.

 

There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.

 

 

snip...

 

 

36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.

 

 

snip...

 

 

The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).

 

 

snip...

 

 

In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.

 

 

snip...

 

 

In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.

 

 

snip...

 

 

Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.

 

 

snip...

 

 


 

 

 

SNIP...SEE ;

 

 

 

Friday, December 14, 2012

 

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ???

 

 

 

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011

 

The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.

 

RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.

 

SUMMARY:

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

C. The DNR will begin timber removal from outside the fence this winter. Timber removal from inside the fence has begun with hazardous trees removed. The construction of a second fence 10 – 12 feet outside the present fence will begin in the spring. This will add an additional level of security for keeping wild deer from entering the farm and maintain the integrity of the perimeter (see attachment).

 

 

 

 

D. The DNR plans to use the Almond Farm as a CWD research facility. Because the question of how long a contaminated site is a risk to deer is of national and international interest, there may be opportunities for research and funding at this facility. One way to potentially assess whether there is a risk to deer from the Almond Farm is to conduct bioassays focusing on prions persisting in soil and what role environmental contamination plays in disease transmission. A proposal is pending from the University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point that concerns prion degradation via composting. The group is seeking additional funding from the University of Wisconsin – Madison and representatives in Canada. USGS is also contemplating a proposal contingent on funding from their pending federal budget. Any proposed research that includes bringing captive cervids onto the property will be thoroughly reviewed by the CWD Research Committee consisting of the Wildlife Health Team, the Wildlife Policy Team, and Department administration as well as external CWD experts prior to permission being granted to ensure that the health of the wild deer herd will not be endangered. The double fencing described above will be critical to minimize the risk of ingress of free-ranging and egress of any experimental captive cervids. E. The house is rented and currently occupied by a Northeast district wildlife employee. The Lessee agrees to perform weekly fence inspections to insure that the fence integrity has not been compromised. The Lessee also pays for all utilities, and will provide lawn care, snow removal, gutter cleaning, and other miscellaneous maintenance as needed. In exchange for these services the monthly rental fee has been waived. It is agreed that the Lessor and the Lessee shall review said waiver of the monthly rental charge at the end of every twelve months that this lease is in effect (see attachment).

 

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

 

Despite the five year premise plan and site decontamination, The WI DNR has concerns over the bioavailability of infectious prions at this site to wild white-tail deer should these fences be removed. Current research indicates that prions can persist in soil for a minimum of 3 years. However, Georgsson et al. (2006) concluded that prions that produced scrapie disease in sheep remained bioavailable and infectious for at least 16 years in natural Icelandic environments, most likely in contaminated soil. Additionally, the authors reported that from 1978-2004, scrapie recurred on 33 sheep farms, of which 9 recurrences occurred 14-21 years after initial culling and subsequent restocking efforts; these findings further emphasize the effect of environmental contamination on sustaining TSE infectivity and that long-term persistence of prions in soils may be substantially greater than previously thought. Evidence of environmental transmission also was documented in a Colorado research facility where mule deer became infected with CWD in two of three paddocks where infected deer carcasses had decomposed on site 1.8 years earlier, and in one of three paddocks where infected deer had last resided 2.2 years earlier (Miller et al. 2004).

 

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

 

Environmental contamination has been identified as a possible cause of recurrence of CWD-infection on elk farms in Canada, when elk were reintroduced one year after depopulation, clean up and disinfection. To date, 8 CWD infected farms remain under CFIA (government of Canada) quarantine indefinitely and will not be allowed to repopulate with cervids until there is additional research on detection of prions in soils and better understanding of the duration of persistence of disease-causing prion post depopulation of CWD-infected cervid farms (Douglas, CFIA, pers. comm.).

 

 

 

Furthermore, the likely transmission of CWD via soil is corroborated by recent studies showing long-term persistence of prions in soil, that prion binds to soil components with high affinity and is not easily removed by water, and that oral prion disease transmission may be enhanced when bound to soil (Johnson et al. 2006, Schramm et al. 2006, Johnson et al. 2007). These findings suggest that soil may harbor more TSE infectivity and contribute more significantly to TSE transmission than previously recognized. These studies highlight the concerns about the risk of transmission via environmental contamination beyond five years and that efforts should be made to prevent freeranging deer from coming into contact with these contaminated facilities.

 

 

 

SNIP...

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

OBJECTIVE FOR PROPERTY

 

Maintain the Perimeter Deer Fence

 

 

 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

 

Wisconsin Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, January 16, 2012

 

9 GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

 

Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 05, 2012

 

Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session

 


 

 

 

 

 

Friday, August 31, 2012

 

 

COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, June 17, 2013

 

Early detection of chronic wasting disease prions in urine of pre-symptomatic deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

 

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay

 

Research Article

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN

 

 

Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010

 

 


 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 05, 2012

 

Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session

 

 


 

 

 

 

Friday, August 31, 2012

 

COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review

 

 


 

 

 

 

Friday, August 24, 2012

 

Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America

 

The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Tuesday, April 09, 2013

 

EFFICACY OF ANTEMORTEM RECTAL BIOPSIES TO DIAGNOSE AND ESTIMATE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN FREE-RANGING COW ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI)

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Monday, March 18, 2013

 

PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION September 29 – October 5, 2011

 

see updated 2012 RESOLUTIONS

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.

 

 

you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat.

 

 

you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.

 

 

Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.

 

 

the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.

 

 

IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.

 

 

you can bury it and it will not go away.

 

 

The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.

 

 

it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.

 

 

 

New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication

 

The infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) are notoriously resistant to most physical and chemical methods used for inactivating pathogens, including heat. It has long been recognized, for example, that boiling is ineffective and that higher temperatures are most efficient when combined with steam under pressure (i.e., autoclaving). As a means of decontamination, dry heat is used only at the extremely high temperatures achieved during incineration, usually in excess of 600°C. It has been assumed, without proof, that incineration totally inactivates the agents of TSE, whether of human or animal origin.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production

 

Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

 

The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.

 

 


 

 

 

 

A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing

 

 

Keywords:Abattoir;bovine spongiform encephalopathy;QRA;scrapie;TSE

 

In this article the development and parameterization of a quantitative assessment is described that estimates the amount of TSE infectivity that is present in a whole animal carcass (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE] for cattle and classical/atypical scrapie for sheep and lambs) and the amounts that subsequently fall to the floor during processing at facilities that handle specified risk material (SRM). BSE in cattle was found to contain the most oral doses, with a mean of 9864 BO ID50s (310, 38840) in a whole carcass compared to a mean of 1851 OO ID50s (600, 4070) and 614 OO ID50s (155, 1509) for a sheep infected with classical and atypical scrapie, respectively. Lambs contained the least infectivity with a mean of 251 OO ID50s (83, 548) for classical scrapie and 1 OO ID50s (0.2, 2) for atypical scrapie. The highest amounts of infectivity falling to the floor and entering the drains from slaughtering a whole carcass at SRM facilities were found to be from cattle infected with BSE at rendering and large incineration facilities with 7.4 BO ID50s (0.1, 29), intermediate plants and small incinerators with a mean of 4.5 BO ID50s (0.1, 18), and collection centers, 3.6 BO ID50s (0.1, 14). The lowest amounts entering drains are from lambs infected with classical and atypical scrapie at intermediate plants and atypical scrapie at collection centers with a mean of 3 × 10−7 OO ID50s (2 × 10−8, 1 × 10−6) per carcass. The results of this model provide key inputs for the model in the companion paper published here.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, December 15, 2012

 

*** Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle -- an update 5 December 2012

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, June 6, 2013

 

BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

 

*** INTERPRETING RESULTS OF FSIS VERIFICATION SAMPLING OF DOMESTIC BEEF PRODUCT DERIVED FROM ADVANCED MEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS (AMR01/FAMR01) FSIS Notice 38-12

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, April 18, 2010

 

SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, April 25, 2011

 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

 

Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, December 12, 2010

 

 

 

EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, April 18, 2010

 

 

 

SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, December 23, 2010

 

 

 

Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009

 

 

 

Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, November 18, 2010

 

 

 

Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, April 25, 2011

 

 

 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

 

 

 

Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, February 11, 2011

 

 

 

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, March 29, 2012

 

 

 

atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012

 

 

 

NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, April 4, 2012

 

 

 

20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michigan and California have had a high spike in Goat Scrapie cases, compared to elsewhere ???

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, February 01, 2011

 

 

 

Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie

 

 

 

(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, February 23, 2012

 

 

 

Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH

 

 

 

Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011

 

 

 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

 

 

 

Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos

 

 

 

To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.

 

 

 

SNIP...

 

 

 

Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.

 

 

 

How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.

 

 

 

Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

 

 

 

 

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

R. BRADLEY

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

 

 

 

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

 

 

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

 

 

 

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

 

 

PMID: 6997404

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

 

 

 

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

 

 

 

snip...

 

 

 

76/10.12/4.6

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

 

 

 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

 

 

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

 

 

 

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

 

 

 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

 

 

 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

 

 

 

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

 

 

 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*** I strenuously urge the USDA and the OIE et al to revoke the exemption of the legal global trading of atypical Nor-98 scrapie TSE. ...TSS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, May 2, 2009

 

APHIS AND WHO PLAN TO EXEMPT THE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 FROM REGULATIONS AT MEETING THIS MONTH

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, November 30, 2009

 

USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, December 20, 2012

 

OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severely would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man.

 

 

 

*** I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough.

 

 

 

Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

 

 

IN CONFIDENCE SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES IN CONFIDENCE

 

 

reference...

 

RB3.20 TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES

 

 

1. Kuru and CJD have been successfully transmitted to chimpanzees but scrapie and TME have not.

 

2. We cannot say that scrapie will not transmit to chimpanzees. There are several scrapie strains and I am not aware that all have been tried (that would have to be from mouse passaged material). Nor has a wide enough range of field isolates subsequently strain typed in mice been inoculated by the appropriate routes (i/c, ilp and i/v) :

 

3. I believe the proposed experiment to determine transmissibility, if conducted, would only show the susceptibility or resistance of the chimpanzee to infection/disease by the routes used and the result could not be interpreted for the predictability of the susceptibility for man. Proposals for prolonged oral exposure of chimpanzees to milk from cattle were suggested a long while ago and rejected.

 

4. In view of Dr Gibbs' probable use of chimpazees Mr Wells' comments (enclosed) are pertinent. I have yet to receive a direct communication from Dr Schellekers but before any collaboration or provision of material we should identify the Gibbs' proposals and objectives.

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severely would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

6. A negative result would take a lifetime to determine but that would be a shorter period than might be available for human exposure and it would still not answer the question regarding mans' susceptibility. In the meantime no doubt the negativity would be used defensively. It would however be counterproductive if the experiment finally became positive. We may learn more about public reactions following next Monday' s meeting.

 

R. Bradley 23 September 1990 CVO (+Mr Wells' comments) Dr T W A Little Dr B J Shreeve 90/9.23/1.1.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

see more here ;

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, June 6, 2013

 

 

 


BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013

 

 

 

Greetings,

 

 

since our fine federal friends have decided not to give out any more reports on the USA breaches of the feed ban and surveillance etc. for the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease in the USDA livestock, I thought I might attempt it. I swear, I just don’t understand the logic of the SSS policy, and that includes all of it. I assure you, it would be much easier, and probably better for the FDA and the USDA INC., if they would simply put some kind of report out for Pete’s sake, instead of me doing it after I get mad, because I am going to put it all out there. the truth.

 

 

PLEASE BE ADVISED, any breach of any of the above classifications OAI, VAI, RTS, CAN lead to breaches into the feed BSE TSE prion protocols, and CAN lead to the eventual suspect tainted feed reaching livestock. please, if any USDA official out there disputes this, please explain then how they could not. paperwork errors can eventually lead to breaches of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban reaching livestock, or contamination and exposure there from, as well.

 

 

I would sure like to see the full reports of just these ;

 

 

 

4018 CHI-DO 3007091297 Rancho Cantera 2866 N Sunnyside Rd Kent IL 61044-9605 OPR FR, OF HP 11/26/2012 OAI Y

 

 

9367 3008575486 Rocky Ford Pet Foods 21693 Highway 50 East Rocky Ford CO 81067 OPR RE, TH HP 2/27/2013 OAI N

 

 

9446 DEN-DO 1713202 Weld County Bi Products, Inc. 1138 N 11th Ave Greeley CO 80631-9501 OPR RE, TH HP 10/12/2012 OAI N

 

 

9447 DEN-DO 3002857110 Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 13553 County Road 19 Fort Morgan CO 80701-7506 OPR RE HP 12/7/2011 OAI N

 

 

 

 

see full list of the fda mad cow bse feed follies, toward the bottom, after a short brief update on the mad cow bse follies, and our good friend Lester Crawford that was at the FDA.

 

 

ALSO, I would kindly like to comment on this FDA BSE/Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)4 format, for reporting these breaches of BSE TSE prion protocols, from the extensive mad cow feed ban warning letters the fda use to put out for each violations. simply put, this excel format sucks, and the FDA et al intentionally made it this difficult to follow the usda fda mad cow follies. this is an intentional format to make it as difficult as possible to follow these breaches of the mad cow TSE prion safety feed protocols. to have absolutely no chronological or numerical order, and to format such violations in a way that they are almost impossible to find, says a lot about just how far the FDA and our fine federal friends will go through to hide these continued violations of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban, and any breaches of protocols there from. once again, the wolf guarding the henhouse $$$

 

 

 

NAI = NO ACTION INDICATED

 

OAI = OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED

 

VAI = VOLUNTARY ACTION INDICATED

 

RTS = REFERRED TO STATE

 

 

 

Inspections conducted by State and FDA investigators are classified to reflect the compliance status at the time of the inspection, based upon whether objectionable conditions were documented. Based on the conditions found, inspection results are recorded in one of three classifications:

 

OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions.

 

VAI (Voluntary Action Indicated) when inspectors find objectionable conditions or practices that do not meet the threshold of regulatory significance, but warrant an advisory to inform the establishment that inspectors found conditions or practices that should be voluntarily corrected. VAI violations are typically technical violations of the 1997 BSE Feed Rule. These violations include minor recordkeeping lapses or conditions involving non-ruminant feeds.

 

NAI (No Action Indicated) when inspectors find no objectionable conditions or practices or, if they find objectionable conditions, those conditions are of a minor nature and do not justify further actions.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

when sound science was bought off by junk science, in regards to the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease, by the USDA, CFIA, WHO, OIE, et al. $$$

 

 

when the infamous, and fraudulently USDA, FSIS, APHIS, FDA, gold card was taken away that infamous day in December of 2003, all cards were off the table, it was time to change the science, and change they did. ...tss

 

 

 

snip. ...please see full text ;

 

 

 

 

Thursday, June 6, 2013

 

 



BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

 

 

Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 6/1/12 significant deviations from requirements in FDA regulations that are intended to reduce the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) within the United States

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, February 14, 2013

 

 

*** The Many Faces of Mad Cow Disease Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE and TSE prion disease

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, June 13, 2013

 

 

Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007

 

 

 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST

 

 

 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II

 

 

 

___________________________________

 

 

 

PRODUCT

 

 

 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007

 

CODE

 

Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.

 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

 

 

REASON

 

Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

 

 

42,090 lbs.

 

 

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

 

 

WI

 

 

 

___________________________________

 

 

 

PRODUCT

 

 

 

Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007

 

CODE

 

The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

 

 

REASON

 

Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

 

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

 

 

9,997,976 lbs.

 

 

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

 

 

ID and NV

 

 

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, March 19, 2009

 

MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF POUNDS OF MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA WITH ONGOING 12 YEARS OF DENIAL

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, September 4, 2009

 

FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

and all this was confirmed here ;

 

 

 

 

 

 

C O N F I R M E D

 

 

 

----- Original Message -----

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

 

To:

 

Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 9:25 PM

 

 

Subject: [BSE-L] re-FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009 and Recall # V-256-2009

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, November 12, 2009

 

BSE FEED RECALL Misbranding of product by partial label removal to hide original source of materials 2009

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

 

Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed/Adulterated/Misbranded Rangen Inc 2/11/10 USA

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, March 1, 2010

 

ANIMAL PROTEIN I.E. MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE A REVIEW 2010

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, April 5, 2010

 

Update on Feed Enforcement Activities to Limit the Spread of BSE April 5, 2010

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, July 23, 2011

 

CATTLE HEADS WITH TONSILS, BEEF TONGUES, SPINAL CORD, SPECIFIED RISK MATERIALS (SRM's) AND PRIONS, AKA MAD COW DISEASE

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, November 6, 2010

 

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS

 

INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 2010 (11)

 

PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11)

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

the new BSE TSE PRION MAD COW risk category the OIE gave the USA, puts everyone around the globe at more risk of a tse prion mad cow type disease now.

 

 

 

in my opinion, this new risk category was bought and paid for by your local cattle dealer, via fraud.

 

 

 

IT is of my opinion, that the OIE and the USDA et al, are the soul reason, and responsible parties, for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion diseases, including typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and all strains of CWD, and human TSE there from, spreading around the globe.

 

 

 

I have lost all confidence of this organization as a regulatory authority on animal disease, and consider it nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE, just to satisfy there commodity. AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization.

 

 

 

JUST because of low documented human body count with nvCJD and the long incubation periods, the lack of sound science being replaced by political and corporate science in relations with the fact that science has now linked some sporadic CJD with atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, and the very real threat of CWD being zoonosis, I believed the O.I.E. has failed terribly and again, I call for this organization to be dissolved. ...

 

 

 

 

 

 

IN A NUT SHELL ;

 

 

(Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 23 May 2006)

 

 

11. Information published by the OIE is derived from appropriate declarations made by the official Veterinary Services of Member Countries. The OIE is not responsible for inaccurate publication of country disease status based on inaccurate information or changes in epidemiological status or other significant events that were not promptly reported to the Central Bureau,

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

USDA INC

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, May 30, 2013

 

 

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has upgraded the United States' risk classification for mad cow disease to "negligible" from "controlled", and risk further exposing the globe to the TSE prion mad cow type disease

 

 

U.S. gets top mad-cow rating from international group and risk further exposing the globe to the TSE prion mad cow type disease

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

sporadic CJD has now been linked to atypical BSE, atypical Scrapie, and don’t count CWD, typical scrapie, or typical BSE (Collinge et al) out just yet. ...

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, October 10, 2011

 

 

EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story

 

 

snip...

 

 

EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011).

 

 

 

*** This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded.

 

 

 

Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.

 

 

snip...

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, August 12, 2010

 

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

 

First threat

 

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.

 

 

***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

 

 

Second threat

 

 

snip...

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee

 

The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government's decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010

 

2.65 At its hearing on 14 May 2010, the committee heard evidence from Dr Alan Fahey who has recently submitted a thesis on the clinical neuropsychiatric, epidemiological and diagnostic features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.48 Dr Fahey told the committee of his concerns regarding the lengthy incubation period for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the inadequacy of current tests and the limited nature of our current understanding of this group of diseases.49

 

2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. *** Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo-has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

 

 

Atypical BSE in Cattle

 

 

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE.

 

 

When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

 

 

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

add all the above up, and then ponder iatrogenic CJD there from $$$

 

 

 

 

 

Greetings Dr. Paul Van Buynder et al @ FraserHealth,

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Sadly, in the year 2013, we are still going by science that is 3 decades old, to manage risk factors from the many different strains of the TSE prion disease.

 

 

Dr. Paul Van Buynder et al state ;

 

 

 

> I want to be clear there is absolutely no evidence that these three confirmed or probable cases are linked to food consumption.

 

 

 

when in reality, you have no clue Sir.

 

sporadic CJD is not a single strain of the TSE prion sporadic phenotypes (there are many, and they are mounting).

 

sporadic CJD has now been linked to atypical BSE, and atypical Scrapie, and many reputable scientist around the globe are especially concerned with the CWD of cervids, and it’s different strains, which we now know there are more strains.

 

the UKBSEnvCJD only theory is a false myth, and proven to be so.

 

also, all iatrogenic CJD is, is sporadic CJD until route and source of the TSE agent is confirmed.

 

what fuels this madness, and the spread of this disease, are Doctors and officials that continue to spread this junk science.

 

you are part of the problem, in my opinion, and I mean no disrespect Sir.

 

if I still sound angry, I am, 15+ years later.

 

I have wasted 15 years daily following the science as it emerges with the TSE prion disease, and documenting it. I hope you take the time to read some of it.

 

no need to reply, most never do, but I urge you to educate yourself on this topic of the TSE prion disease, and cease spreading the false science that continues to fuel the spread of this TSE prion disease. ...

 

 

 

thank you, kind regards,

 

terry

 

 

 

 

Saturday, June 15, 2013

 

 

Canada Fraser Health Statement on Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outbreak

 

 


 

 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

TSS

 

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