Friday, January 10, 2014

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???

Greetings Friends, Neighbors, and Colleagues,

 

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???

 

Confucius is confused again.

 

I was just sitting and thinking about why there is no genetic link to some of these TSE prion sGSS, sFFi, and it’s really been working on my brain, and then it hit me today.

 

what if, vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE prion disease, was a by-product from iatrogenic gss, ffi, familial type prion disease ???

 

it could explain the cases of no genetic link to the gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, to the family.

 

sporadic and familial is a red herring, in my opinion, and underestimation is spot on, due to the crude prehistoric diagnostic procedures and criteria and definition of a prion disease.

 

I say again, what if, iatrogenic, what if, with all these neurological disorders, with a common denominator that is increasingly showing up in the picture, called the prion.

 

I urge all scientist to come together here, with this as the utmost of importance about all these neurological disease that are increasingly showing up as a prion mechanism, to put on the front burners, the IATROGENIC aspect and the potential of transmission there from, with diseases/disease??? in question.

 

by definition, could they be a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion type disease, and if so, what are the iatrogenic chances of transmission?

 

this is very important, and should be at the forefront of research, and if proven, could be a monumental breakthrough in science and battle against the spreading of these disease/diseases.

 

the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health pub-med site, a quick search of the word SPORADIC will give you a hit of 40,747. of those, there are a plethora of disease listed under sporadic. sporadic simply means (UNKNOWN).

 


 

 

the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health pub-med site, a quick search of the word FAMILIAL will give you a hit of 921,815. of those, there are a plethora of disease listed under familial.

 


 

 

again, sporadic and familial is a red herring, in my opinion.

 

also, in my opinion, when you start have disease such as sporadic Fatal Familial Insomnia, (and or sporadic GSS, or the VPSPr type prion disease), and there is NO familial genetic linkage to the family of the diseased, I have serious questions there as to a familial type disease, and thus, being defined as such.



*UPDATE*
 
NOVEMBER 16, 2014
 
vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ??? Friday, January 10, 2014

 

Greetings again Friends, Neighbors, and Colleagues,

 

I would kindly like to follow up on ‘vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???’ ran across an old paper from 1984, that some might find interest in, and I will update the link with this old science paper from 1984, a 2010 paper from Japan, and some information on scrapie transmission. The paper from Japan first, then the 1984 paper, and then the scrapie transmission studies.

 

***The occurrence of contact cases raises the possibility that transmission in families may be effected by an unusually virulent strain of the agent.

 

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Sent: Saturday, November 15, 2014 9:29 PM

To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Subject: THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE R. G. WILL 1984

 

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE

 

R. G. WILL

 

1984

 

snip...

 

D. Occupation

 

The possibility of case-to-case transmission of C.J.D. has led to anxiety among hospital personnel and laboratory staff regarding the possible risks of transmission by direct contact with patients suffering from the condition (Mayer, 1979). During the prospective study reluctance to perform post mortem or carry out electrophysiological studies was regularly encountered. In the past, epidemiological evidence has consistently failed to reveal any increased risk related to particular professions (Bobowick et al., 1973; Matthews, 1975a; Brown et al., 1979b; Galvez et al., 1980; Kondo and Kuroiwa, 1982) and, with the exception of the review by Masters et al. (1979a), no increased risk to medical or paramedical personnel. In the latter study 18 out of 308 cases were described as health professionals, although as Brown (1980) has pointed out, this may have been due to case selection. One neurosurgeon has been reported to have died of pathologically confirmed C.J.D. (Schoene et al., 1981), but although he had contact with a case of C.J.D. seven years prior to death, no operative procedure was carried out.

 

In the retrospective section of this study no occupational bias was discovered, there was no over-representation of health care personnel and only one patient, a nurse, was likely to have had direct contact with patients. In the prospective study, in which details of occupation throughout life were obtained, there was again no occupational bias. Possible contact between a dentist dying of confirmed C.J.D. and other patients is discussed below, but the putative transmission in these cases would have required direct implantation of the agent during dental procedures.

 

On the basis of the evidence from this and previous epidemiological studies, there appears to be no increased risk of transmission by direct contact with patients. Bodily secretions and excreta do not contain the agent (Masters et al., 1980) and although viraemia has been described in experimental transmission in guinea pigs (Manuelidis et al., 1978b, Gajdusek et al. (1978) suggest that human blood, if ever infective, must contain a very low titre of the agent. Despite a large number of transmission experiments no staff at Bethesda have ever contracted the condition (Gajdusek et al., 1978). Prior to the discovery that C.J.D. was trans- missible no special precautions were taken during post mortem and indeed the pathology technician in Dr. Nevin's cases has described eating food off the post mortem table immediately after necropsy of one of these patients. Despite the lack of precautions in the past no pathology technicians are known to have developed C.J.D.

 

In conclusion, sensible precautions as advised by both Gajdusek et al. (1977) and the Advisory Group on the Management of Patients with Spongiform Encephalopathy (1981) are sufficient. Patients do not require barrier nursing, blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens should be treated in the same way as other 'high risk' specimens, and more stringent precautions should be observed at post mortem. The risk of case-to-case transmission at neurosurgery is established (as discussed below) and all instruments should be discarded after use.

 

E. Past Medical History

 

An increased incidence of surgical procedures and neurological and psychiatric illness in C.J.D. has been described by Masters et ale (1979a). Cases in this series were ascertained from a variety of sources, including direct referral and a review of the literature and selection bias cannot be excluded. It is also uncertain whether such an incidence of past medical or surgical illness differs from the incidence in this age group in the general population. Other retrospective epidemiological studies of C.J.D. (Bobowick et al. t 1973; Matthews, 1975a; Brown et al., 1979b; Kondo and Kuroiwa, 1982) have failed to show an increased incidence of past medical or surgical illness and combining the results of the Chilean (Galvez et al., 1980) and Hungarian (Majtenyi, 1978) studies only four patients out of a total of 67 had a significant past surgical history. In the study in France (Brown et al., 1979b) 8% of patients had some form of surgical procedure in the five years prior to developing C.J.D., but the rationale for limiting enquiry to the preceding five years is unclear in view of the possible incubation period in C.J.D. of over four decades (Masters et al., 1981a). In the retrospective survey in this study, which was without temporal limits, 28% of patients had a past history of some form of major surgery. Without a comparison with the incidence of major surgery in a matched population the significance of this figure is uncertain, and it is of note that in 40 patients no past illness was described.

 

In the prospective study a more detailed medical history was obtained and there was no specific factor in the past medical history common to all patients. As with other proposed risk factors, only a properly conducted case control study can assess the significance of putative risk factors discovered in descriptive epidemiological surveys.

 

The transmission of C.J.D. by corneal transplantation has been established (Duffy et al., 1974) and it is disturbing that in one case in this series corneas were removed for transplantation from a patient dying of C.J.D. and in a further case potentially contaminated corneal transplants had to be removed when the risks were realised. The recommendation that corneas must not be taken for transplantation from demented patients, from patients dying in psychiatric hospitals, nor from patients dying of undiagnosed neurological disease (Advisory Group on the Management of Patients with Spongiform Encephalopathy, 1981) should be reinforced.

 

F. Familial Associations

 

The overall familial incidence of 6% in the retrospective section of this study contrasts with the estimated familial incidence of 15% in a review of the world wide epidemiology of C.J.D. (Masters et al., 1979a). In individual series higher figures are quoted with, for example, a familial incidence of 47% in Chile (Galvez et al., 1980) and 35% in Libyan born Israelis (Neugut et al., 1979). In a comprehensive retrospective survey of C.J.D. in France (Brown et al., 1979b), however, a 9% familial incidence was discovered, a figure comparable with this series. The low familial incidence may reflect either the difficulties of retrospectively obtaining an accurate family history or an artificially high familial incidence in relatively selected series due to extensive investigation of individual families.

 

The paradox of an apparently dominantly inherited condition (Masters et al., 1981a) which is yet transmissible is unresolved. Detailed investigation of individual families suggests that, if case to case transmission occurs, the incubation period must extend to decades (Masters et al., 1981a). Although this is compatible with the suspected incubation period of kuru (Gajdusek, 1979), the tendency for siblings to die at the same age rather than the same time (Masters et al., 1981a) supports the presence of a genetic influence. ***The discovery of a discordant identical twin pair in the present study suggests that even if there is an inherited susceptibility an environmental factor is necessary for the development of the condition. It further suggests that genetic integration of the agent is unlikely, in accordance with experimental evidence in which nuclear fractions are non-infectious (Millson et al., 1971) and vertical trans- mission has not been found in the laboratory (Amyx et al., 1981).

 

An unexpected but interesting finding in the context of familial associations is the group of nine patients with a first degree relative dying of a different 'degenerative' neurological condition. The extraordinary family with apparently dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease and carcinoma of the colon is under investigation at another centre.

 

In other systematic studies of the epidemiology of C.J.D. an association with other neurological conditions has not been described but Masters (1981a) has reported four cases of C.J.D. occurring within four pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. Adam et ale (1982) have described a family with a dominantly inherited neurological disorder sharing features of cerebral amyloidosis, spongiform encephalopathy and Alzheimer's disease. ***The relationship of C.J.D. to other degenerative neurological disorders may be a fruitful avenue of further epidemiological research.

 

CASE CONTROL STUDY

 

The objective of the case control study was to obtain quantitative data on putative risk factors and to identify potential common exposure to an environmental source of infection. The difficulties of such a study have been described by Bobowick et al. (1973) and Kondo and Kuroiwa (1982) in the only previous case control studies of C.J.D. In a rare condition such as C.J.D. it is difficult to obtain sufficient patient numbers to achieve statistically valid results. In this study 22 patients were included in the first 18 months, a number sufficient to exclude any ubiquitous risk factor but inadequate to distinguish relative risk. The case control study has, however, continued beyond the time limits of this analysis and to date over a hundred patients have been included.

 

The necessity of obtaining information at second hand introduces a potential source of error in the study of C.J.D. In this study the level of co-operation and detail of information was clearly enhanced by interviewing relatives prospectively and for this reason cases ascertained after death were not included in the prospective study. The checking of information given by relatives of control cases with the patients themselves suggested that the quality of information given at second hand was remarkably accurate.

 

The selection of controls is critical to the potential significance of a case control study. In this study age- and sex-matched controls were obtained from concurrent inpatients. Although in some cases the discovery of a suitable control proved both difficult and time-consuming, and in a few cases impossible, it was felt essential to persevere with the stated protocol in order to avoid the introduction of bias. Both previous case control studies were carried out retro- spectively and used 'healthy' and potentially over-matched controls.

 

Despite the differences between previous studies and the present case control study, the results were, almost without exception, both concordant and negative. No difference between patients and controls was discovered in past surgical or medical history, occupational history, educational history, eating habits or exposure to animals. Kondo and Kuroiwa (1982) discovered a correlation between physical injuries and the development of C.J.D. but could not exclude a methodological bias. No such correlation was discovered in this study and the subject was not examined in the study by Bobowick et ale (1973).

 

In the latter study the consumption of hog brains by patients was stressed but did not differ from the control group and in both this study and the study in Japan (Kondo and Kuroiwa, 1982) no dietary factory was related to increased risk of developing C.J.D.

 

***The successful oral transmission of C.J.D. and scrapie to primates (Gibbs et al., 1980) and the close resemblance between the properties of the transmissible agent in the two conditions (Gibbs and Gajdusek, 1976) has raised the possibility that the human disease is contracted from sheep. No direct evidence is available and the concept is based on inference and interesting but unconvincing anecdotes

 

(Alter et al., 1971; Lo Russo et al., 1980; Kamin and Patten, 1984). The patient discovered in this study who had never been known to eat meat suggests that eating scrapie infected meat cannot be the only source of C.J.D. in man. C.J.D. occurs in countries in which natural scrapie has not been observed (Galvez et al., 1980; Kondo and Kuroiwa, 1982) and no relationship was discovered in France (Chatelain et al., 1981) between the geographic distribution of scrapie and the incidence of C.J.D. A similar investigation could not be carried out in England and Wales as notification of scrapie to the Ministry of Agriculture is inconsistent and sheep farmers often destroy affected animals without seeking veterinary advice for fear of financial loss.

 

A detailed residential history was obtained in cases and controls. Although over-representation of cases was discovered in certain areas, similar but distinct areas of previous residence common to an apparent excess of controls was discovered. If C.J.D. does have a prolonged incubation period extending to decades the detailed study of residential history may, however, establish potential contact between individual cases which would be otherwise undetectable. The detailed study of individual cases in the prospective study has revealed the possibility of tenuous but extraordinarily coincidental contact between patients.

 

This may only be a reflection of intensive investigation, but if C.J.D. is transmitted by relatively minor surgical or dental procedures many years prior to death it is only by the systematic study of individual cases that potential cross-contamination may be discovered.

 

EVIDENCE FOR CASE-TO-CASE TRANSMISSION OF C.J.D.

 

The possible iatrogenic transmission of C.J.D. by neurosurgery, corneal transplantation and stereotactic electrodes has been suggested in the past (Duffy et al., 1974: Bernouilli et al., 1977; Masters et al., 1979a). In this series the close temporal relationship of neurosurgical procedures on two affected patients and three patients, unaffected at the time but who subsequently developed the disease is described. This provides strong circumstantial evidence of iatrogenic transmission by neurosurgery. Although sterilisation procedures have improved since the cases described, the unusual resistance of the agent and the recent description of probable neurosurgical transmission in France (Foncin et al., 1980) suggests that there is a continued risk of accidental transmission. However, brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of C.J.D. is now an unusual event and computed tomography has obviated the need for ventriculography.

 

The depth electrodes putatively responsible for one case of iatrogenic transmission in this series were inadequately sterilised in formalin and were subsequently used in over 200 patients. The neurosurgical instruments used in the cases of presumed neurosurgical transmission were sterilised using autoclaving procedures which were inadequate according to current advice (Gajdusek et al., 1978). However, despite detailed investigation, no cases other than those described above are known to have developed C.J.D. Thus, despite the possible implantation of the agent directly into the central nervous system, a large number of patients failed to develop the disease. This provides circumstantial evidence of an inherited susceptibility to the agent and suggests that cases of iatrogenic transmission may have occurred due to the unfortunate temporal proximity of susceptible individuals exposed to the agent.

 

In the close geographic group of three cases possible nodes of transmission can be suggested, either iatrogenic or through dental procedures, but these must remain conjectural. It is known, however, that the similar scrapie agent can be transmitted from the gums of animals (Adams and Edgar, 1978). Such close spatial clustering of cases is extremely unusual, being previously reported in England (Matthews, 1975a), Czechoslovakia (Mayer et al., 1977) and Hungary (Majtenyi, 1978), but not detected in the study of the epidemiology of C.J.D. in urban Paris (Cathala et al., 1978) where the incidence was found to be relatively high.

 

The occurrence of the disease in a patient who had contact with cases of familial C.J.D., but was not genetically related, has been described in Chile (Galvez et al., 1980) and in France (Brown et al., 1979b). In Chile the patient was related by marriage, but with no consanguinity, and had social contact with subsequently affected family members for 13 years before developing the disease. The contact case in France also married into a family in which C.J.D. was prevalent and had close contact with an affected member. In neither instance did the spouse of the non-familial case have the disease. The case described in this report was similarly related to affected family members and social contact had occurred for 20 years prior to developing C.J.D. If contact transmission had occurred, the minimum transmission period would be 11 years. Contact between sporadic cases has not been described and it is remarkable that possible contact transmissions have all been with familial cases. No method of transmission by casual social contact has been suggested.

 

***The occurrence of contact cases raises the possibility that transmission in families may be effected by an unusually virulent strain of the agent.

 

snip...see full text here;

 


 

========================================

 

Abstract

 

Prion disease

 

Hidehiro Mizusawa, M.D., Ph.D.

 

Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

 

Human prion diseases are classified into 3 categories according to etiologies: idiopathic of unknown cause, ac- quired of infectious origin, and genetic by PRNP mutation. The surveillance committee have analyzed 2,494 cases and identified 1,402 as prion diseases. Most of them are idiopathic, namely sporadic CJD (77%) with less genetic and acquired prion diseases (17% and 5%, respectively). The number of patients identified by the surveillance committee in these years is about 120 which are less than the number of annual death of prion disease. The differ- ence might be due to partly the fact our surveillance need the consent from patients' family and is not complete. The mean age at onset of prion disease is late 60s while the range is fairly wide. Brain MRIs and increase of CSF 14-3-3 and tau protein levels are very characteristic. Classical sporadic CJD could show completely normal T1 WI with patchy high signals in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia on DWI. In Japan, classical sporadic CJD (MM1) is most popular but there are some rare atypical subtypes. Among them, MM2-thalamic C]D is hardest to diag- nose because it shows no high intensity signals on DWI, in addition to frequent absence of CSF and EEG charac- teristics. In this case, CBF decrease in the thalamus on SPECT is very helpful. Genetic prion diseases in Japan are quite distinct from those in Europe. V180I and M232R mutations are unique to Japan and show sporadic CJD phe- notype. Dura graft-associated CJD (dCJD) are composed of 67% of classical sporadic CJD phenotype and 33% of atypical phenotype showing slower progression with amyloid plaques. Trace-back experiments suggested the PrPsc of the atypical dCJD was likely to be modified from infection of abnormal VV2 protein. Although there are some atypical forms of prion diseases as mentioned above, almost all prion cases could be diagnosed with EEG, MRI, genetic test, CSF test and SPECT. We also have some incidents in which brain surgery was done before the diagnosis of prion disease and many other patients were operated using the same operating instruments before their sterilization against prion disease had been done. The explanation of possibility of prion disease infection to the patients and their follow-up was started by the incident committee. It is very important for all the nations to cooperate with each other in order to overcome this intractable disease.

 

(Clin NeuroI 2010;50:797-802)

 

Key words: prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), fatal famil- ial insomnia (FFI), transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), 14-3-3 protein, tau protein, MRI-DWI

 


 

=============

 

Neurology. 1987 Jun;37(6):895-904.

 

The epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: conclusion of a 15-year investigation in France and review of the world literature.

 

Brown P, Cathala F, Raubertas RF, Gajdusek DC, Castaigne P.

 

Abstract

 

During the 15-year period 1968-1982, a total of 329 patients dying of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were identified in continental France. Annual mortality rates stabilized at 0.5 to 0.6 cases per million (1.1 to 1.2 cases per million in Paris). Six percent of cases were familial. Although the frequency of CJD was related to population density, no contacts could be established among the great majority of patients. No association with socioeconomic factors, preceding trauma or surgery (excepting one iatrogenic neurosurgical case), or exposure to animal sources of infection was identified. Evidence from this and other epidemiologic studies suggests that CJD is a minimally contagious disease that may be principally acquired in early life from presymptomatic patients, asymptomatic carriers, or chance contamination by environmental sources. It is possible that CJD could also occur sporadically as a noncontagious disease by a mechanism akin to oncogenes in carcinogenesis.

 

PMID: 3295589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

snip...

 

R. BRADLEY

 


 

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

 

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

 

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

 

snip...

 

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

PMID: 6997404

 


 

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

 

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

 

snip...

 

76/10.12/4.6

 


 

Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

 

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

 

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

 


 


 

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 


 

A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

 

Annick Le Dur*,?, Vincent Béringue*,?, Olivier Andréoletti?, Fabienne Reine*, Thanh Lan Laï*, Thierry Baron§, Bjørn Bratberg¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte?, Pierre Sarradin**, Sylvie L. Benestad¶, and Hubert Laude*,?? +Author Affiliations

 

*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ?Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; ?Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; §Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway

 

***Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA (received for review March 21, 2005)

 

Abstract Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice.

 

*** These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.

 


 

OR

 

***The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

 


 

OR

 

*** Intriguingly, these conclusions suggest that some pathological features of Nor98 are reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

 


 

*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.

 

VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE ...price of prion poker goes up again $

 

OR-10: Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is transmissible in bank voles

 

Romolo Nonno,1 Michele Di Bari,1 Laura Pirisinu,1 Claudia D’Agostino,1 Stefano Marcon,1 Geraldina Riccardi,1 Gabriele Vaccari,1 Piero Parchi,2 Wenquan Zou,3 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 Umberto Agrimi1 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna; Bologna, Italy; 3Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA

 

Background. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described “sporadic”neurodegenerative disease involving prion protein aggregation, which has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer dementias, such as fronto-temporal dementia. Currently, 30 cases of VPSPr have been reported in Europe and USA, of which 19 cases were homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (VV), 8 were MV and 3 were MM. A distinctive feature of VPSPr is the electrophoretic pattern of PrPSc after digestion with proteinase K (PK). After PK-treatment, PrP from VPSPr forms a ladder-like electrophoretic pattern similar to that described in GSS cases. The clinical and pathological features of VPSPr raised the question of the correct classification of VPSPr among prion diseases or other forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report preliminary data on the transmissibility and pathological features of VPSPr cases in bank voles.

 

Materials and Methods. Seven VPSPr cases were inoculated in two genetic lines of bank voles, carrying either methionine or isoleucine at codon 109 of the prion protein (named BvM109 and BvI109, respectively). Among the VPSPr cases selected, 2 were VV at PrP codon 129, 3 were MV and 2 were MM. Clinical diagnosis in voles was confirmed by brain pathological assessment and western blot for PK-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) with mAbs SAF32, SAF84, 12B2 and 9A2.

 

Results. To date, 2 VPSPr cases (1 MV and 1 MM) gave positive transmission in BvM109. Overall, 3 voles were positive with survival time between 290 and 588 d post inoculation (d.p.i.). All positive voles accumulated PrPres in the form of the typical PrP27–30, which was indistinguishable to that previously observed in BvM109 inoculated with sCJDMM1 cases.

 

In BvI109, 3 VPSPr cases (2 VV and 1 MM) showed positive transmission until now. Overall, 5 voles were positive with survival time between 281 and 596 d.p.i.. In contrast to what observed in BvM109, all BvI109 showed a GSS-like PrPSc electrophoretic pattern, characterized by low molecular weight PrPres. These PrPres fragments were positive with mAb 9A2 and 12B2, while being negative with SAF32 and SAF84, suggesting that they are cleaved at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus. Second passages are in progress from these first successful transmissions.

 

Conclusions. Preliminary results from transmission studies in bank voles strongly support the notion that VPSPr is a transmissible prion disease. Interestingly, VPSPr undergoes divergent evolution in the two genetic lines of voles, with sCJD-like features in BvM109 and GSS-like properties in BvI109.

 

The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.

 


 

Sunday, December 12, 2010

 

EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010

 


 

Sunday, April 18, 2010

 

SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010

 


 

Thursday, December 23, 2010

 

Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009

 

Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011

 


 

Thursday, November 18, 2010

 

Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep

 


 

Monday, April 25, 2011

 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

 

Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011

 


 

Friday, February 11, 2011

 

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

 


 

Thursday, March 29, 2012

 

atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012

 

NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas

 


 

*** Canada Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections

 

Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.

 


 

Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits, see also ; All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype.

 


 

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

 

Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Case Report

 

snip...

 

Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease autopsy case report 'MOM' DIVISION OF NEUROPATHOLOGY University of Texas Medical Branch 114 McCullough Bldg. Galveston, Texas 77555-0785 FAX COVER SHEET DATE: 4-23-98 TO: Mr. Terry Singeltary @ ------- FROM: Gerald Campbell FAX: (409) 772-5315 PHONE: (409) 772-2881 Number of Pages (including cover sheet): Message: *CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE* This document accompanying this transmission contains confidential information belonging to the sender that is legally privileged. This information is intended only for the use of the individual or entry names above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying distribution, or the taking of any action in reliances on the contents of this telefaxed information is strictly prohibited. If you received this telefax in error, please notify us by telephone immediately to arrange for return of the original documents.

 

--------------------------

 

Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Admitting Race: C Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228 Copies to: UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683

 

Pathology Report

 

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS

 

Autopsy' Office (409)772-2858 Autopsy NO.: AU-97-00435

 

AUTOPSY INFORMATION: Occupation: Unknown Birthplace: Unknown Residence: Crystal Beach Date/Time of Death: 12/14/97 13:30 Date/Time of Autopsy: 12/15/97 15:00

 

Pathologist/Resident: Pencil/Fernandez

 

Service: Private

 

Restriction: Brain only

 

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS

 

I. Brain: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Heidenhain variant.

 

snip...see full text ;

 


 

P.5.21 Parallels between different forms of sheep scrapie and types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

 

Wiebke M. Wemheuer1, Sylvie L. Benestad2, Arne Wrede1, Wilhelm E. Wemheuer3, Tatjana Pfander1, Bjørn Bratberg2, Bertram Brenig3,Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer1 1University Medical Center Goettingen, Germany; 2Institute of Veterinary Medicine Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Veterinary Medicine Goettingen, Germany

 

Background: Scrapie in sheep and goats is often regarded as the archetype of prion diseases. In 1998, a new form of scrapie - atypical/Nor98 scrapie - was described that differed from classical scrapie in terms of epidemiology, Western blot profile, the distribution of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in the body and its stability against proteinase K. In a similar way, distinct disease types exist in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). They differ with regard to their clinical outcome, Western blot profile and PrPSc deposition pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). Objectives: The comparison of PrPSc deposits in sheep scrapie and human sporadic CJD.

 

Methods: Tissues of the CNS of sheep with classical scrapie, sheep with atypical/Nor98 scrapie and 20 patients with sporadic CJD were examined using the sensitive Paraffin Embedded Tissue (PET) blot method. The results were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry. With the objective of gaining information on the protein conformation, the PrPSc of classical and atypical/Nor98 sheep scrapie and sporadic CJD was tested for its stability against denaturation with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) using a Membrane Adsorption Assay.

 

Results: The PrPSc of atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases and of CJD prion type 1 patients exhibits a mainly reticular/synaptic deposition pattern in the brain and is relatively sensitive to denaturation with GdnHCl. In contrast classical scrapie cases and CJD prion type 2 patients have a more complex PrPSc deposition pattern in common that consists of larger PrPSc aggregates and the PrPSc itself is comparatively stable against denaturation.

 

Discussion: The similarity between CJD types and scrapie types indicates that at least two comparable forms of the misfolded prion protein exist beyond species barriers and can elicit prion diseases. It seems therefore reasonable to classify classical and atypical/Nor98 scrapie - in analogy to the existing CJD types - as different scrapie types.

 


 

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected with scrapie?

 

28 Mar 01

 

Like lambs to the slaughter 31 March 2001 by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284. Subscribe and get 4 free issues. FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.

 

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in mice as sCJD.

 

"This means we cannot rule out that at least some sCJD may be caused by some strains of scrapie," says team member Jean-Philippe Deslys of the French Atomic Energy Commission's medical research laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses, south-west of Paris. Hans Kretschmar of the University of Göttingen, who coordinates CJD surveillance in Germany, is so concerned by the findings that he now wants to trawl back through past sCJD cases to see if any might have been caused by eating infected mutton or lamb.

 

Scrapie has been around for centuries and until now there has been no evidence that it poses a risk to human health. But if the French finding means that scrapie can cause sCJD in people, countries around the world may have overlooked a CJD crisis to rival that caused by BSE.

 

Deslys and colleagues were originally studying vCJD, not sCJD. They injected the brains of macaque monkeys with brain from BSE cattle, and from French and British vCJD patients. The brain damage and clinical symptoms in the monkeys were the same for all three. Mice injected with the original sets of brain tissue or with infected monkey brain also developed the same symptoms.

 

As a control experiment, the team also injected mice with brain tissue from people and animals with other prion diseases: a French case of sCJD; a French patient who caught sCJD from human-derived growth hormone; sheep with a French strain of scrapie; and mice carrying a prion derived from an American scrapie strain. As expected, they all affected the brain in a different way from BSE and vCJD. But while the American strain of scrapie caused different damage from sCJD, the French strain produced exactly the same pathology.

 

"The main evidence that scrapie does not affect humans has been epidemiology," says Moira Bruce of the neuropathogenesis unit of the Institute for Animal Health in Edinburgh, who was a member of the same team as Deslys. "You see about the same incidence of the disease everywhere, whether or not there are many sheep, and in countries such as New Zealand with no scrapie." In the only previous comparisons of sCJD and scrapie in mice, Bruce found they were dissimilar.

 

But there are more than 20 strains of scrapie, and six of sCJD. "You would not necessarily see a relationship between the two with epidemiology if only some strains affect only some people," says Deslys. Bruce is cautious about the mouse results, but agrees they require further investigation. Other trials of scrapie and sCJD in mice, she says, are in progress.

 

People can have three different genetic variations of the human prion protein, and each type of protein can fold up two different ways. Kretschmar has found that these six combinations correspond to six clinical types of sCJD: each type of normal prion produces a particular pathology when it spontaneously deforms to produce sCJD.

 

But if these proteins deform because of infection with a disease-causing prion, the relationship between pathology and prion type should be different, as it is in vCJD. "If we look at brain samples from sporadic CJD cases and find some that do not fit the pattern," says Kretschmar, "that could mean they were caused by infection."

 

There are 250 deaths per year from sCJD in the US, and a similar incidence elsewhere. Singeltary and other US activists think that some of these people died after eating contaminated meat or "nutritional" pills containing dried animal brain. Governments will have a hard time facing activists like Singeltary if it turns out that some sCJD isn't as spontaneous as doctors have insisted.

 

Deslys's work on macaques also provides further proof that the human disease vCJD is caused by BSE. And the experiments showed that vCJD is much more virulent to primates than BSE, even when injected into the bloodstream rather than the brain. This, says Deslys, means that there is an even bigger risk than we thought that vCJD can be passed from one patient to another through contaminated blood transfusions and surgical instruments.

 


 

Monday, December 1, 2008

 

When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers

 


 

Thursday, December 20, 2012

 

OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED, WISHES TO CONTINUE SPREADING IT AROUND THE GLOBE

 


 

Monday, November 30, 2009

 

USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE, DOES NOT SURPRISE ME $

 


 

Subject: PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP IN 2014

 

Greetings PRION2014, Professor Prusiner, et al,

 

*** PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP 2014 ***

 

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014

 

*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

 

*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.

 

Wednesday, January 01, 2014

 

Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions

 

*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

 

*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.

 


 


 

*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.

 


 

Thursday, January 2, 2014

 

*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ??? ***

 

SNIP...

 

Subtype 1: (sCJDMM1 and sCJDMV1)

 

This subtype is observed in patients who are MM homozygous or MV heterozygous at codon 129 of the PrP gene (PRNP) and carry PrPSc Type 1. Clinical duration is short, 3‑4 months.32 The most common presentation in sCJDMM1 patients is cognitive impairment leading to frank dementia, gait or limb ataxia, myoclonic jerks and visual signs leading to cortical blindness (Heidenhain’s syndrome)...

 


 

Animals injected with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease MM1 and genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease MM1 linked to the E200K mutation showed the same phenotypic features as those infected with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease MM1 prions...

 


 

*** our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions. ***

 


 


 

SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

 

Thursday, January 2, 2014

 

*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ??? ***

 


 

Tuesday, November 04, 2014

 

Towards an Age-Dependent Transmission Model of Acquired and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 


 

Saturday, April 19, 2014

 

Human prion diseases and the risk of their transmission during anatomical dissection

 


 

Sunday, April 06, 2014

 

SPORADIC CJD and the potential for zoonotic transmission there from, either directly or indirectly via friendly fire iatrogenic mode, evidence to date

 


 

Sunday, October 27, 2013

 

*** A Kiss of a Prion: New Implications for Oral Transmissibility

 


 

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

 

*** Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease ***

 


 

Monday, April 15, 2013

 

Dr. Stephen B. Thacker Director Centers for Disease Control and Prevention′s Office of Science, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (OSELS) dies from Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD

 


 

Saturday, February 12, 2011

 

Another Pathologists dies from CJD, another potential occupational death ?

 

another happenstance of bad luck, a spontaneous event from nothing, or friendly fire ???

 


 

Thursday, July 08, 2010

 

GLOBAL CLUSTERS OF CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE - A REVIEW 2010

 


 

Sunday, May 10, 2009

 

Meeting of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Committee On June 12, 2009 (Singeltary submission)

 


 

 *** Persistence of ovine scrapie infectivity in a farm environment following cleaning and decontamination ***

 

Steve A. C. Hawkins, MIBiol, Pathology Department1, Hugh A. Simmons, BVSc MRCVS, MBA, MA Animal Services Unit1, Kevin C. Gough, BSc, PhD2 and Ben C. Maddison, BSc, PhD3 + Author Affiliations 1Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK 2School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK 3ADAS UK, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK E-mail for correspondence: ben.maddison@adas.co.uk

 

Abstract

 

Scrapie of sheep/goats and chronic wasting disease of deer/elk are contagious prion diseases where environmental reservoirs are directly implicated in the transmission of disease. In this study, the effectiveness of recommended scrapie farm decontamination regimens was evaluated by a sheep bioassay using buildings naturally contaminated with scrapie. Pens within a farm building were treated with either 20,000 parts per million free chorine solution for one hour or were treated with the same but were followed by painting and full re-galvanisation or replacement of metalwork within the pen. Scrapie susceptible lambs of the PRNP genotype VRQ/VRQ were reared within these pens and their scrapie status was monitored by recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. All animals became infected over an 18-month period, even in the pen that had been subject to the most stringent decontamination process. These data suggest that recommended current guidelines for the decontamination of farm buildings following outbreaks of scrapie do little to reduce the titre of infectious scrapie material and that environmental recontamination could also be an issue associated with these premises.

 

SNIP...

 

Discussion Thorough pressure washing of a pen had no effect on the amount of bioavailable scrapie infectivity (pen B). The routine removal of prions from surfaces within a laboratory setting is treatment for a minimum of one hour with 20,000 ppm free chlorine, a method originally based on the use of brain macerates from infected rodents to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination (Kimberlin and others 1983). Further studies have also investigated the effectiveness of hypochlorite disinfection of metal surfaces to simulate the decontamination of surgical devices within a hospital setting. Such treatments with hypochlorite solution were able to reduce infectivity by 5.5 logs to lower than the sensitivity of the bioassay used (Lemmer and others 2004). Analogous treatment of the pen surfaces did not effectively remove the levels of scrapie infectivity over that of the control pens, indicating that this method of decontamination is not effective within a farm setting. This may be due to the high level of biological matrix that is present upon surfaces within the farm environment, which may reduce the amount of free chlorine available to inactivate any infectious prion. Remarkably 1/5 sheep introduced into pen D had also became scrapie positive within nine months, with all animals in this pen being RAMALT positive by 18 months of age. Pen D was no further away from the control pen (pen A) than any of the other pens within this barn. Localised hot spots of infectivity may be present within scrapie-contaminated environments, but it is unlikely that pen D area had an amount of scrapie contamination that was significantly different than the other areas within this building. Similarly, there were no differences in how the biosecurity of pen D was maintained, or how this pen was ventilated compared with the other pens. This observation, perhaps, indicates the slower kinetics of disease uptake within this pen and is consistent with a more thorough prion removal and recontamination. These observations may also account for the presence of inadvertent scrapie cases within other studies, where despite stringent biosecurity, control animals have become scrapie positive during challenge studies using barns that also housed scrapie-affected animals (Ryder and others 2009). The bioassay data indicate that the exposure of the sheep to a farm environment after decontamination efforts thought to be effective in removing scrapie is sufficient for the animals to become infected with scrapie. The main exposure routes within this scenario are likely to be via the oral route, during feeding and drinking, and respiratory and conjunctival routes. It has been demonstrated that scrapie infectivity can be efficiently transmitted via the nasal route in sheep (Hamir and others 2008), as is the case for CWD in both murine models and in white-tailed deer (Denkers and others 2010, 2013). Recently, it has also been demonstrated that CWD prions presented as dust when bound to the soil mineral montmorillonite can be infectious via the nasal route (Nichols and others 2013). When considering pens C and D, the actual source of the infectious agent in the pens is not known, it is possible that biologically relevant levels of prion survive on surfaces during the decontamination regimen (pen C). With the use of galvanising and painting (pen D) covering and sealing the surface of the pen, it is possible that scrapie material recontaminated the pens by the movement of infectious prions contained within dusts originating from other parts of the barn that were not decontaminated or from other areas of the farm.

 

Given that scrapie prions are widespread on the surfaces of affected farms (Maddison and others 2010a), irrespective of the source of the infectious prions in the pens, this study clearly highlights the difficulties that are faced with the effective removal of environmentally associated scrapie infectivity. This is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities to scrapie in terms of both the dissemination of prions into the environment and the facile mode of disease transmission. These data further contribute to the understanding that prion diseases can be highly transmissible between susceptible individuals not just by direct contact but through highly stable environmental reservoirs that are refractory to decontamination. The presence of these environmentally associated prions in farm buildings make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge, especially in animal species such as goats where there is lack of genetic resistance to scrapie and, therefore, no scope to re-stock farms with animals that are resistant to scrapie.

 

Scrapie Sheep Goats Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE)

 

Accepted October 12, 2014. Published Online First 31 October 2014

 


 

Subject: Re: [BSE-L] USA CJD TSE PRION UNIT, TEXAS, SURVEILLANCE UPDATE NOVEMBER 2014

 

if you notice, if you add up the vpspr 50 cases and the sporadic FFI 21 cases, and then add to the total sporadic cjd cases of 2660, this is where the total of 2731 sporadic cases come from...seems they are lumping them all together as total sporadic cjd cases, and leaving the sporadic cjd text completely out of the picture now. smoooth. covering all bases I presume, and they moved the goal post in the middle of the game, again. niice...we all didn't fall off a shrimp boat yesterday$$$ *** these kind always are interesting for me, those type determination pending cases, year after year ;

 

***6 Includes 11 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 19 inconclusive cases;

 

***7 Includes 12 (11 from 2014) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded. ...

 


 

CONFIRMED HUMAN BSE AKA MAD COW DISEASE vCJD TEXAS USA

 

Monday, June 02, 2014 Confirmed Variant CJD Case in Texas

 


 

SO, 4 months after the fact and still no word on this case. no information what so ever. the silence is deafening $$$

 

Monday, November 3, 2014

 

The prion protein protease sensitivity, stability and seeding activity in variably protease sensitive prionopathy brain tissue suggests molecular overlaps with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

 


 


 

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

 

Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans

 


 

Tuesday, November 04, 2014

 

Towards an Age-Dependent Transmission Model of Acquired and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 


 

Sunday, July 06, 2014

 

Dietary Risk Factors for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Confirmatory Case-Control Study

 

Conclusions—The a priori hypotheses were supported.

 

*Consumption of various meat products may be one method of transmission of the infectious agent for sCJD.

 


 

PLEASE REMEMBER ;

 

The Akron, Ohio-based CJD Foundation said the Center for Disease Control revised that number in October of 2004 to about one in 9,000 CJD cases per year in the population group age 55 and older.

 

HAVE YOU GOT YOUR CJD QUESTIONNAIRE ASKING REAL QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ROUTE AND SOURCE OF THE TSE AGENT THAT KILLED YOUR LOVED ONE ???

 

if not, why not...

 

Friday, November 30, 2007

 

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION

 


 


 
UPDATE OVER...TSS
 

Wednesday, November 09, 2011

 

Case report Sporadic fatal insomnia in a young woman: A diagnostic challenge: Case Report TEXAS

 


 

 

IATROGENIC

 

all iatrogenic cjd is, is sporadic CJD, until route and source of the iatrogenic event that took place, is detected, documented, placed in the academic domain as fact, and recorded, which happens very seldom due to a lot of factors, besides the incubation period, and that be mainly industry. kind of like asbestos and tobacco and the industry there from, they knew in the early 1900’s that they both were killing, and they both had long incubation, and somebody chose not to do anything about if for decades and decades. kind of like what we have here with the TSE prion disease. $$$

 

> In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was made to notify patients of their potential exposure.

 

SO, X number of patients, from 3 hospitals, where

 

''exposure to potentially CJD-contaminated instruments ''

 

took place on these patients, the final decision NOT to tell those folks about the potential exposure to the CJD TSE prion

 

insane, thus, the TSE prion agent continues to spread. ...

 

please see further comments here ;

 


 

 

Saturday, November 2, 2013

 

Recommendation of the Swiss Expert Committee for Biosafety on the classification of activities using prion genes and prion protein January 2013

 


 

 

Saturday, November 16, 2013

 

Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to creutzfeldt-jakob disease 2013 December

 

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.

 


 

 

Thursday, November 14, 2013

 

Prion diseases in humans: Oral and dental implications

 


 

 

WHAT about the sporadic CJD TSE proteins ?

 

WE now know that some cases of sporadic CJD are linked to atypical BSE and atypical Scrapie, so why are not MORE concerned about the sporadic CJD, and all it’s sub-types $$$

 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013

 

*** Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010 ***

 


 

 

Sunday, October 13, 2013

 

CJD TSE Prion Disease Cases in Texas by Year, 2003-2012

 


 

 

 Thursday, January 2, 2014

 

CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ???

 


 

 

Monday, January 14, 2013

 

Gambetti et al USA Prion Unit change another highly suspect USA mad cow victim to another fake name i.e. sporadic FFI at age 16 CJD Foundation goes along with this BSe

 


 

 

VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE ...price of prion poker goes up again $

 

OR-10 15:25 - 15:40 VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITIVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE IN BANK VOLES Nonno

 


 

 

OR-10: Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is transmissible in bank voles

 

Romolo Nonno,1 Michele Di Bari,1 Laura Pirisinu,1 Claudia D’Agostino,1 Stefano Marcon,1 Geraldina Riccardi,1 Gabriele Vaccari,1 Piero Parchi,2 Wenquan Zou,3 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 Umberto Agrimi1 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna; Bologna, Italy; 3Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA

 

Background. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described “sporadic”neurodegenerative disease involving prion protein aggregation, which has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer dementias, such as fronto-temporal dementia. Currently, 30 cases of VPSPr have been reported in Europe and USA, of which 19 cases were homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (VV), 8 were MV and 3 were MM. A distinctive feature of VPSPr is the electrophoretic pattern of PrPSc after digestion with proteinase K (PK). After PK-treatment, PrP from VPSPr forms a ladder-like electrophoretic pattern similar to that described in GSS cases. The clinical and pathological features of VPSPr raised the question of the correct classification of VPSPr among prion diseases or other forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report preliminary data on the transmissibility and pathological features of VPSPr cases in bank voles.

 

Materials and Methods. Seven VPSPr cases were inoculated in two genetic lines of bank voles, carrying either methionine or isoleucine at codon 109 of the prion protein (named BvM109 and BvI109, respectively). Among the VPSPr cases selected, 2 were VV at PrP codon 129, 3 were MV and 2 were MM. Clinical diagnosis in voles was confirmed by brain pathological assessment and western blot for PK-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) with mAbs SAF32, SAF84, 12B2 and 9A2.

 

Results. To date, 2 VPSPr cases (1 MV and 1 MM) gave positive transmission in BvM109. Overall, 3 voles were positive with survival time between 290 and 588 d post inoculation (d.p.i.). All positive voles accumulated PrPres in the form of the typical PrP27–30, which was indistinguishable to that previously observed in BvM109 inoculated with sCJDMM1 cases. In BvI109, 3 VPSPr cases (2 VV and 1 MM) showed positive transmission until now. Overall, 5 voles were positive with survival time between 281 and 596 d.p.i.. In contrast to what observed in BvM109, all BvI109 showed a GSS-like PrPSc electrophoretic pattern, characterized by low molecular weight PrPres. These PrPres fragments were positive with mAb 9A2 and 12B2, while being negative with SAF32 and SAF84, suggesting that they are cleaved at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus. Second passages are in progress from these first successful transmissions.

 

Conclusions. Preliminary results from transmission studies in bank voles strongly support the notion that VPSPr is a transmissible prion disease. Interestingly, VPSPr undergoes divergent evolution in the two genetic lines of voles, with sCJD-like features in BvM109 and GSS-like properties in BvI109. The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.

 

SOURCE PRION2012

 


 

 

 I believe it was Gambetti et al that coined this term sporadic FFI, from some conspicuous sub-type of sporadic CJD possibly?

 

seems they could not tie it to a true FFI by diagnostic standards to date, so it was then termed a sFFI, confusing matters even worse. ...

 

A subtype of sporadic prion disease mimicking fatal familial insomnia

 


 

 

THIS seems to raise more questions than answers, confusing the TSEs even worse.

 

WHAT is sporadic CJD, and how many sub-types and atypical strains, phenotypes etc. will there be, arising from nothing. a spontaneous happening of sorts???

 

i think not. ...tss

 


 

 

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

 

A novel variant of human disease with a protease-sensitive prion protein and heterozygosity methionine/valine at codon 129: Case report

 

snip...

 

Genetic findings

 

No mutations were found in the open reading frame after sequencing the prion protein gene (PRNP). A heterozygosis methionine valine (MV) was observed in codon 129.

 

snip...

 


 

 

Thursday, July 10, 2008

 

A Novel Human Disease with Abnormal Prion Protein Sensitive to Protease update July 10, 2008

 

Although several subjects had family histories of dementia, no mutations were found in the PrP gene open reading frame.

 


 

 

Thursday, July 10, 2008

 

A New Prionopathy update July 10, 2008

 


 

 

***+++***

 

Thursday, July 10, 2008

 

A Novel Human Disease with Abnormal Prion Protein Sensitive to Protease update July 10, 2008 Friday, June 20, 2008

 


 

 

Here we go folks. AS predicted. THIS JUST OUT !

 

 

Tuesday, August 03, 2010

 

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein

 


 

 

Monday, August 9, 2010

 

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein or just more PRIONBALONEY ?

 

snip...see full text ;

 


 


 

 

O.K. let's compare some recent cases of this prionpathy in other countries besides Gambetti's first 10 recently, that he claims is a spontaneous event, from a genetic disorder, that is not genetic, but sporadic, that is related to no animal TSE in North America, or the world. ...

 


 

 

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

 

A novel variant of human disease with a protease-sensitive prion protein and heterozygosity methionine/valine at codon 129: Case report

 


 

 

Sunday, August 09, 2009

 

CJD...Straight talk with...James Ironside...and...Terry Singeltary... 2009

 


 

 

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

 

BSE-The Untold Story - joe gibbs and singeltary 1999 – 2009

 


 

 

====================================

 

The familial mutations, Gajdusek proposed, lowered the barrier to such accidental conversion. "Thus," he wrote in 1996, "with these mutations, this ordinarily rare event becomes a ... dominant inherited trait." But Weissmann's qualification still remained to be refuted: the mutations might simply allow easier entry to a lurking virus. ...page 202 Deadly Feast

 

===================================

 

 

something to think about for sure.

 

but i interpret this as (1st not the gold standard, just my opinion;-), as because of certain gene mutations, one or a family, would be more susceptible to the many different strains of TSE, and the many different proven routes and sources, (which will cause different symptoms, different incubation periods from onset of clinical symptoms to death, different parts of the brain infected, etc.). in other words, it's NOT the gene mutation that CAUSES the disease, but the fact that it makes you more SUSCEPTIBLE, to the TSEs from the surrounding environment, and PLUS accumulation, i think this plays a critical role. maybe there is a one dose scenario, but i think there is more of the 'accumulators' that go clinical, than the 'one dose'. and what is the threshold to sub-clinical to clinical ?

 

anyway, just pondering out loud here.

 

also, for anyone interested, there are some studies with links to follow here ;

 


 

 

Thursday, June 21, 2012

 

Clinical and Pathologic Features of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism

 


 

 

let's take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow.

 

This new prionopathy in humans? the genetic makeup is IDENTICAL to the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow, the only _documented_ mad cow in the world to date like this, ......wait, it get's better. this new prionpathy is killing young and old humans, with LONG DURATION from onset of symptoms to death, and the symptoms are very similar to nvCJD victims, OH, and the plaques are very similar in some cases too, bbbut, it's not related to the g-h-BSEalabama cow, WAIT NOW, it gets even better, the new human prionpathy that they claim is a genetic TSE, has no relation to any gene mutation in that family. daaa, ya think it could be related to that mad cow with the same genetic make-up ??? there were literally tons and tons of banned mad cow protein in Alabama in commerce, and none of it transmitted to cows, and the cows to humans there from ??? r i g h t $$$

 

ALABAMA MAD COW g-h-BSEalabama

 

In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

 


 


 

 

her healthy calf also carried the mutation (J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008).

 

This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine–human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks.

 

Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: maf12@cam.ac.uk Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA

 

NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

 


 

 

Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

 

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 


 

 

P.9.21

 

Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

 

Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada

 

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.

 

Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

 

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

 

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

 

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

 


 

 

 

what about that ALABAMA MAD COW, AND MAD COW FEED THERE FROM IN THAT STATE ???

 

Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

 

*** (see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 

BANNED MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE IN ALABAMA

 

Date: September 6, 2006 at 7:58 am PST PRODUCT

 

a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6;

 

b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6;

 

c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6;

 

d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6.

 

CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 477.72 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION AL

 

______________________________

 


 

 

PRODUCT Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes,

 

Recall # V-120-6 CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 350 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION AL and MS

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;

 

b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;

 

c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;

 

d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;

 

e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-125-6;

 

f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-126-6;

 

g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6

 

CODE All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006. Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 7,541-50 lb bags

 

DISTRIBUTION AL, GA, MS, and TN

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006

 

###

 


 

 

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

 

Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST PRODUCT

 

a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;

 

b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;

 

c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;

 

d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;

 

e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;

 

f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;

 

g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;

 

h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;

 

i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;

 

j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;

 

k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;

 

l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;

 

m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 CODE

 

Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION AL and FL

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

 

###

 


 

 

MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248.128.67

 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6;

 

b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6;

 

c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6;

 

d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 CODE

 

a) Bulk

 

b) None

 

c) Bulk

 

d) Bulk

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION Nationwide

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006

 

###

 


 

 

2007

 

10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007

 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST

 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007

 

CODE

 

Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.

 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

42,090 lbs.

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

WI

 

___________________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Custom dairy premix products:

 

MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007

 

CODE

 

The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

9,997,976 lbs.

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

ID and NV

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007

 


 

 

Saturday, August 4, 2012

 

Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012

 


 


 

 

What irks many scientists is the USDA’s April 25 statement that the rare disease is “not generally associated with an animal consuming infected feed.”

 

The USDA’s conclusion is a “gross oversimplification,” said Dr. Paul Brown, one of the world’s experts on this type of disease who retired recently from the National Institutes of Health.

 

"(The agency) has no foundation on which to base that statement.”

 

“We can’t say it’s not feed related,” agreed Dr. Linda Detwiler, an official with the USDA during the Clinton Administration now at Mississippi State.

 

In the May 1 email to me, USDA’s Cole backed off a bit. “No one knows the origins of atypical cases of BSE,” she said

 

Saturday, May 26, 2012

 

Are USDA assurances on mad cow case 'gross oversimplification'?

 


 


 

 

Monday, March 25, 2013

 

Minnesota Firm Recalls Bone-In Ribeye That May Contain Specified Risk Materials Recall Release CLASS II RECALL FSIS-RC-024-2013

 


 

 

Sunday, December 15, 2013

 

*** FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE

 


 

 

Saturday, December 15, 2012

 

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle -- an update 5 December 2012

 


 

 

Thursday, April 4, 2013

 

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy in the UK: a retrospective review 1991–2008

 

Brain (2013) 136 (4): 1102-1115. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws366

 


 

 

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA

 


 


 

 

CJD VOICE

 


 

 

PRIONOPATHY OR PRIONOBALONEY $$$

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 

 

*** Saturday, November 2, 2013 ***

 

Exploring the risks of a putative transmission of BSE to new species

 


 

 

Monday, December 02, 2013

 

A parliamentary inquiry has been launched today into the safety of blood, tissue and organ screening following fears that vCJD – the human form of ‘mad cow’ disease – may be being spread by medical procedures

 


 

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

 

*** Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease ***

 


 

 

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?

 

Background

 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy disease have both been around a long time, and was discovered in or around the same time frame, early 1900’s. Both diseases are incurable and debilitating brain disease, that are in the end, 100% fatal, with the incubation/clinical period of the Alzheimer’s disease being longer (most of the time) than the TSE prion disease. Symptoms are very similar, and pathology is very similar.

 

Methods

 

Through years of research, as a layperson, of peer review journals, transmission studies, and observations of loved ones and friends that have died from both Alzheimer’s and the TSE prion disease i.e. Heidenhain Variant Creutzfelt Jakob Disease CJD.

 

Results

 

I propose that Alzheimer’s is a TSE disease of low dose, slow, and long incubation disease, and that Alzheimer’s is Transmissible, and is a threat to the public via the many Iatrogenic routes and sources. It was said long ago that the only thing that disputes this, is Alzheimer’s disease transmissibility, or the lack of. The likelihood of many victims of Alzheimer’s disease from the many different Iatrogenic routes and modes of transmission as with the TSE prion disease.

 

Conclusions

 

There should be a Global Congressional Science round table event set up immediately to address these concerns from the many potential routes and sources of the TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s disease, and a emergency global doctrine put into effect to help combat the spread of Alzheimer’s disease via the medical, surgical, dental, tissue, and blood arena’s. All human and animal TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s should be made reportable in every state, and Internationally, WITH NO age restrictions. Until a proven method of decontamination and autoclaving is proven, and put forth in use universally, in all hospitals and medical, surgical arena’s, or the TSE prion agent will continue to spread. IF we wait until science and corporate politicians wait until politics lets science _prove_ this once and for all, and set forth regulations there from, we will all be exposed to the TSE Prion agents, if that has not happened already.

 

end...tss

 

SEE FULL TEXT AND SOURCE REFERENCES ;

 

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?

 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Proposal ID: 29403

 


 

 

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

 

Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice

 


 

 

Saturday, May 25, 2013

 

Brain homogenates from human tauopathies induce tau inclusions in mouse brain

 


 

 

Sunday, February 10, 2013

 

Parkinson's Disease and Alpha Synuclein: Is Parkinson's Disease a Prion-Like Disorder?

 


 

 

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

 

PrioNet Canada researchers in Vancouver confirm prion-like properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

 


 

 

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

 

ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions

 

David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2

 


 


 

 

Friday, September 3, 2010

 

Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE

 


 


 

 

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;396:131-43.

 

Alzheimer's disease and transmissible virus dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

 

Brown P, Salazar AM, Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

 

Abstract

 

Ample justification exists on clinical, pathologic, and biologic grounds for considering a similar pathogenesis for AD and the spongiform virus encephalopathies. However, the crux of the comparison rests squarely on results of attempts to transmit AD to experimental animals, and these results have not as yet validated a common etiology. Investigations of the biologic similarities between AD and the spongiform virus encephalopathies proceed in several laboratories, and our own observation of inoculated animals will be continued in the hope that incubation periods for AD may be even longer than those of CJD.

 


 

 

CJD1/9 0185 Ref: 1M51A

 

IN STRICT CONFIDENCE

 

Dr McGovern From: Dr A Wight Date: 5 January 1993 Copies: Dr Metters Dr Skinner Dr Pickles Dr Morris Mr Murray

 

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER-TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

 

1. CMO will wish to be aware that a meeting was held at DH yesterday, 4 January, to discuss the above findings. It was chaired by Professor Murray (Chairman of the MRC Co-ordinating Committee on Research in the Spongiform Encephalopathies in Man), and attended by relevant experts in the fields of Neurology, Neuropathology, molecular biology, amyloid biochemistry, and the spongiform encephalopathies, and by representatives of the MRC and AFRC. 2. Briefly, the meeting agreed that:

 

i) Dr Ridley et als findings of experimental induction of p amyloid in primates were valid, interesting and a significant advance in the understanding of neurodegenerative disorders;

 

ii) there were no immediate implications for the public health, and no further safeguards were thought to be necessary at present; and

 

iii) additional research was desirable, both epidemiological and at the molecular level. Possible avenues are being followed up by DH and the MRC, but the details will require further discussion. 93/01.05/4.1

 


 

 

BSE101/1 0136

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

5 NOV 1992 CMO From: Dr J S Metters DCMO 4 November 1992

 

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

 

1. Thank you for showing me Diana Dunstan's letter. I am glad that MRC have recognized the public sensitivity of these findings and intend to report them in their proper context. This hopefully will avoid misunderstanding and possible distortion by the media to portray the results as having more greater significance than the findings so far justify.

 

2. Using a highly unusual route of transmission (intra-cerebral injection) the researchers have demonstrated the transmission of a pathological process from two cases one of severe Alzheimer's disease the other of Gerstmann-Straussler disease to marmosets. However they have not demonstrated the transmission of either clinical condition as the "animals were behaving normally when killed'. As the report emphasizes the unanswered question is whether the disease condition would have revealed itself if the marmosets had lived longer. They are planning further research to see if the conditions, as opposed to the partial pathological process, is transmissible. What are the implications for public health?

 

3. The route of transmission is very specific and in the natural state of things highly unusual. However it could be argued that the results reveal a potential risk, in that brain tissue from these two patients has been shown to transmit a pathological process. Should therefore brain tissue from such cases be regarded as potentially infective? Pathologists, morticians, neuro surgeons and those assisting at neuro surgical procedures and others coming into contact with "raw" human brain tissue could in theory be at risk. However, on a priori grounds given the highly specific route of transmission in these experiments that risk must be negligible if the usual precautions for handling brain tissue are observed.

 

92/11.4/1-1 BSE101/1 0137

 

4. The other dimension to consider is the public reaction. To some extent the GSS case demonstrates little more than the transmission of BSE to a pig by intra-cerebral injection. If other prion diseases can be transmitted in this way it is little surprise that some pathological findings observed in GSS were also transmissible to a marmoset. But the transmission of features of Alzheimer's pathology is a different matter, given the much greater frequency of this disease and raises the unanswered question whether some cases are the result of a transmissible prion. The only tenable public line will be that "more research is required" before that hypothesis could be evaluated. The possibility on a transmissible prion remains open. In the meantime MRC needs carefully to consider the range and sequence of studies needed to follow through from the preliminary observations in these two cases. Not a particularly comfortable message, but until we know more about the causation of Alzheimer's disease the total reassurance is not practical.

 

JS METTERS Room 509 Richmond House Pager No: 081-884 3344 Callsign: DOH 832 121/YdeS 92/11.4/1.2

 


 

 

BSE101/1 0136

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

CMO

 

From: Dr J S Metters DCMO

 

4 November 1992

 

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

 


 

 

CJD1/9 0185

 

Ref: 1M51A

 

IN STRICT CONFIDENCE

 

From: Dr. A Wight Date: 5 January 1993

 

Copies:

 

Dr Metters Dr Skinner Dr Pickles Dr Morris Mr Murray

 

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER-TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

 


 

 

 

Thank You,

 

Respectfully,

 

I am sincerely,

 

layperson

 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net

 

MOM DOD 12/14/97 confirm ‘hvCJD’ just made a promise to mom, NEVER FORGET! and never let them forget. ...

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