Thursday, July 21, 2011

A Second Case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease Linked to the G131V Mutation in the Prion Protein Gene in a Dutch Patient

Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:

August 2011 - Volume 70 - Issue 8 - pp 698-702

doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182270c54

Original Articles

A Second Case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease Linked to the G131V Mutation in the Prion Protein Gene in a Dutch Patient

Jansen, Casper MD; Parchi, Piero MD, PhD; Capellari, Sabina MD; Strammiello, Rosaria PhD; Dopper, Elise G.P. MD; van Swieten, John C. MD, PhD; Kamphorst, Wouter MD; Rozemuller, Annemieke J.M. MD, PhD

Abstract

A rare case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease in a 36-year-old Dutch man is reported. The clinical phenotype was characterized by slowly progressive cognitive decline, later followed byataxia and parkinsonism. Neuropathologic findings consisted of numerous amyloid plaques in the cerebellum, which showed positive staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc). In addition, there were tau accumulations around numerous amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampal formation, and midbrain. There was nospongiform degeneration. Western blot analysis showed the co-occurrence of 2 distinct abnormal prion protein species comprising anunglycosylated, protease-resistant fragment of approximately 8 kd, which was found to be truncated at both N- and C-terminal ends by epitope mapping, and a detergent-insoluble but protease-sensitive formof full-length PrPSc. Sequence analysis disclosed a mutation at codon 131 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), resulting in a valine-for-glycine substitution (G131V). The patient was heterozygous at the polymorphic codon 129 and carried the mutation on the methionine allele. To our knowledge, this is the second family worldwide in which this mutation has been identified. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease should be considered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial frontotemporal dementia.

© 2011 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc

http://journals.lww.com/jneuropath/Abstract/2011/08000/A_Second_Case_of_Gerstmann_Str_ussler_Scheinker.5.aspx



Numéro d'archivage 20100904.3176

Date publiée 04-SEPT.-2010

Sujet PRO/AH/EDR> BSE - Netherlands: new case

BSE - NETHERLANDS: NEW CASE

***************************

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Fri 3 Sep 2010 Source: Reuters [edited]

A 10-year-old cow in the Netherlands has tested positive for BSE [bovine spongiform encephalitis], more commonly known as "mad cow" disease, the 1st such result in more than 2 years, the Dutch government said on Friday [3 Sep 2010].

The government ministry responsible for food quality said the animal tested positive for the brain-wasting disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy at a slaughterhouse.

It was the 1st positive test for BSE in the country since May 2008, the ministry said in a statement.

A spokesman for the ministry told Reuters the cow's meat was withdrawn from the food chain after a 1st positive test, while a 2nd test confirmed the result. All cows sent to slaughter in the country are tested and held aside for the results before their meat enters the system.

Mad cow disease is of particular concern because it has been known to cause a related brain-wasting disease in humans who have eaten contaminated meat. A total of 3 people have died in the Netherlands from [variant] Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease after eating meat from a BSE positive cow. The last reported death was in January 2009.

[Byline: Ben Berkowitz]

-- Communicated by: Terry S Singeltary Sr

[The slaughterhouse where this BSE-positive cow has been discovered, is -- according to the Dutch press -- located in Tilburg (North Brabant province). The location of the affected farm is not disclosed.

Last year (2009), the number of slaughtered cows, older than 30 months, which were compulsorily tested in Dutch slaughterhouses for BSE, was about 405 000 -- all with negative results. Suspected cases are withheld until the receipt of final results from the Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) in Lelystad. According to CVI, sporadic cases of BSE may still occur in the Netherlands during the coming years. - Mod.AS]

North Brabant is located in the south of the Netherlands. A map of the province can be accessed at . The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the Netherlands is available at . - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[see also: Prion disease update 2010 (07) 20100809.2720 Prion disease update 2010 (06) 20100706.2248 Prion disease update 2010 (05) 20100507.1488 2003 ---- BSE - Netherlands: source 20030203.0294 1999 ---- BSE - Netherlands: fifth case 19990112.0038 1998 ---- Netherlands: fourth case 19981023.2081 Netherlands: third case 19980827.1704 1997 ---- BSE - Netherlands: possible source (06) 19970612.1237 BSE - Netherlands: second case (03) 19970407.0736 BSE - Netherlands (03) 19970406.0720 BSE - Netherlands (2) 19970324.0620 BSE - Netherlands 19970323.0612] ...................................arn/mj/dk

##########################################################


http://www.promedmail.org/pls/apex/f?p=2400:1202:2933864118542671::NO::F2400_P1202_CHECK_DISPLAY,F2400_P1202_PUB_MAIL_ID:X,84629




Thursday, October 14, 2010

Netherlands reports 2nd BSE case this year 14 October 2010

http://docket-aphis-2006-0041.blogspot.com/2010/10/netherlands-reports-2nd-bse-case-this.html



Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Netherlands

Information received on 21/01/2011 from Dr Christianne Bruschke, Chief Veterinary Officer , Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Hague, Netherlands

Summary

Report type Immediate notification (Final report) Start date 04/01/2011 Date of first confirmation of the event 11/01/2011 Report date 21/01/2011 Date submitted to OIE 21/01/2011 Date event resolved 11/01/2011 Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease Date of previous occurrence 15/10/2010 Manifestation of disease Clinical disease Causal agent Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (basic) This event pertains to the whole country

New outbreaksOutbreak 1 Lippenhuizen, FRIESLAND Date of start of the outbreak 04/01/2011 Outbreak status Resolved (11/01/2011) Epidemiological unit Farm Affected animals Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Destroyed Slaughtered Cattle 119 1 0 1 0

Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1 Outbreak statistics Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost* Cattle 0.84% 0.00% 0.00% 0.84%

* Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter

EpidemiologySource of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection Unknown or inconclusive

Epidemiological comments Result of a monitoring sample taken at a rendering plant. The animal was euthanized by a veterinary practitioner. There are no animals alive belonging to the birth cohort and the feed cohort and there are no animals alive belonging to the off-spring younger than 2 years. This is a case of atypical BSE (L-type).

Control measuresMeasures applied Modified stamping out No vaccination No treatment of affected animals

Measures to be applied No other measures

Diagnostic test resultsLaboratory name and type Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) (Regional Reference Laboratory) Tests and results Species Test Test date Result Cattle immunohistochemical test 11/01/2011 Positive Cattle western blotting 11/01/2011 Positive

Future ReportingThe event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.

Map of outbreak locations

http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10152


Saturday, January 22, 2011

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, atypical BSE (L-type). Netherlands Information received on 21/01/2011

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Netherlands

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy.html


Cases of atypical BSE have only been found in countries having implemented large active surveillance programs.

As of 1st September 2007, 36 cases (16 H, 20 L) have been described all over the world in cattle: Belgium (1 L) [23], Canada (1 H)15, Denmark (1 L)16, France (8 H, 6 L)17, Germany (1 H, 1 L) [13], Italy (3 L)18, Japan (1 L) [71],

Netherlands (1 H, 2 L)19,

Poland (1 H, 6 L)20, Sweden (1 H)21, United Kingdom (1 H)22, and USA (2 H)23. Another H-type case has been found in a 19 year old miniature zebu in a zoological park in Switzerland [56]. It is noteworthy that atypical cases have been found in countries that did not experience classical BSE so far, like Sweden, or in which only few cases of classical BSE have been found, like Canada or the USA.

And last but not least, similarities of PrPres between Htype BSE and human prion diseases like CJD or GSS have been put forward [10], as well as between L-type BSE and CJD [17]. These findings raise questions about the origin and inter species transmission of these prion diseases that were discovered through the BSE active surveillance.

full text 18 pages ;

http://www.vetres.org/index.php?option=article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/vetres/pdf/2008/04/v07232.pdf



SNIP...SEE ;

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2008/06/review-on-epidemiology-and-dynamics-of.html


A 10-year-old cow in the Netherlands has tested positive for BSE, more commonly known as "mad cow" disease, the first such result in more than two years, the Dutch government said on Friday.

The government ministry responsible for food quality said the animal tested positive for the brain-wasting disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy at a slaughterhouse. It was the first positive test for BSE in the country since May 2008, the ministry said in a statement.

"This fits the expectation of the Central Veterinary Institute that the Netherlands in the coming years will encounter an infected cow now and again," a ministry spokesman said. He added that the cow's meat was withdrawn from the food chain after a first positive test, while a second test confirmed the result.

All cows sent to slaughter in the country are tested and held aside for the results before their meat enters the system. More than 400,000 cows were tested last year without incident.

No extra precautions Because of those rules, the spokesman said, no extra precautions will be required in general or on the diseased cow's herd or farm in particular.

Cattle have been tested for BSE in the Netherlands since 2001, while since 1997 the most infectious organs, the brains and spinal marrow have been collected and destroyed to prevent infection.

Mad cow disease is of particular concern because it has been known to cause a related brain-wasting disease in humans who have eaten contaminated meat.

Three people have died in the Netherlands from variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease after eating meat from a BSE positive cow. The last reported death was in January 2009. Deaths were also reported in 2005 and 2006.

(source: Reuters)

http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/new-case-mad-cow-disease-holland


P02.35

Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE

Biacabe, A-G1; Jacobs, JG2; Gavier-Widén, D3; Vulin, J1; Langeveld, JPM2; Baron, TGM1 1AFSSA, France; 2CIDC-Lelystad, Netherlands; 3SVA, Sweden

Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK-resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2007/abstract_book.pdf


Thursday, June 23, 2011

Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/experimental-h-type-bovine-spongiform.html


Tuesday, November 02, 2010

BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/bse-atypical-lesion-distribution-rbse.html


let's take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow.


This new prionopathy in humans? the genetic makeup is IDENTICAL to the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow, the only _documented_ mad cow in the world to date like this, ......wait, it get's better. this new prionpathy is killing young and old humans, with LONG DURATION from onset of symptoms to death, and the symptoms are very similar to nvCJD victims, OH, and the plaques are very similar in some cases too, bbbut, it's not related to the g-h-BSEalabama cow, WAIT NOW, it gets even better, the new human prionpathy that they claim is a genetic TSE, has no relation to any gene mutation in that family. daaa, ya think it could be related to that mad cow with the same genetic make-up ??? there were literally tons and tons of banned mad cow protein in Alabama in commerce, and none of it transmitted to cows, and the cows to humans there from ??? r i g h t $$$

ALABAMA MAD COW g-h-BSEalabama

In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156


http://www.plospathogens.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156&representation=PDF


her healthy calf also carried the mutation (J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008).

This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine–human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks.

Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: maf12@cam.ac.uk Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA

NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n7233/full/4571079b.html


Saturday, August 14, 2010

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/2010/08/bse-case-associated-with-prion-protein.html


PLEASE NOTE *

Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.

snip...

The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (> 95 %) downer or dead dairy cattle...


http://web.archive.org/web/20030516051623/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf


Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque



"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/transmissibility-of-bse-l-and-cattle.html



Sunday, June 26, 2011

Risk Analysis of Low-Dose Prion Exposures in Cynomolgus Macaque

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/risk-analysis-of-low-dose-prion.html



Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Neuroanatomical Distribution of Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detected by Fallen Stock Surveillance in Japan

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/07/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-disease.html



Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Galveston, Texas - Isle port moves through thousands of heifers headed to Russia, none from Texas, Alabama, or Washington, due to BSE risk factor

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/galveston-texas-isle-port-moves-through.html


Thursday, July 14, 2011

Valley Farm Meats (DBA Strasburg Provision, Inc) Issues Precautionary Recall for Beef Products Due to Possible Contamination with Prohibited Materials SRM

Ohio Department of Agriculture and Ohio Department of Health

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/07/valley-farm-meats-dba-strasburg.html



Saturday, July 23, 2011




CATTLE HEADS WITH TONSILS, BEEF TONGUES, SPINAL CORD, SPECIFIED RISK MATERIALS (SRM's) AND PRIONS, AKA MAD COW DISEASE



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/07/cattle-heads-with-tonsils-beef-tongues.html




Thursday, July 14, 2011

Histopathological Studies of “CH1641-Like” Scrapie Sources Versus Classical Scrapie and BSE Transmitted to Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/07/histopathological-studies-of-ch1641.html


Monday, December 14, 2009

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types

(hmmm, this is getting interesting now...TSS)

Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits,

see also ;

All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype.

http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/2009/09/co-existence-of-scrapie-prion-protein.html


see full text ;

Monday, December 14, 2009

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/12/similarities-between-forms-of-sheep.html


Sunday, December 12, 2010

EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/12/efsa-reviews-bsetse-infectivity-in.html



Thursday, December 23, 2010

Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009 Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/12/molecular-typing-of-protease-resistant.html


Thursday, November 18, 2010

Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/increased-susceptibility-of-human-prp.html


Thursday, June 2, 2011

USDA scrapie report for April 2011 NEW ATYPICAL NOR-98 SCRAPIE CASES Pennsylvania AND California

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/06/usda-scrapie-report-for-april-2011-new.html


Monday, June 20, 2011 2011

Annual Conference of the National Institute for Animal Agriculture ATYPICAL NOR-98 LIKE SCRAPIE UPDATE USA

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/06/2011-annual-conference-of-national.html


Monday, November 30, 2009

USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/11/usda-and-oie-collaborate-to-exclude.html


I strenuously urge the USDA and the OIE et al to revoke the exemption of the legal global trading of atypical Nor-98 scrapie TSE. ...TSS


Friday, February 11, 2011

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2011/02/atypicalnor98-scrapie-infectivity-in.html


Wednesday, July 06, 2011

Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation


(see tonnage of mad cow feed in commerce USA...tss)


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/07/swine-are-susceptible-to-chronic.html


Monday, June 27, 2011

Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/06/zoonotic-potential-of-cwd-experimental.html


Please see the following warning from CDC about prion TSE consumption in North America ;


Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?"

http://www.promedmail.org/pls/apex/f?p=2400:1001:568933508083034::NO::F2400_P1001_BACK_PAGE,F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,82101




CENTAUR GLOBAL NETWORK INFORMATION


[ProMED-mail thanks Terry S Singeltary Sr for drawing attention to this comprehensive document which provides a current evaluation of experimental work designed to explore the zoonotic potential of the various recently recognised TSEs of domestic and other animals. It is concluded that at present the only TSE agent demonstrated to be zoonotic is the classical BSE agent. Nor can it be entirely excluded at the present time that a small proportion of cases of sporadic CJD may be environmentally acquired. - Mod.CP]

http://centaur.vri.cz.web.atin.cz/docs/cnfi/2011-06-16-110.pdf



CANADA CJD UPDATE 2011

CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20112 As of January 31, 2011

3. Final classification of 49 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 is pending.

snip...

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/cjd-mcj/cjdss-ssmcj/pdf/stats_0111-eng.pdf


USA 2011

USA

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

Cases Examined1

(November 1, 2010)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 & earlier 51 33 28 5 0 0

1997 114 68 59 9 0 0

1998 87 51 43 7 1 0

1999 121 73 65 8 0 0

2000 146 103 89 14 0 0

2001 209 119 109 10 0 0

2002 248 149 125 22 2 0

2003 274 176 137 39 0 0

2004 325 186 164 21 0 13

2005 344 194 157 36 1 0

2006 383 197 166 29 0 24

2007 377 214 187 27 0 0

2008 394 231 205 25 0 0

2009 425 258 215 43 0 0

2010 333 213 158 33 0 0

TOTAL 38315 22656 1907 328 4 3

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;

2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;

3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;

4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf



Please notice where sporadic CJD cases in 1996 went from 28 cases, to 215 cases in 2009, the highest recorded year to date. sporadic CJD is on a steady rise, and has been since 1996.

I also urge you to again notice these disturbing factors in lines 5 and 6 ;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.


========end=====tss=====2011


UPDATE JULY 2011 MORE OF THE "PENDING CLASSIFICATION CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE'' STEADY INCREASING...TSS


case; 5 Includes 13 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases; 6 Includes 18 (15 from 2011) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf




Monday, August 9, 2010

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined (July 31, 2010)

(please watch and listen to the video and the scientist speaking about atypical BSE and sporadic CJD and listen to Professor Aguzzi)

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/08/national-prion-disease-pathology.html


Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html


Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE.

When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

http://www.prionetcanada.ca/detail.aspx?menu=5&dt=293380&app=93&cat1=387&tp=20&lk=no&cat2


Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.

***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

Second threat

snip...

http://www.neuroprion.org/en/np-neuroprion.html


http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/2010/08/seven-main-threats-for-future-linked-to.html


http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/


Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee

The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government’s decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010

2.65 At its hearing on 14 May 2010, the committee heard evidence from Dr Alan Fahey who has recently submitted a thesis on the clinical neuropsychiatric, epidemiological and diagnostic features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.48 Dr Fahey told the committee of his concerns regarding the lengthy incubation period for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the inadequacy of current tests and the limited nature of our current understanding of this group of diseases.49

2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo—has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50

http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/rrat_ctte/mad_cows/report/report.pdf


14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -

Final Abstract Number: ISE.114

Session: International Scientific Exchange

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

T. Singeltary

Bacliff, TX, USA

Background:

An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.

Methods:

12 years independent research of available data

Results:

I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.

Conclusion:

I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

http://ww2.isid.org/Downloads/14th_ICID_ISE_Abstracts.pdf


Monday, May 23, 2011

Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals 2011

Top Curr Chem (2011)

DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_161

# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Michael A. Tranulis, Sylvie L. Benestad, Thierry Baron, and Hans Kretzschmar

Abstract

Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the “scrapie form” (PrPSc), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans.

M.A. Tranulis (*)

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway

e-mail: Michael.Tranulis@nvh.no

S.L. Benestad

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway

T. Baron

Agence Nationale de Se´curite´ Sanitaire, ANSES, Lyon, France

H. Kretzschmar

Ludwig–Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Keywords Animal Atypical Atypical/Nor98 scrapie BSE-H BSE-L Human Prion disease Prion strain Prion type

http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=f433r34h34ugg617&size=largest


snip...SEE MORE HERE ;


http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/05/atypical-prion-diseases-in-humans-and.html


Brief Communication

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a young Dutch valine homozygote: Atypical molecular phenotype

Mark W. Head PhD1,*, Gerrit Tissingh MD2, Bernard M. J. Uitdehaag MD, PhD2, Frederik Barkhof MD, PhD3, Tristan J. R. Bunn MSc1, James W. Ironside FRCP1, Wouter Kamphorst MD, PhD4, Philip Scheltens MD, PhD2Article first published online: 3 JUL 2001

DOI: 10.1002/ana.1100

Abstract

A case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is described in a young Dutch protein prion gene (PRNP) codon 129 valine homozygote. Certain clinical and molecular features of this case overlap those of variant CJD. The case highlights possible difficulties in the differential diagnosis of vCJD and the more rare sCJD subtypes based on molecular features alone.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.1100/abstract


© Borgis - Postepy Nauk Medycznych 4, s. 282-288 *Pawel P. Liberski1, Beata Sikorska2, Caspar Jansen3, James W. Ironside4 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in old age Choroba Creutzfeldta-Jakoba w póznym wieku 1,2Department of Molecular Pathology & Neuropathology, Medical University Lodz, Poland Head: prof. Pawel P. Liberski 3Dutch Surveillance Centre for Prion Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht, The Netherlands 4National CJD Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK



snip...


In the Netherlands, out of a total of 150 CJD patients for years 1998-2008, they were 39 cases between 70 and 75 years of age (or 28 if age 70 is not included); 15 cases: 76-79 years of age; 9 cases: 80-85 years of age but no for 86 year of age or older.


http://www.pnmedycznych.pl/shown.php?ktory=3385


Wednesday, January 19, 2011

EFSA and ECDC review scientific evidence on possible links between TSEs in animals and humans Webnachricht 19 Januar 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/efsa-and-ecdc-review-scientific.html



Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Agent strain variation in human prion disease: insights from a molecular and pathological review of the National Institutes of Health series of experimentally transmitted disease

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/agent-strain-variation-in-human-prion.html


Monday, May 11, 2009

Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/05/rare-bse-mutation-raises-concerns-over.html


http://sporadicffi.blogspot.com/


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/
 
 
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/



TSS

No comments:

Post a Comment