AD.22: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease and scrapie (TSE surveillance) programs in Alberta, Canada
Hernan Ortegon,1 Eva Chow,1 Christa Coetser,3 Gerald Hauer,1 Margo Pybus2 and Ana M. Ulmer-Franco1
1Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development; Edmonton, AS Canada; 2Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development; Edmonton, AB Canada; 3Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Calgary, AB Canada
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids, and scrapie in sheep and goats are reportable diseases under both the provincial Animal Health Act (Alberta) and the federal Health of Animals Act (Canada). Alberta Agriculture and Rural Developmemt (ARD), in collaboration with Environment and Sustainable Resource Development, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the livestock industry, have performed over the past 8 y enhanced surveillance for these diseases. An overview of the history, characteristics, development and evolution of these programs will be presented.
An integrated approach between both levels of government and provincial specialists led to the delivery of three high-quality surveillance programs in Alberta (AB): The Canada and Alberta BSE Surveillance Program (CABSESP) was initiated on July 1, 2004 to meet international requirements on BSE surveillance, to determine the prevalence of BSE and the influence of several mitigation strategies. These actions increased consumer confidence and market access for Canadian cattle and meat products. Today, Canada exports beef to more than 50 countries. The CABSESP has tested approximately 145,000 animals for BSE since 2003. Out of the 18 BSE Canadian cases, 13 were detected by the CABSESP in AB.
The mandatory CWD surveillance program (MCWDSP) for farmed cervids was established in AB in 2002. Under this program cervid producers are required to submit samples from all farmed cervids one year of age and older dying on farm, culled or slaughtered. The MCWDSP has opened international markets in the US, Europe, Middle East and Eastern Asia to AB farmed cervids by providing confidence to consumers on the herd's freedom from CWD. To date, only three cases of CWD in farmed cervids were detected in AB, all in 2002, which was followed by full eradication of those herds. In addition, the TSE laboratory of ARD has tested over 50,000 samples from wild cervids finding 155 cases to date in 137 mule deer, 17 white-tailed deer, and one moose.
Scrapie surveillance in sheep and goats has been accomplished by three programs: the AB Abattoir surveillance, which targets abattoir populations; the AB on-farm scrapie program, which targets non-registered on-farms deaths; and the National voluntary scrapie flock certification program, which targets certified flocks. TSE surveillance in AB responded to multiple challenges resulting from evolving markets, national and international animal health requirements and new scientific discoveries, evolving and adapting to new conditions thanks to the joint effort of all parties involved.
The disease was confirmed only in elk in the Republic of Korea in 2001, 2004 and 2005. Epidemiological investigations showed that CWD was introduced via importation of infected elk from Canada between 1994 and 1997.
Friday, May 13, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises.
In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented. Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002.
Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.
Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program.
Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).
In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive.
Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive.
Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.
Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis.
Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2. All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.
Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.
In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive.
This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer. Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5. In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.
: Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5
Additional Cases of Chronic Wasting Disease in Imported Deer in Korea
*Tae-Yung KIM1) 3), *Hyun-Joo SHON2), *Yi-Seok JOO2), *Un-Kyong MUN2), *Kyung-Sun KANG3), *Yong-Soon LEE3)
1) Animal Health Division, Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry 2) National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service 3) Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University
Released 2005/09/05 received 2005/01/21 accepted 2005/05/27 Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), horizontal transmission
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), which had previously occurred only in the U.S.A. and Canada, broke out in a farm at Chungbuk, Korea from imported Canadian deer (Aug. 8, 2001). CWD distribution, through surveillance and epidemiologic investigations, was reported for 93 deer (43 from the CWD originating farm and 50 imported with the CWD originating farm's deer) out of 144 deer (72 from the CWD originating farm and 72 imported with the CWD originating farm's deer) that were breeding at 30 different farms. On Oct. 4 and Oct. 8, 2001, additional cases of CWD were investigated. As a result of slaughtering cohabitating deer, it was verified that other imported deer from Canada were also infected with CWD. Since it was thought that this might cause horizontal transmission, 93 deer imported from Canada in 1997 and 130 cohabitating Korean deer were slaughtered and examined. There were no infected Korean deer, but CWD re-occurred on Nov. 20, 2004 and is still under investigation.
Wednesday, August 11, 2010
REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SIXTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA
Thursday, August 19, 2010
REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SEVENTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA
Friday, March 4, 2011
Alberta dairy cow found with mad cow disease
Tuesday, May 21, 2013
*** Canada, USA, Bad feed, mad cows: Why we know three BSE cases had a common origin and why the SSS policy is in full force $$$
CFIA, USDA, AND OIE SHOOT, SHOVEL, AND SHUT THE HELL UP SSS BSE TSE PRION MAD COW TYPE POLICY $$$, and the media is buying it hook, line, and sinker $$$
EDMONTON - Some of former Alberta premier Ralph Klein's most colourful quotes — and the reactions they elicited:
"This all came about through the discovery of a single, isolated case of mad cow disease in one Alberta cow on May 20th.
The farmer — I think he was a Louisiana fish farmer who knew nothing about cattle ranching.
*** I guess any self-respecting rancher would have shot, shovelled and shut up, but he didn't do that." — Klein recalls how the mad cow crisis started and rancher Marwyn Peaster's role.
The premier was speaking at the Western Governors Association meeting in Big Sky, Mont. September 2004.
Wednesday, December 22, 2010.
Manitoba veterinarian has been fined $10,000 for falsifying certification documents for U.S. bound cattle and what about mad cow disease?
CENSORSHIP IS A TERRIBLE THING $$$.
Canada has had a COVER-UP policy of mad cow disease since about the 17th case OR 18th case of mad cow disease. AFTER THAT, all FOIA request were ignored $$$.
THIS proves there is indeed an epidemic of mad cow disease in North America, and it has been covered up for years and years, if not for decades, and it’s getting worse $$$.
Thursday, February 10, 2011.
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY REPORT UPDATE CANADA FEBRUARY 2011 and how to hide mad cow disease in Canada Current as of: 2011-01-31.
Thursday, January 17, 2013.
Canada, U.S. agree on animal-disease measures to protect trade, while reducing human and animal health protection.
Reasons for the New Regulation Order No. 23 (as well as amending Order No. 149) of the State Committee for Veterinary Medicine name BSE as the reason for new import requirement. The legal title for Order No. 23 is "On Urgent Measures Aimed at Prevention and Elimination of BSE and Other Prion Infections in Cattle”. Neither Order explains how the threat of introduction of BSE can be addressed through the inspection of producers of all products of animal origin including fish, dairy products, poultry and pork. It is not clear what other concerns are addressed through the proposed inspections. Formal Notification of Trading Partners On August 3rd, Ukraine's Notification and Enquiry Point issued a legal Notification G/SPS/N/UKR/3/Rev.1 found on the Official WTO Website (Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures)
Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections.
Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.
Thursday, February 23, 2012
Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012
Wednesday, April 4, 2012
20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation
Sunday, September 1, 2013
Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy
We previously described the biochemical similarities between PrPres derived from L-BSE infected macaque and cortical MM2 sporadic CJD: those observations suggest a link between these two uncommon prion phenotypes in a primate model (it is to note that such a link has not been observed in other models less relevant from the human situation as hamsters or transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP ). We speculate that a group of related animal prion strains (L-BSE, c-BSE and TME) would have a zoonotic potential and lead to prion diseases in humans with a type 2 PrPres molecular signature (and more specifically type 2B for vCJD)
Together with previous experiments performed in ovinized and bovinized transgenic mice and hamsters [8,9] indicating similarities between TME and L-BSE, the data support the hypothesis that L-BSE could be the origin of the TME outbreaks in North America and Europe during the mid-1900s.
Monday, September 02, 2013
Atypical BSE: role of the E211K prion polymorphism
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
Sunday, July 21, 2013
Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013 Singeltary Submission WG18417
Tuesday, July 2, 2013
APHIS USDA Administrator Message to Stakeholders: Agency Vision and Goals Eliminating ALL remaining BSE barriers to export market
Tuesday, May 21, 2013
Canada, USA, Bad feed, mad cows: Why we know three BSE cases had a common origin and why the SSS policy is in full force $$$
CJD surveillance in the Canada and the USA has been in place well long enough, for this same excuse (improved P/T reporting) year after year of reporting increases to be a valid excuse anymore, in my opinion.
I don’t buy this same old song and dance anymore.
it’s the same recording we hear year after year, decade after decade, happenstance of bad luck, increase is due to better surveillance, yada, yada, yada $$$
North America is awash in animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion disease in many, many species. All of which are consumed/exposed in many different ways, by humans and animals.
This excuse ‘’improved P/T reporting’’ is old, and it is what it is, an excuse, to protect the industries that are involved. nothing has changed in almost 3 decades, except the people. it’s the same old BSe.
I will report on disturbing iatrogenic risk factors, cjd in the UK, and more data on the TSE prion disease in different species, and more from prion2013 as I can get it put together.
I want to thank Prion2013, and all the scientist and doctors and such that are working so hard to solve the many riddles of the TSE prion disease. ...TSS
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
Saturday, June 15, 2013
Canada Fraser Health Statement on Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outbreak
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Late-in-life surgery associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a methodological outline for evidence-based guidance
Friday, August 16, 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update August 2013 U.K. and Contaminated blood products induce a highly atypical prion disease devoid of PrPres in primates