Sunday, July 21, 2013

Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013 Singeltary Submission WG18417

Sent: Sunday, July 21, 2013 1:44 PM
Subject: Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013
 

July 21, 2013
 
 
 
Subject: Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013
 

endemics@wales.gsi.gov.uk; fenris@caramail.com;

 

 

Greetings Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales,

 

 

With great urgency, I would kindly like to comment on ;

 
 

Number: WG18417

 
 
 
Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013

 

 
 
 
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control jointly advised in 2011 that BSE is the only animal TSE that has been shown to be a risk to human health and that there is no epidemiological evidence to suggest that classical scrapie is a risk to human health.
 
 
 
and
 
 
 
 
What are the main issues under consideration?
 
2.1 The main issues under consideration relate to changes in BSE testing requirements; more proportionate measures for controlling classical scrapie in sheep flocks and goat herds in which classical scrapie is confirmed; and more proportionate controls on animal feed. The Welsh Government also wishes to consult on proposed amendments to the BSE cattle compensation system in light of identified anomalies in the current system, in addition to a variety of other proposed technical and procedural amendments to the 2008 Regulations.
 
2.2 The key specific amendments are summarised and then considered in more detail below. Other proposed technical amendments, which are considered to have a negligible impact or have already been implemented administratively, are listed at Annex A.

 

What are the main issues under consideration?
 
 
2.1
 
 
* The main issues under consideration relate to changes in BSE testing requirements;
 
 
* more proportionate measures for controlling classical scrapie in sheep flocks
 
 
* and goat herds in which classical scrapie is confirmed; and
 
 
* more proportionate controls on animal feed.
 
 
 
 
Greetings again Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales,
 
 
 
with another TSE prion medical blunder happening just this past week ;
 


Friday, July 19, 2013

Beaumont Hospital in Dublin assessing patients for CJD
http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/07/beaumont-hospital-in-dublin-assessing.html

 

 

I STRENUOUSLY urge you take my submission with the greatest urgency.

 

My submission and concerns as follows, and in part mixed in and throughout the  WG18417  Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013.

 

First and foremost, I think it is very important for the Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales, to take a full inventory of your imports from North America, and other Countries, especially your pet and fish foods, for reasons and scientific facts I have supplied below.

 

I think the attempt by Governments around the globe to do away with the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion disease, via weakening of the BSE TSE prion surveillance, lowering of age limits in testing, weakening the feed bans, caving in to industry, ignoring all the science of the past 3 decades, ignoring these different atypical TSE prion disease breaking out, making up new names for these TSE prion disease, and by the way, what ever happened to the IBNC BSE, and the pathology there, and what about testing there from?

 

The USDA, CFIA, with the help of the OIE, have made it there goal to extinguish all BSE TSE prion trade barriers, before all the science on the TSE prion disease is in, and are working hard to exempt all TSE prion in all species from any trade barrier, and the OIE is working right along with them. This happened December 2003, when the USA lost it’s OIE BSE Gold Card, when BSE was first documented in the USA, after a long hard fought battle trying to cover mad cow disease up. This proven time and time again by the OIG and the GAO of the USA. I will supply url links of submissions I have made to the USDA et al over the years, since the death of my Mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. hvCJD ‘confirmed’ 12/14/97. just another happenstance of bad luck they tell me, that it only happens in the UK, and that it’s a UK disease, this mad cow disease, that no other animal species TSE prion disease in the world, at no other location, can transmit a TSE prion disease to a human, and then basing all trading protocol from country to country, based on this junk science, destroys the past 3 decades of trying to eradicate the damn disease, and the OIE, USDA, CFIA, and all the other countries that know better, that just goes along with this due to trade purposes, just because it’s a long incubating disease, just because the science is still in it’s infancy, does not mean we should start ignoring what early science has taught us, and start weakening any safety protocols there from.

 

North America has the most documented TSE prion disease in the wild and in farmed livestock than any other country in the world, excluding the TSE prion disease documented in zoo animals. Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervids is running rampant, the USA and Canada can’t stop it, while Mexico has not a clue of any TSE prion disease.  The shooting pens, and CWD there from in the USA, is a real risk factor, one the game farms refuse to admit they are a big problem with the spreading of the CWD TSE prion disease, fighting tooth and nail completely ignoring the evolving science on the CWD TSE prion disease, and how it’s spread, and these antler mills are multiplying from state to state in big numbers. There is ample evidence of CWD transmission to humans, to warrant a warning to the world, of the IATROGENIC potential for this TSE prion disease in cervids, via the multitude of potential routes of infection, via the medical, dental, surgical, blood, tissue.  CWD has now mutated to multiple strains. The science is there to warrant this very real concern, it’s just the same as with what happened in the U.K., the industry and USDA inc., are stopping these concerns to be made public, with the same watered down junk science used in the beginning of the BSE blunder.  you should all be very aware of this, if you come abroad to North America. DEFRA has put out a warning on CWD TSE prion disease in the USA and have put out a document I supplied with additional risk factors from North America, this is supplied below as well.

 

Another concern is with your assumptions that typical classical scrapie is not a risk factor for humans, when there _is_ evidence to show otherwise, that indeed typical scrapie is a risk factor for humans, as with atypical Scrapie.

 

The OIE, USDA inc, and the CFIA, have come to the conclusion that neither typical scrapie nor the atypical Nor-98 scrapie are neither a risk factor for humans, they have urged the OIE to conclude that atypical Nor-98 to be exempt from any trading protocols, and indeed have made the Nor-98 atypical scrapie EXEMPT, and made it legal to trade, and they are also in the works to make typical scrapie exempt.

 

typical scrapie consist of many different strains of scrapie, not just one. and the atypical Nor-98 has very similar features with human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease GSS and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy VPSPr. I have not seen anywhere in the Bible, or the scrolls of the Dead Sea, where it was stipulated that indeed typical c-BSE is the only zoonosis Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion disease. This is ludicrous in 2013 to still believe this junk science.

 

With the science to date of the 1st 10 nvCJD victims of Dr. Ironside et al, and the diagnostic criteria then to diagnose the nvCJD, compared to what Dr. Gambetti et al diagnosed in their 1st 10, of which young victims are being diagnosed, but yet changed the name to VPSPr type CJD human TSE, is not scientific in my opinion. I believe that the UKBSEnvCJD only theory is bogus, it is not scientific, and should be put to bed once and for all. you cannot have your cake and eat it too. either Ironside was wrong, or Gambetti is wrong. to continue this UKBSEnvCJD only myth, will only help continue spread the TSE prion agent long and far.

 

typical Scrapie has been studied for decades and decades, and has proven to be transmitted to non-human primates by their NON-FORCED oral consumption (Gibbs et al).  when you write in absolute terms as this is fact that  ‘’BSE is the only animal TSE that has been shown to be a risk to human health and that there is no epidemiological evidence to suggest that classical scrapie is a risk to human health’’ may be true in terms of documentation, but in terms of science to date, I think you are wishing. I kindly wish to submit the following in good faith ;

 
 
 
 
Subject: Food and Rural Affairs on the incidence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in the UK sheep flock has been in each of the last 10 years
 
CJD: Sheep
 
Jesse Norman: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the incidence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in the UK sheep flock has been in each of the last 10 years for which data is available. [158834]
 
 
 
Mr Heath [holding answer 12 June 2013]: All cases of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) confirmed in the UK sheep flock between 2003 and 2012 have been either classical or atypical scrapie. Cases by year are given in the following table:
 
 
 
 
Classical scrapie Atypical scrapie
 
Total 2003 444 52 496
 
2004 337 16 353
 
2005 229 25 254
 
2006 157 49 206
 
2007 37 36 73
 
2008 9 12 21
 
2009 9 25 34
 
2010 1 19 20
 
2011 49(1) 23 72
 
2012 2 29 31
 
(1) 44 classical scrapie cases in 2011 came from a single flock.
 
 
 
 
 
THIS atypical Nor-98 scrapie, or BSE in sheep, or IBNC BSE,  I don’t know what they mean here, but seems these happenstance of bad luck twisted up proteins i.e. atypical, what some claim to be the old timey, old age TSE, the ones that are _suppose_ to happen spontaneously, if you listen to some officials, seems strange to have 52 cases in 2003, then only 16 cases in 2004, and back up to 49 cases in 2006.
 
 
or it’s not spontaneous at all.
 
 
this is very interesting too ; (1) 44 classical scrapie cases in 2011 came from a single flock. what ever happened to the IBNC BSE in the UK cattle ?
 
 
 
1992
 
NEW BRAIN DISORDER
 
3. WHAT ABOUT REPORTS OF NEW FORM OF BSE ?
 
THE VETERINARY RECORD HAS PUBLISHED AN ARTICLE ON A NEW BRAIN DISORDER OF CATTLE DISCOVERED THROUGH OUR CONTROL MEASURES FOR BSE. ALTHOUGH IT PRESENTS SIMILAR CLINICAL SIGNS TO BSE THERE ARE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY AND INCUBATION PERIODS BETWEEN THE TWO. MUST EMPHASISE THAT THIS IS _NOT_ BSE.
 
4. IS THIS NEW BRAIN DISORDER A THREAT ?
 
WE DO NOT EVEN KNOW WHETHER THE AGENT OF THIS DISEASE IS TRANSMISSIBLE. IN ANY CASE, CASES SO FAR IDENTIFIED HAD SHOWN SIMILAR SYMPTOMS TO THOSE OF BSE, AND THEREFORE HAVE BEEN SLAUGHTERED AND INCINERATED, SO THAT IF A TRANSMISSIBLE AGENT WERE INVOLVED IT WOULD HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED. ...
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 17, 2009
 
SEAC NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS (IBNC) FROM THE VETERINARY LABORATORIES AGENCY (VLA) SEAC 103/1
 
 
 
 
NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS
 
"All of the 15 cattle tested showed that the brains had abnormally accumulated PrP"
 
2009
 
 
 
 
''THE LINE TO TAKE'' ON IBNC $$$ 1995 $$$
 
1995
 
page 9 of 14 ;
 
30. The Committee noted that the results were unusual. the questioned whether there could be coincidental BSE infection or contamination with scrapie. Dr. Tyrell noted that the feeling of the committee was that this did not represent a new agent but it was important to be prepared to say something publicly about these findings. A suggested line to take was that these were scientifically unpublishable results but in line with the policy of openness they would be made publicly available and further work done to test their validity. Since the BSE precautions were applied to IBNC cases, human health was protected. Further investigations should be carried out on isolations from brains of IBNC cases with removal of the brain and subsequent handling under strict conditions to avoid the risk of any contamination.
 
31. Mr. Bradley informed the Committee that the CVO had informed the CMO about the IBNC results and the transmission from retina and he, like the Committee was satisfied that the controls already in place or proposed were adequate. ...
 
snip... see full text
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, July 28, 2010
 
Atypical prion proteins and IBNC in cattle DEFRA project code SE1796 FOIA Final report
 
 
 
 
 
IN CONFIDENCE
 
BSE ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 02, 2010
 
BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992
 
 
 
 
 
Atypical prion protein in sheep brain collected during the British scrapie-surveillance programme
 
S. J. Everest1, L. Thorne1, D. A. Barnicle1, J. C. Edwards1, H. Elliott2, R. Jackman1,† and J. Hope3,†
 
+ Author Affiliations
 
1Department of TSE Molecular Biology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
 
2Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Woking, Surrey, UK
 
3Veterinary Laboratories Agency Lasswade, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, UK
 
Correspondence J. Hope j.hope@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk Received 9 March 2005. Accepted 14 October 2005. Abstract Scrapie of sheep and goats is the most common prion disease (or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, TSE) of mammals and aggregates of abnormal, proteinase-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) are found in all naturally occurring prion diseases. During active surveillance of British sheep for TSEs, 29 201 sheep brain stem samples were collected from abattoirs and analysed for the presence of PrPSc. Of these samples, 54 were found to be positive by using an ELISA screening test, but 28 of these could not be confirmed initially by immunohistochemistry. These unconfirmed or atypical cases were generally found in PrP genotypes normally associated with relative resistance to clinical scrapie and further biochemical analysis revealed that they contained forms of PrPSc with a relatively protease-sensitive amyloid core, some resembling those of Nor98 scrapie. The presence of these atypical forms of protease-resistant PrP raises concerns that some TSE disorders of PrP metabolism previously may have escaped identification in the British sheep population.
 
Previous SectionNext Section ↵†These authors contributed equally to this work.
 
Supplementary material is available in JGV Online.
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, August 26, 2012
 
Susceptibility of young sheep to oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy decreases significantly after weaning
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, January 18, 2012
 
BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE
 
February 1, 2012
 
 
 
 
Thursday, April 4, 2013
 
Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy in the UK: a retrospective review 1991–2008
 
Brain (2013) 136 (4): 1102-1115. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws366
 
 
 
 
*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE ...price of prion poker goes up again $
 
OR-10: Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is transmissible in bank voles
 
Romolo Nonno,1 Michele Di Bari,1 Laura Pirisinu,1 Claudia D’Agostino,1 Stefano Marcon,1 Geraldina Riccardi,1 Gabriele Vaccari,1 Piero Parchi,2 Wenquan Zou,3 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 Umberto Agrimi1 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna; Bologna, Italy; 3Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA
 
Background. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described “sporadic”neurodegenerative disease involving prion protein aggregation, which has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer dementias, such as fronto-temporal dementia. Currently, 30 cases of VPSPr have been reported in Europe and USA, of which 19 cases were homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (VV), 8 were MV and 3 were MM. A distinctive feature of VPSPr is the electrophoretic pattern of PrPSc after digestion with proteinase K (PK). After PK-treatment, PrP from VPSPr forms a ladder-like electrophoretic pattern similar to that described in GSS cases. The clinical and pathological features of VPSPr raised the question of the correct classification of VPSPr among prion diseases or other forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report preliminary data on the transmissibility and pathological features of VPSPr cases in bank voles.
 
Materials and Methods. Seven VPSPr cases were inoculated in two genetic lines of bank voles, carrying either methionine or isoleucine at codon 109 of the prion protein (named BvM109 and BvI109, respectively). Among the VPSPr cases selected, 2 were VV at PrP codon 129, 3 were MV and 2 were MM. Clinical diagnosis in voles was confirmed by brain pathological assessment and western blot for PK-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) with mAbs SAF32, SAF84, 12B2 and 9A2.
 
Results. To date, 2 VPSPr cases (1 MV and 1 MM) gave positive transmission in BvM109. Overall, 3 voles were positive with survival time between 290 and 588 d post inoculation (d.p.i.). All positive voles accumulated PrPres in the form of the typical PrP27–30, which was indistinguishable to that previously observed in BvM109 inoculated with sCJDMM1 cases.
 
In BvI109, 3 VPSPr cases (2 VV and 1 MM) showed positive transmission until now. Overall, 5 voles were positive with survival time between 281 and 596 d.p.i.. In contrast to what observed in BvM109, all BvI109 showed a GSS-like PrPSc electrophoretic pattern, characterized by low molecular weight PrPres. These PrPres fragments were positive with mAb 9A2 and 12B2, while being negative with SAF32 and SAF84, suggesting that they are cleaved at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus. Second passages are in progress from these first successful transmissions.
 
Conclusions. Preliminary results from transmission studies in bank voles strongly support the notion that VPSPr is a transmissible prion disease. Interestingly, VPSPr undergoes divergent evolution in the two genetic lines of voles, with sCJD-like features in BvM109 and GSS-like properties in BvI109.
 
The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, January 14, 2013
 
Gambetti et al USA Prion Unit change another highly suspect USA mad cow victim to another fake name i.e. sporadic FFI at age 16 CJD Foundation goes along with this BSe
 
 
 
 
Monday, December 31, 2012
 
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease and Human TSE Prion Disease in Washington State, 2006–2011-2012
 
 
 
 
Saturday, December 29, 2012
 
MAD COW USA HUMAN TSE PRION DISEASE DECEMBER 29 2012 CJD CASE LAB REPORT
 
 
 
 
MAD COW USDA ATYPICAL L-TYPE BASE BSE, the rest of the story...
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 6, 2012
 
Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice, Atypical Scrapie, BSE, and Sporadic CJD, November-December 2012 update
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
 
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Human TSE report update North America, Canada, Mexico, and USDA PRION UNIT as of May 18, 2012
 
type determination pending Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (tdpCJD), is on the rise in Canada and the USA
 
 
 
 
Saturday, March 5, 2011
 
MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA
 
 
 
 
Sunday, February 12, 2012
 
National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined1 (August 19, 2011) including Texas
 
 
 
 
Monday, August 9, 2010
 
Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein or just more Prionbaloney ?
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, March 28, 2012
 
VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE ...price of prion poker goes up again $
 
OR-10 15:25 - 15:40 VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITIVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE IN BANK VOLES Nonno
 
 
 
 
Sunday, August 09, 2009
 
CJD...Straight talk with...James Ironside...and...Terry Singeltary... 2009
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, August 18, 2009
 
BSE-The Untold Story - joe gibbs and singeltary 1999 – 2009
 
 
 
 
Sunday, February 10, 2013
 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update (February 2013) Infection report/CJD
 
 
 
 
Monday, October 10, 2011
 
EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story
 
snip...
 
EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
 
see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;
 
 
 
 
Thursday, August 12, 2010
 
Seven main threats for the future linked to prions
 
First threat
 
The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.
 
***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.
 
Second threat
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
Saturday, June 25, 2011
 
Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque
 
"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"
 
 
 
 
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.
 
snip...
 
The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
 
 
 
 
Monday, September 26, 2011
 
L-BSE BASE prion and atypical sporadic CJD
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, July 21, 2013
 
Biochemical Characteristics and PrPSc Distribution Pattern in the Brains of Cattle Experimentally Challenged with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, July 6, 2013
 
 
*** Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy
 
 
Research Article
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 2, 2013
 
APHIS USDA Administrator Message to Stakeholders: Agency Vision and Goals Eliminating ALL remaining BSE barriers to export market
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, June 23, 2013
 
National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper (Document ID APHIS-2012-0105-0001)
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. submission
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 13, 2013
 
Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, June 3, 2013
 
*** Unsuccessful oral transmission of scrapie from British sheep to cattle
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, July 21, 2013
 
As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, July 11, 2013
 
 
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer
 
 
 
interesting article ;
 
 
 
Max Dream, the Madera Bonita Ranch's prized buck, is a semen-producing cash cow. Mike Wood
 
 
Max Dream, the Madera Bonita Ranch's prized buck, is a semen-producing cash cow.
 
 
In magazine advertisements in which Max is backlit in messianic grandeur, his value can be determined in other ways. Wood sells half-cubic-centimeter straws of the animal's cryogenically frozen semen (or about a tenth of a teaspoon) for $5,000 a pop. And breeders will pony up just for a shot at a fawn boasting the great Max Dream as sire. Bear in mind, a buck in his prime with an electroejaculator inserted in his rectum can produce 60 straws at a time.
 
 
Though Max never leaves the confines of Madera Bonita, FedEx spreads his cryogenically frozen seed far and wide.
 
 
 
 
Thursday, July 11, 2013
 
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer
 
 
 
 
 

PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT SUBMISSION ;

Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

To:
fdadockets@oc.fda.gov
 
 


CWD, SCRAPIE, CATTLE, TSE ???

"CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures."

Please see ;

Within 26 months post inoculation, 12 inoculated animals had lost weight, revealed abnormal clinical signs, and were euthanatized. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a unique pattern of the disease agent in tissues of these animals. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=194089
 
"although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001])."

shouldn't this be corrected, 86% is NOT a low rate. ...

kindest regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;
 
----- Original Message -----

From: David Colby

To:
flounder9@verizon.net

Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

Dear Terry Singeltary,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.

Warm Regards, David Colby

--

David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware
 
====================END...TSS==============
 
 
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN

Wednesday, September 08, 2010

CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html
 
The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”
https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/121201a.aspx
 
P35

ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD

Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5

The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf
 
breeding cervids, captive shooting pens, straw bred bucks, antler mills, sperm mills, all these type business are a petri dish for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD. not that it matters to the TAHC, they been letting CWD waltz across Texas from the WSMR in NM since around 2002, where I told them then, it was waltzing across from the TRANS PECOS region. did they listen? no, and the rest is history. TEXAS is CWD positive now. and YES, CWD does transmit to other species, and YES, there is a risk factor for humans, and that risk factor has grown now that there are multiple strains of CWD. these are the facts as I have come to know them doing daily research of the TSE CWD mad cow type prion, after loosing my mother to the hvCJD 'confirmed', 15 years ago. sporadic CJD cases are rising, and the age is getting younger. ...tss
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
http://cdmrp.army.mil/prevfunded/nprp/NPRP_Summit_Final_Report.pdf
 
 
P35

ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD

Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5

The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf
 
PPo3-7:

Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent

Qingzhong Kong, Shenghai Huang,*Fusong Chen, Michael Payne, Pierluigi Gambetti and Liuting Qing Department of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA *Current address: Nursing Informatics; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; New York, NY USA

Key words: CWD, strain, human transmission

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in cervids (deer and elk) in North America where significant human exposure to CWD is likely and zoonotic transmission of CWD is a concern. Current evidence indicates a strong barrier for transmission of the classical CWD strain to humans with the PrP-129MM genotype. A few recent reports suggest the presence of two or more CWD strains. What remain unknown is whether individuals with the PrP-129VV/MV genotypes are also resistant to the classical CWD strain and whether humans are resistant to all natural or adapted cervid prion strains. Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains. Preliminary results on CWD transmission in transgenic mice expressing human PrP-129V will also be discussed.

Acknowledgement Supported by NINDS NS052319 and NIA AG14359.
 
 
PPo2-27:

Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions

Marcelo A. Barria,1 Glenn C. Telling,2 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain disorders; Dept of Neurology; University of Texas Houston Medical School; Houston, TX USA; 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics and Neurology; Sanders Brown Center on Aging; University of Kentucky Medical Center; Lexington, KY USA; 3Institute of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA; 4Dept of Neurology; University of Chicago; Chicago, IL USA

Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded and infectious prion (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. CWD is highly contagious and its origin, mechanism of transmission and exact prevalence are currently unclear. The risk of transmission of CWD to humans is unknown. Defining that risk is of utmost importance, considering that people have been infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the infectious form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the pathological conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, this newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc, indicating that it corresponds to a novel human prion strain. Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.
 
 
PPo2-7:

Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates

Martin L. Daus and Michael Beekes Robert Koch Institute; Berlin, Germany

Key words: CWD, strains, FT-IR, AFM

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease. The other two are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. CWD is contagious and affects captive as well as free ranging cervids. As long as there is no definite answer of whether CWD can breach the species barrier to humans precautionary measures especially for the protection of consumers need to be considered. In principle, different strains of CWD may be associated with different risks of transmission to humans. Sophisticated strain differentiation as accomplished for other prion diseases has not yet been established for CWD. However, several different findings indicate that there exists more than one strain of CWD agent in cervids. We have analysed a set of CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and could detect at least two biochemically different forms of disease-associated prion protein PrPTSE. Limited proteolysis with different concentrations of proteinase K and/or after exposure of PrPTSE to different pH-values or concentrations of Guanidinium hydrochloride resulted in distinct isolate-specific digestion patterns. Our CWD isolates were also examined in protein misfolding cyclic amplification studies. This showed different conversion activities for those isolates that had displayed significantly different sensitivities to limited proteolysis by PK in the biochemical experiments described above. We further applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy. This confirmed structural differences in the PrPTSE of at least two disinct CWD isolates. The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.
http://www.prion2010.org/bilder/prion_2010_program_latest_w_posters_4_.pdf?139&PHPSESSID=a30a38202cfec579000b77af81be3099
 
 
2012

Envt.06:

Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates

Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1

1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada

†Presenting author; Email:
emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr

The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.
 
 
Envt.07:

Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease

Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany †Presenting author; Email:
dausm@rki.de

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/Prion5-Supp-PrionEnvironment.pdf?nocache=1333529975
 
 
CJD9/10022

October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.
http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf
 
now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ????
 
“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To:

Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Dear Sir/Madam,

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.

That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 
 
-----Original Message-----

From:

Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To:
rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS

Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

Sigurdson CJ.

snip...

*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
snip...

full text ;
 
 
Monday, September 26, 2011

L-BSE BASE prion and atypical sporadic CJD
http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/09/l-bse-base-prion-and-atypical-sporadic.html
 
 
CANADA SEE STEADY INCREASE OF THE SPORADIC CJD’S AND THE VPSPR’S (sporadic CJD’s). ...tss

PLEASE NOTE, type determination pending Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (tdpCJD) in Canada is also on a steady increase.

please see ;

> 3. Final classification of 50 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 is pending.

CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20122

As of May 31, 2012

Deaths of Definite and Probable CJD

Year Sporadic Iatrogenic Familial GSS FFI vCJD Total

1994 2 0 0 1 0 0 3

1995 3 0 0 0 0 0 3

1996 13 0 0 0 0 0 13

1997 16 0 1 1 0 0 18

1998 22 1 0 1 0 0 24

1999 26 2 2 1 0 0 31

2000 32 0 0 3 0 0 35

2001 27 0 2 1 0 0 30

2002 31 0 2 2 0 1 36

2003 27 1 1 0 0 0 29

2004 42 0 1 0 0 0 43

2005 42 0 0 2 0 0 44

2006 39 0 1 3 1 0 44

2007 35 0 0 4 0 0 39

2008 48 0 1 0 0 0 49

2009 48 0 3 2 0 0 53

2010 34 0 3 0 0 0 37

2011 37 0 2 1 0 1 41

2012 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

Total 525 4 19 22 1 2 573

1. CJDSS began in 1998

2. Data before 1998 are retrospective and partial, data from 1998 to 2008 are complete, and data for 2009 - 2012 are provisional

3. Final classification of 50 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 is pending.

CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20122
As of May 31, 2012

 
 
 
USA SEE STEADY INCREASE OF THE SPORADIC CJD’S AND THE VPSPR’S (sporadic CJD’s). ...tss
 
 
National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

Cases Examined1

(May 18, 2012)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 & earlier 50 32 28 4 0 0

1997 114 68 59 9 0 0

1998 88 52 44 7 1 0

1999 123 74 65 8 1 0

2000 145 103 89 14 0 0

2001 210 120 110 10 0 0

2002 248 149 125 22 2 0

2003 266 168 137 31 0 0

2004 326 187 164 22 0 13

2005 344 194 157 36 1 0

2006 382 196 166 28 0 24

2007 377 213 185 28 0 0

2008 396 232 206 26 0 0

2009 423 256 212 43 1 0

2010 413 257 216 41 0 0

2011 410 257 213 43 0 0

2012 153 82 51 15 0 0

TOTAL 44685 26406 2227 387 6 3

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;

2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;

3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;

4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;

5 Includes 14 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 17 (16 from 2012) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded. The Sporadic cases include 16 cases of sporadic Fatal Insomnia (sFI) and 42 cases of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy (VPSPr) and 2118 cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).

Rev 5/18/2012
http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf
 
 
> 6 Includes
> 17 (16 from 2012) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.
> The Sporadic cases include 16 cases of sporadic Fatal Insomnia (sFI) and 42 cases of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy (VPSPr) and 2118 cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).
 
 
WELL, it seems the USA mad cow strains in humans classified as type determination pending tdpCJD, VPSPr, sFFI, and sCJD) have steadily increased over the years, and the same old song and dance continues with sporadic CJD cases $$$
http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2012/06/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-human-tse.html
 
 
*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
 
Saturday, July 6, 2013

Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy

Research Article
http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2013/07/small-ruminant-nor98-prions-share.html
 
 
Friday, November 09, 2012

*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/11/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-in-cervidae.html
 
 
Sunday, November 11, 2012

*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/11/susceptibilities-of-nonhuman-primates.html
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012

Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/12/susceptibility-chronic-wasting-disease.html
 
 
Saturday, March 09, 2013

Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2013/03/chronic-wasting-disease-in-bank-voles.html
 
 
*** NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009 Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II

___________________________________

PRODUCT

a) Elk Meat, Elk Tenderloin, Frozen in plastic vacuum packaging. Each package is approximately 2 lbs., and each case is approximately 16 lbs.; Item number 755125, Recall # F-129-9;

b) Elk Meat, Elk Trim, Frozen; Item number 755155, Recall # F-130-9;

c) Elk Meat, French Rack, Chilled. Item number 755132, Recall # F-131-9;

d) Elk Meat, Nude Denver Leg. Item number 755122, Recall # F-132-9;

e) Elk Meat, New York Strip Steak, Chilled. Item number 755128, Recall # F-133-9;

f) Elk Meat, Flank Steak Frozen. Item number 755131, Recall # F-134-9;

CODE

Elk Meats with production dates of December 29, 30, and 31

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Recalling Firm: Sierra Meats, Reno, NV, by telephone on January 29, 2009 and press release on February 9, 2009.

Manufacturer: Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON

Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

Unknown

DISTRIBUTION

NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK

___________________________________
 
 
Monday, February 09, 2009

Exotic Meats USA Announces Urgent Statewide Recall of Elk Tenderloin Because It May Contain Meat Derived From An Elk Confirmed To Have CWD

snip...

Cross-sequence transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease creates a new prion strain

Date: August 25, 2007 at 12:42 pm PST

our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions.
 
 

 
 
 
Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html
 
 
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.

you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat.

you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.

Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.

the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.

IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.

you can bury it and it will not go away.

The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.

it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
 
 
New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication

The infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) are notoriously resistant to most physical and chemical methods used for inactivating pathogens, including heat. It has long been recognized, for example, that boiling is ineffective and that higher temperatures are most efficient when combined with steam under pressure (i.e., autoclaving). As a means of decontamination, dry heat is used only at the extremely high temperatures achieved during incineration, usually in excess of 600°C. It has been assumed, without proof, that incineration totally inactivates the agents of TSE, whether of human or animal origin.
http://www.pnas.org/content/97/7/3418.full
 
 
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production

Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493038/
 
 
Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.
http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/NicholsPRION3-3.pdf
 
 
A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing

Keywords:Abattoir;bovine spongiform encephalopathy;QRA;scrapie;TSE

In this article the development and parameterization of a quantitative assessment is described that estimates the amount of TSE infectivity that is present in a whole animal carcass (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE] for cattle and classical/atypical scrapie for sheep and lambs) and the amounts that subsequently fall to the floor during processing at facilities that handle specified risk material (SRM). BSE in cattle was found to contain the most oral doses, with a mean of 9864 BO ID50s (310, 38840) in a whole carcass compared to a mean of 1851 OO ID50s (600, 4070) and 614 OO ID50s (155, 1509) for a sheep infected with classical and atypical scrapie, respectively. Lambs contained the least infectivity with a mean of 251 OO ID50s (83, 548) for classical scrapie and 1 OO ID50s (0.2, 2) for atypical scrapie. The highest amounts of infectivity falling to the floor and entering the drains from slaughtering a whole carcass at SRM facilities were found to be from cattle infected with BSE at rendering and large incineration facilities with 7.4 BO ID50s (0.1, 29), intermediate plants and small incinerators with a mean of 4.5 BO ID50s (0.1, 18), and collection centers, 3.6 BO ID50s (0.1, 14). The lowest amounts entering drains are from lambs infected with classical and atypical scrapie at intermediate plants and atypical scrapie at collection centers with a mean of 3 × 10−7 OO ID50s (2 × 10−8, 1 × 10−6) per carcass. The results of this model provide key inputs for the model in the companion paper published here.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01922.x/abstract
 
 
Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:134 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-134
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2013/07/rapid-assessment-of-bovine-spongiform.html

 

Thursday, July 11, 2013

The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-new-hornographers-fight-over-future.html
 
 
 
 
SEMEN AND TSE INFECTIVITY
 

Saturday, February 11, 2012

PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/prpsc-detection-and-infectivity-in.html
 


 
 
FOR THOSE INTERESTED, PLEASE SEE MORE SCIENCE HERE ON CWD TSE prion disease ;
 
 
 
Thursday, July 11, 2013
 
 
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 02, 2013
 
National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
 
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, December 18, 2012
 
A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, June 24, 2013
 
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 20, 2013
 
atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, June 09, 2013
 
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, April 16, 2013
 
Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, January 06, 2013
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, January 18, 2012
 
BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE February 1, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, December 3, 2011
 
Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat Volume 17, Number
 
12—December 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, October 3, 2010
 
Scrapie, Nor-98 atypical Scrapie, and BSE in sheep and goats North America, who's looking ?
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011
 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
Research article
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 2, 2011
 
USDA scrapie report for April 2011 NEW ATYPICAL NOR-98 SCRAPIE CASES Pennsylvania AND California
 
 
 
 
 
 
UPDATE PLEASE NOTE ;
 
 
 
AS of June 30, 2011,
 
snip...
 
INCLUDING 10 POSITIVE GOATS FROM THE SAME HERD (FIGURE 7).
 
snip...
 
see updated APHIS scrapie report ;
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011
 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
Research article
 
snip...
 
Date: Tuesday, February 01, 2011 5:03 PM
 
To: Mr Terry Singeltary
 
Subject: Your comment on BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7:7
 
Dear Mr Singeltary
 
Thank you for contributing to the discussion of BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7:7 .
 
Your comment will be posted within 2 working days, as long as it contributes to the topic under discussion and does not breach patients' confidentiality or libel anyone. You will receive a further notification by email when the posting appears on the site or if it is rejected by the moderator.
 
Your posting will read:
 
Mr Terry Singeltary,
 
retired
 
Scrapie cases Goats from same herd USA Michigan
 
Comment: " In spite of the poorly defined effects of PRNP genetics, scrapie strain, dose, route and source of infection, the caprine placenta may represent a source of infection to progeny and herd mates as well as a source of persistent environmental contamination. "
 
Could this route of infection be the cause of the many cases of Goat scrapie from the same herd in Michigan USA ?
 
Has this been investigated ?
 
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
 
Kind Regards, Terry
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, January 07, 2010
 
Scrapie and Nor-98 Scrapie November 2009 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2010 and FISCAL YEAR 2008
 
 
 
 
 
 
In FY 2010, 72 cases of classical Scrapie and 5 cases of Nor-98 like Scrapie were confirmed...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Scrapie Nor-98 like case in California FY 2011 AS of December 31, 2010.
 
Scrapie cases in goats FY 2002 - 2011 AS of December 31, 2010 Total goat cases = 21 Scrapie cases, 0 Nor-98 like Scrapie cases (21 field cases, 0 RSSS cases)
 
Last herd with infected goats disignated in FY 2008 Michigan 8 cases
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011
 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
Research article
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"In spite of the poorly defined effects of PRNP genetics, scrapie strain, dose, route and source of infection, the caprine placenta may represent a source of infection to progeny and herd mates as well as a source of persistent environmental contamination."
 
Could this route of infection be the cause of the many cases of Goat scrapie from the same herd in Michigan USA ?
 
Has this been investigated ?
 
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
 
Kind Regards, Terry
 
 
 
SNIP...
 
 
 
Scrapie Nor-98 like case in California FY 2011 AS of December 31, 2010.
 
Scrapie cases in goats FY 2002 - 2011 AS of December 31, 2010 Total goat cases = 21 Scrapie cases, 0 Nor-98 like Scrapie cases (21 field cases, 0 RSSS cases)
 
Last herd with infected goats disignated in FY 2008 Michigan 8 cases
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
UPDATED RESPONSE ON MY CONCERNS OF GOAT SCRAPIE IN MICHIGAN ;
 
 
 
 
 
----- Original Message -----
 
 
From: "BioMed Central Comments"
 
To:
 
Sent: Wednesday, February 16, 2011 4:13 AM
 
Subject: Your comment on BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7:7
 
Your discussion posting "Scrapie cases Goats from same herd USA Michigan" has been rejected by the moderator as not being appropriate for inclusion on the site.
 
Dear Mr Singeltary,
 
Thank you for submitting your comment on BMC Veterinary Research article (2011, 7:7). We have read your comment with interest but we feel that only the authors of the article can answer your question about further investigation of the route of infection of the five goats in Michigan. We advise that you contact the authors directly rather than post a comment on the article.
 
With best wishes,
 
Maria
 
Maria Kowalczuk, PhD Deputy Biology Editor BMC-series Journals
 
BioMed Central 236 Gray's Inn Road London, WC1X 8HB
 
+44 20 3192 2000 (tel) +44 20 3192 2010 (fax)
 
W: www.biomedcentral.com E: Maria.Kowalczuk@biomedcentral.com
 
Any queries about this decision should be sent to comments@biomedcentral.com
 
Regards
 
BMC Veterinary Research
 
 
SNIP...PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT ;
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011
 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
Research article
 
 
 
 
 
 
Scrapie Nor-98 like case in California FY 2011 AS of December 31, 2010.
 
Scrapie cases in goats FY 2002 - 2011 AS of December 31, 2010 Total goat cases = 21 Scrapie cases, 0 Nor-98 like Scrapie cases (21 field cases, 0 RSSS cases)
 
Last herd with infected goats disignated in FY 2008 Michigan 8 cases
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, November 18, 2010
 
Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, March 21, 2011
 
Sheep and Goat BSE Propagate More Efficiently than Cattle BSE in Human PrP Transgenic Mice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** Most recent positive goat confirmed in April 2013.
 
 
 
 
Scrapie Cases in Goats FY 2002 – FY 2013 As of April 30, 2013
 
 
 
***SCRAPIE GOATS CALIFORNIA 13 CASES TO DATE ! ***
 
 
 
(an unusually high amount of scrapie documented in goats for a happenstance of bad luck, or spontaneous event, THAT DOES NOT HAPPEN IN OTHER STATES ??? )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, November 18, 2010
 
Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, November 30, 2009
 
USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, December 20, 2012
 
OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, April 30, 2013
 
Transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk
 
Veterinary Record2013;172:455 doi:10.1136/vr.f2613
 
 
 
 
 
 
ALSO, SEE CALIFORNIA AND MICHIGAN FOR THE HIGH SCRAPIE RATE IN GOATS ???
 
 
THIS needs to be addressed immediately, as to find the source, route, cause, from this unusual event...tss
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, November 28, 2012
 
Scientific and technical assistance on the provisional results of the study on genetic resistance to Classical scrapie in goats in Cyprus 1
 
SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 29, 2012
 
atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012
 
NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
 
 
OR-10: Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is transmissible in bank voles
 
 
 
Romolo Nonno,1 Michele Di Bari,1 Laura Pirisinu,1 Claudia D’Agostino,1 Stefano Marcon,1 Geraldina Riccardi,1 Gabriele Vaccari,1 Piero Parchi,2 Wenquan Zou,3 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 Umberto Agrimi1 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna; Bologna, Italy; 3Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA
 
Background. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described “sporadic”neurodegenerative disease involving prion protein aggregation, which has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer dementias, such as fronto-temporal dementia. Currently, 30 cases of VPSPr have been reported in Europe and USA, of which 19 cases were homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (VV), 8 were MV and 3 were MM. A distinctive feature of VPSPr is the electrophoretic pattern of PrPSc after digestion with proteinase K (PK). After PK-treatment, PrP from VPSPr forms a ladder-like electrophoretic pattern similar to that described in GSS cases. The clinical and pathological features of VPSPr raised the question of the correct classification of VPSPr among prion diseases or other forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report preliminary data on the transmissibility and pathological features of VPSPr cases in bank voles.
 
Materials and Methods. Seven VPSPr cases were inoculated in two genetic lines of bank voles, carrying either methionine or isoleucine at codon 109 of the prion protein (named BvM109 and BvI109, respectively). Among the VPSPr cases selected, 2 were VV at PrP codon 129, 3 were MV and 2 were MM. Clinical diagnosis in voles was confirmed by brain pathological assessment and western blot for PK-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) with mAbs SAF32, SAF84, 12B2 and 9A2.
 
Results. To date, 2 VPSPr cases (1 MV and 1 MM) gave positive transmission in BvM109. Overall, 3 voles were positive with survival time between 290 and 588 d post inoculation (d.p.i.). All positive voles accumulated PrPres in the form of the typical PrP27–30, which was indistinguishable to that previously observed in BvM109 inoculated with sCJDMM1 cases.
 
In BvI109, 3 VPSPr cases (2 VV and 1 MM) showed positive transmission until now. Overall, 5 voles were positive with survival time between 281 and 596 d.p.i.. In contrast to what observed in BvM109, all BvI109 showed a GSS-like PrPSc electrophoretic pattern, characterized by low molecular weight PrPres. These PrPres fragments were positive with mAb 9A2 and 12B2, while being negative with SAF32 and SAF84, suggesting that they are cleaved at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus. Second passages are in progress from these first successful transmissions.
 
Conclusions. Preliminary results from transmission studies in bank voles strongly support the notion that VPSPr is a transmissible prion disease. Interestingly, VPSPr undergoes divergent evolution in the two genetic lines of voles, with sCJD-like features in BvM109 and GSS-like properties in BvI109.
 
The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, March 28, 2012
 
VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE, price of prion poker goes up again $
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.
 
Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections
 
Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 29, 2012
 
atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012
 
NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, April 25, 2011
 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011 However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing finding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40).
 
 
 
 
 
 
***The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** Intriguingly, these conclusions suggest that some pathological features of Nor98 are reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.
 
119
 
 
 
 
 
 
*** These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Surprisingly the TSE agent characteristics were dramatically different v/hen passaged into Tg bovine mice. The recovered TSE agent had biological and biochemical characteristics similar to those of atypical BSE L in the same mouse model. Moreover, whereas no other TSE agent than BSE were shown to transmit into Tg porcine mice, atypical scrapie was able to develop into this model, albeit with low attack rate on first passage.
 
Furthermore, after adaptation in the porcine mouse model this prion showed similar biological and biochemical characteristics than BSE adapted to this porcine mouse model. Altogether these data indicate.
 
(i) the unsuspected potential abilities of atypical scrapie to cross species barriers
 
(ii) the possible capacity of this agent to acquire new characteristics when crossing species barrier
 
These findings raise some interrogation on the concept of TSE strain and on the origin of the diversity of the TSE agents and could have consequences on field TSE control measures.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, February 11, 2011
 
Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues
 
 
 
 
 
 
RESEARCH
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos
 
To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.
 
SNIP...
 
Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.
 
How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $
 
 
 
 
5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.
 
snip...
 
R. BRADLEY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
 
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
 
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
 
snip...
 
The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
 
PMID: 6997404
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"
 
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
 
snip...
 
76/10.12/4.6
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.
 
Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.
 
Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0
 
Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
 
C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK
 
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
 
SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Suspect symptoms
 
What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected with scrapie?
 
28 Mar 01
 
Like lambs to the slaughter 31 March 2001 by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284. Subscribe and get 4 free issues. FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
 
Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.
 
Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in mice as sCJD.
 
"This means we cannot rule out that at least some sCJD may be caused by some strains of scrapie," says team member Jean-Philippe Deslys of the French Atomic Energy Commission's medical research laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses, south-west of Paris. Hans Kretschmar of the University of Göttingen, who coordinates CJD surveillance in Germany, is so concerned by the findings that he now wants to trawl back through past sCJD cases to see if any might have been caused by eating infected mutton or lamb.
 
Scrapie has been around for centuries and until now there has been no evidence that it poses a risk to human health. But if the French finding means that scrapie can cause sCJD in people, countries around the world may have overlooked a CJD crisis to rival that caused by BSE.
 
Deslys and colleagues were originally studying vCJD, not sCJD. They injected the brains of macaque monkeys with brain from BSE cattle, and from French and British vCJD patients. The brain damage and clinical symptoms in the monkeys were the same for all three. Mice injected with the original sets of brain tissue or with infected monkey brain also developed the same symptoms.
 
As a control experiment, the team also injected mice with brain tissue from people and animals with other prion diseases: a French case of sCJD; a French patient who caught sCJD from human-derived growth hormone; sheep with a French strain of scrapie; and mice carrying a prion derived from an American scrapie strain. As expected, they all affected the brain in a different way from BSE and vCJD. But while the American strain of scrapie caused different damage from sCJD, the French strain produced exactly the same pathology.
 
"The main evidence that scrapie does not affect humans has been epidemiology," says Moira Bruce of the neuropathogenesis unit of the Institute for Animal Health in Edinburgh, who was a member of the same team as Deslys. "You see about the same incidence of the disease everywhere, whether or not there are many sheep, and in countries such as New Zealand with no scrapie." In the only previous comparisons of sCJD and scrapie in mice, Bruce found they were dissimilar.
 
But there are more than 20 strains of scrapie, and six of sCJD. "You would not necessarily see a relationship between the two with epidemiology if only some strains affect only some people," says Deslys. Bruce is cautious about the mouse results, but agrees they require further investigation. Other trials of scrapie and sCJD in mice, she says, are in progress.
 
People can have three different genetic variations of the human prion protein, and each type of protein can fold up two different ways. Kretschmar has found that these six combinations correspond to six clinical types of sCJD: each type of normal prion produces a particular pathology when it spontaneously deforms to produce sCJD.
 
But if these proteins deform because of infection with a disease-causing prion, the relationship between pathology and prion type should be different, as it is in vCJD. "If we look at brain samples from sporadic CJD cases and find some that do not fit the pattern," says Kretschmar, "that could mean they were caused by infection."
 
There are 250 deaths per year from sCJD in the US, and a similar incidence elsewhere. Singeltary and other US activists think that some of these people died after eating contaminated meat or "nutritional" pills containing dried animal brain. Governments will have a hard time facing activists like Singeltary if it turns out that some sCJD isn't as spontaneous as doctors have insisted.
 
Deslys's work on macaques also provides further proof that the human disease vCJD is caused by BSE. And the experiments showed that vCJD is much more virulent to primates than BSE, even when injected into the bloodstream rather than the brain. This, says Deslys, means that there is an even bigger risk than we thought that vCJD can be passed from one patient to another through contaminated blood transfusions and surgical instruments.
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, December 14, 2009
 
Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types
 
(hmmm, this is getting interesting now...TSS)
 
Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits,
 
see also ;
 
All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype.
 
 
 
 
see full text ;
 
Monday, December 14, 2009
 
Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, March 09, 2012
 
Experimental H-type and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle: observation of two clinical syndromes and diagnostic challenges
 
Research article
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 23, 2011
 
Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, February 14, 2013
 
*** The Many Faces of Mad Cow Disease Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE and TSE prion disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, March 5, 2013
 
Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics; Reopening of the Comment Period FDA-2004-N-0188-0051 (TSS SUBMISSION)
 
FDA believes current regulation protects the public from BSE but reopens comment period due to new studies
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, March 05, 2013
 
A closer look at prion strains Characterization and important implications
 
Prion 7:2, 99–108; March/April 2013; © 2013 Landes Bioscience
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Late-in-life surgery associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a methodological outline for evidence-based guidance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, August 14, 2010
 
BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY
 
(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)
 
 
 
 
 
P.9.21
 
Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada
 
Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada
 
Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.
 
Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.
 
Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.
 
Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.
 
 
 
*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, August 4, 2012
 
*** Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012
 
 
 
 
 
Summary Report BSE 2012
 
Executive Summary
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, August 4, 2012
 
Update from APHIS Regarding Release of the Final Report on the BSE Epidemiological Investigation
 
 
 
 
 
 
2012
 
 
 
***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.
 
Second threat
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
MAD COW USDA ATYPICAL L-TYPE BASE BSE, the rest of the story...
 
***Oral Transmission of L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Primate Model
 
 
 
 
***Infectivity in skeletal muscle of BASE-infected cattle
 
 
 
 
***feedstuffs- It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.
 
 
 
 
***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
 
 
 
 
The present study demonstrated successful intraspecies transmission of H-type BSE to cattle and the distribution and immunolabeling patterns of PrPSc in the brain of the H-type BSE-challenged cattle. TSE agent virulence can be minimally defined by oral transmission of different TSE agents (C-type, L-type, and H-type BSE agents) [59]. Oral transmission studies with H-type BSEinfected cattle have been initiated and are underway to provide information regarding the extent of similarity in the immunohistochemical and molecular features before and after transmission.
 
In addition, the present data will support risk assessments in some peripheral tissues derived from cattle affected with H-type BSE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
IT is of my opinion, that the OIE and the USDA et al, are the soul reason, and responsible parties, for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion diseases, including typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and all strains of CWD, and human TSE there from, spreading around the globe.
 
 
 
I have lost all confidence of this organization as a regulatory authority on animal disease, and consider it nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE, just to satisfy there commodity. AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization.
 
 
 
JUST because of low documented human body count with nvCJD and the long incubation periods, the lack of sound science being replaced by political and corporate science in relations with the fact that science has now linked some sporadic CJD with atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, and the very real threat of CWD being zoonosis, I believed the O.I.E. has failed terribly and again, I call for this organization to be dissolved. ...
 
 
 
 
IN A NUT SHELL ;
 
(Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 23 May 2006)
 
11. Information published by the OIE is derived from appropriate declarations made by the official Veterinary Services of Member Countries. The OIE is not responsible for inaccurate publication of country disease status based on inaccurate information or changes in epidemiological status or other significant events that were not promptly reported to the Central Bureau,
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, May 30, 2013
 
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has upgraded the United States' risk classification for mad cow disease to "negligible" from "controlled", and risk further exposing the globe to the TSE prion mad cow type disease
 
U.S. gets top mad-cow rating from international group and risk further exposing the globe to the TSE prion mad cow type disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
 
Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 6/1/12 significant deviations from requirements in FDA regulations that are intended to reduce the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) within the United States
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 6, 2013
 
BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013
 
 
 
Greetings,
 
 
since our fine federal friends have decided not to give out any more reports on the USA breaches of the feed ban and surveillance etc. for the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease in the USDA livestock, I thought I might attempt it. I swear, I just don’t understand the logic of the SSS policy, and that includes all of it. I assure you, it would be much easier, and probably better for the FDA and the USDA INC., if they would simply put some kind of report out for Pete’s sake, instead of me doing it after I get mad, because I am going to put it all out there. the truth.
 
 
PLEASE BE ADVISED, any breach of any of the above classifications OAI, VAI, RTS, CAN lead to breaches into the feed BSE TSE prion protocols, and CAN lead to the eventual suspect tainted feed reaching livestock. please, if any USDA official out there disputes this, please explain then how they could not. paperwork errors can eventually lead to breaches of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban reaching livestock, or contamination and exposure there from, as well.
 
 
I would sure like to see the full reports of just these ;
 
 
 
4018 CHI-DO 3007091297 Rancho Cantera 2866 N Sunnyside Rd Kent IL 61044-9605 OPR FR, OF HP 11/26/2012 OAI Y
 
 
9367 3008575486 Rocky Ford Pet Foods 21693 Highway 50 East Rocky Ford CO 81067 OPR RE, TH HP 2/27/2013 OAI N
 
 
9446 DEN-DO 1713202 Weld County Bi Products, Inc. 1138 N 11th Ave Greeley CO 80631-9501 OPR RE, TH HP 10/12/2012 OAI N
 
 
9447 DEN-DO 3002857110 Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 13553 County Road 19 Fort Morgan CO 80701-7506 OPR RE HP 12/7/2011 OAI N
 
 
 
 
see full list of the fda mad cow bse feed follies, toward the bottom, after a short brief update on the mad cow bse follies, and our good friend Lester Crawford that was at the FDA.
 
 
ALSO, I would kindly like to comment on this FDA BSE/Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)4 format, for reporting these breaches of BSE TSE prion protocols, from the extensive mad cow feed ban warning letters the fda use to put out for each violations. simply put, this excel format sucks, and the FDA et al intentionally made it this difficult to follow the usda fda mad cow follies. this is an intentional format to make it as difficult as possible to follow these breaches of the mad cow TSE prion safety feed protocols. to have absolutely no chronological or numerical order, and to format such violations in a way that they are almost impossible to find, says a lot about just how far the FDA and our fine federal friends will go through to hide these continued violations of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban, and any breaches of protocols there from. once again, the wolf guarding the henhouse $$$
 
 
 
NAI = NO ACTION INDICATED
 
OAI = OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED
 
VAI = VOLUNTARY ACTION INDICATED
 
RTS = REFERRED TO STATE
 
 
 
Inspections conducted by State and FDA investigators are classified to reflect the compliance status at the time of the inspection, based upon whether objectionable conditions were documented. Based on the conditions found, inspection results are recorded in one of three classifications:
 
OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions.
 
VAI (Voluntary Action Indicated) when inspectors find objectionable conditions or practices that do not meet the threshold of regulatory significance, but warrant an advisory to inform the establishment that inspectors found conditions or practices that should be voluntarily corrected. VAI violations are typically technical violations of the 1997 BSE Feed Rule. These violations include minor recordkeeping lapses or conditions involving non-ruminant feeds.
 
NAI (No Action Indicated) when inspectors find no objectionable conditions or practices or, if they find objectionable conditions, those conditions are of a minor nature and do not justify further actions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
when sound science was bought off by junk science, in regards to the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease, by the USDA, CFIA, WHO, OIE, et al. $$$
 
when the infamous, and fraudulently USDA, FSIS, APHIS, FDA, gold card was taken away that infamous day in December of 2003, all cards were off the table, it was time to change the science, and change they did. ...tss
 
 
 
snip. ...please see full text ;
 
 
 
Thursday, June 6, 2013
 
 
BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, July 19, 2013
 
PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED Revised as of April 1, 2013 50# Regular Chicken Feed was found to contain mammalian protein label does not contain the warning statement
 
 
 
 
 
 
PLEASE REMEMBER ;
 
The Akron, Ohio-based CJD Foundation said the Center for Disease Control revised that number in October of 2004 to about one in 9,000 CJD cases per year in the population group age 55 and older.
 
HAVE YOU GOT YOUR CJD QUESTIONNAIRE ASKING REAL QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ROUTE AND SOURCE OF THE TSE AGENT THAT KILLED YOUR LOVED ONE ???
 
if not, why not...
 
 
Friday, November 30, 2007
 
CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION
 
 
 
 
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
full text with source references ;
 
 
 
 
Sunday, August 21, 2011
 
The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease (SEE VIDEO)
 
 
 
 
U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? (see video at bottom)
 
 
 
 
WHO WILL FOLLOW THE CHILDREN FOR CJD SYMPTOMS ???
 
 
Saturday, May 2, 2009
 
U.S. GOVERNMENT SUES WESTLAND/HALLMARK MEAT OVER USDA CERTIFIED DEADSTOCK DOWNER COW SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
 
 
 
 
OUR SCHOOL CHILDREN ALL ACROSS THE USA WERE FED THE MOST HIGH RISK CATTLE FOR MAD COW DISEASE FOR 4 YEARS I.E. DEAD STOCK DOWNER CATTLE VIA THE USDA AND THE NSLP.
 
WHO WILL WATCH OUR CHILDREN FOR THE NEXT 5+ DECADES ???
 
DID YOUR CHILD CONSUME SOME OF THESE DEAD STOCK DOWNER COWS, THE MOST HIGH RISK FOR MAD COW DISEASE ???
 
you can check and see here ;
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
 
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Human TSE report update North America, Canada, Mexico, and USDA PRION UNIT as of May 18, 2012
 
type determination pending Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (tdpCJD), is on the rise in Canada and the USA
 
 
 
 
 
With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients.
 
 
For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
 
 
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
 
 
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
 
 
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
 
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
 
 
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011. Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a greater than negligible risk that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB. There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
 
 
SNIP...
 
 
 
SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
PRODUCT Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes,
 
 
 
Recall # V-120-6 CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
 
 
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 350 tons
 
 
 
DISTRIBUTION AL and MS
 
 
 
______________________________
 
 
 
PRODUCT
 
 
 
*** a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;
 
 
 
b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;
 
 
 
c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;
 
 
 
d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;
 
 
 
e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-125-6;
 
 
 
f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-126-6;
 
 
 
g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6
 
 
 
CODE All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006. Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
 
 
 
REASON Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".
 
 
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 7,541-50 lb bags
 
 
 
DISTRIBUTION AL, GA, MS, and TN
 
 
 
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006
 
 
 
###
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006
 
 
 
Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST PRODUCT
 
 
 
*** a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;
 
 
 
b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;
 
 
 
c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;
 
 
 
d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;
 
 
 
e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;
 
 
 
f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;
 
 
 
g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;
 
 
 
h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;
 
 
 
i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;
 
 
 
j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;
 
 
 
k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;
 
 
 
l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;
 
 
 
m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 CODE
 
 
 
Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006
 
 
 
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.
 
 
 
REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".
 
 
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons
 
 
 
DISTRIBUTION AL and FL
 
 
 
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006
 
 
 
###
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248.128.67
 
 
 
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II
 
 
 
______________________________
 
 
 
PRODUCT
 
 
 
a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6;
 
 
 
b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6;
 
 
 
c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6;
 
 
 
d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 CODE
 
 
 
a) Bulk
 
 
 
b) None
 
 
 
c) Bulk
 
 
 
d) Bulk
 
 
 
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
 
 
 
REASON
 
 
 
Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.
 
 
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons
 
 
 
DISTRIBUTION Nationwide
 
 
 
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006
 
 
 
###
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, October 8, 2010
 
 
 
Scientific reasons for a feed ban of meat-and-bone meal, applicable to all farmed animals including cattle, pigs, poultry, farmed fish and pet food
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, July 10, 2013
 
Prions in the Ocean: A Natural Case of Prion Disease in Dolphins
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, November 6, 2010
 
 
 
TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU
 
 
 
Berne, 2010 TAFS INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR>
 
Prion disease update 2010 (11) PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11)
 
 
 
 
 
 
P.9.21
 
 
 
Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada
 
 
 
Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada
 
 
 
Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.
 
 
 
Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.
 
 
 
Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.
 
 
 
Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. *It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, August 4, 2012
 
Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 2, 2013
 
APHIS USDA Administrator Message to Stakeholders: Agency Vision and Goals Eliminating ALL remaining BSE barriers to export market
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013

 
 
This consultation seeks your views on the 2013 Regulations, which will replace the current Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2008 (SI 2008 No. 3154).
 
Start of consultation: 08/07/2013
 
End of consultation: 02/09/2013
 

Related Links

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal brain diseases suffered by a variety of species. The most common is:
 
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle
  • Scrapie in sheep and goats
  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in deer
  • Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE) in cats. 
 
Exposure to BSE through the consumption of infected meat products is also thought to be the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in humans. 
The Regulations provide the necessary powers to administer and enforce the provisions of Regulation (EC) 999/2001. This concerns the prevention, control and eradication of BSE and other TSEs relating to cattle, sheep and goats.

How to respond

Please submit your comments by 02 September 2013, in any of the following ways:

Online form

Respond using the online form

Email

endemics@wales.gsi.gov.uk

Post

Office of the Chief Veterinary Officer
Welsh Government
Cathays Park
Cardiff
CF10 3NQ



Consultation documents
 
 
 
Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013
 
Joint Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales
 
Consultation Document
 
Date of issue: 8 July 2013
 
Action required: Responses by 2 September 2013
 
Number: WG18417
 
Overview
 
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal brain diseases, which include scrapie in sheep and goats and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle.
 
Regulation (EC) No.999/2001 (‘The EU TSE Regulation’) requires Member States to implement rules for the prevention, control and eradication of TSEs.
 
The purpose of this consultation is to seek views on the proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013, which will revoke and replace the current TSE (Wales) Regulations 2008, as amended, to include amendments in response to changes in EU legislation, advice from the Commission, technical changes and reviews of procedure.
 
How to respond
 
Please send hard copy (paper) responses to:
 
Dave Miles
 
Welsh Government
 
Office of the Chief Veterinary Officer
 
Cathays Park
 
Cardiff
 
CF10 3NQ
 
Tel: 029 20 825461
 
Or for electronic documents send by email to: endemics@wales.gsi.gov.uk
 
Further information and related documents
 
Large print, Braille and alternate language versions of this document are available on request.
 
Useful links:
 
The TSE (Wales) Regulations 2008
 
The TSE (Wales) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 2008
 
The TSE (Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2009
 
The TSE (Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2010
 
Contact details
 
Please contact Dave Miles, as above.
 
 
snip...
 
 
Part II – Proposed amendments to the 2008 Regulations
 
What are the main issues under consideration?
 
2.1 The main issues under consideration relate to changes in BSE testing requirements; more proportionate measures for controlling classical scrapie in sheep flocks and goat herds in which classical scrapie is confirmed; and more proportionate controls on animal feed. The Welsh Government also wishes to consult on proposed amendments to the BSE cattle compensation system in
 
2
 
light of identified anomalies in the current system, in addition to a variety of other proposed technical and procedural amendments to the 2008 Regulations.
 
2.2 The key specific amendments are summarised and then considered in more detail below. Other proposed technical amendments, which are considered to have a negligible impact or have already been implemented administratively, are listed at Annex A.
 
Current position
 
2.3 The provisions of the EU TSE Regulation are currently administered and enforced by the TSE (Wales) Regulations 2008, as amended, which came into force on 31 December 2008.
Evidence for change
 
2.4 In line with the EU TSE Roadmap, the Welsh Government policy objective is to have TSE controls in place that maintain consumer and animal health protection, are based on sound science and best available evidence, are proportionate to the known risk and are as practical and enforceable as is reasonable.
 
2.5 In light of amendments made to the EU TSE Regulation, advice provided by the Commission and various technical changes and reviews of procedure, the Welsh Government needs to update and replace the 2008 Regulations accordingly. This will ensure compliance with EU obligations, bring Welsh legislation into line with the rest of the UK and support a consistent GB/UK approach.
 
Summary of key specific changes to be introduced by the proposed TSE (Wales) Regulations 2013
 
2.6 The key proposed changes are as follows (NB. all references are to the 2008 Regulations):
 
• Schedule 2 - Decision 2013/76/EU permitted the UK to stop testing healthy slaughtered cattle for BSE from 4 February 2013. As a result of this Decision the Required Method of Operation (RMOP) for the occupier (Food Business Operator (FBO)) of participating slaughterhouses now exceeds the requirements of the EU TSE Regulation, leaving many of the requirements redundant. Schedule 2 will be updated to reflect this Decision (paragraphs 3.1 to 3.4 below refer).
 
• Schedule 3, paragraph 5 will be amended to clarify the existing procedures for appealing against the inspector’s decision to kill a BSE cohort animal; to clarify the option of deferring the killing of a cohort animal; and to limit appeals against the inspector’s decision to kill a cohort animal to specific criteria (paragraphs 3.5 and 3.6 below refer).
 
3
 
• Schedule 3, paragraph 9 sets out the amount of compensation payable for BSE, which is set at the average price paid in Great Britain for the age and category of an animal. The Welsh Government proposes to update the Table of Categories (paragraphs 3.8 to 3.11 below refer).
 
• Schedule 4 will be amended to reflect the full range of options now available under the EU TSE Regulation to control classical scrapie, including the surveillance (monitoring) option (paragraphs 3.14 to 3.25 below refer).
 
• The Welsh Government proposes a new policy to support farmers who are enrolled within the CSFS Surveillance (monitoring) option, who, on a voluntary basis, wish to breed scrapie resistance into their flocks (paragraph 3.25 below refers).
 
• Schedule 4, paragraphs 6 & 7 will be amended to allow Welsh Ministers to replace the requirement for killing and complete destruction of animals, as required in the existing CSFS genotype and cull option, with slaughtering for human consumption. For animals required to be slaughtered, no compensation will be payable and farmers will obtain the slaughter price determined by market forces.
 
• Schedule 4, Paragraphs 6 and 7 will also be amended to enforce requirements in the EU TSE Regulation, preventing the feeding of milk and milk products to ruminants other than on the holding of origin on which classical scrapie is confirmed or if produced prior to the removal of genetically susceptible sheep/all goats or where a flock/herd is monitored for further cases. It will be an offence to use such milk/milk products as feed for ruminants (except on the holding of origin). If such milk/milk products are used for feed for non-ruminants it will be an offence:
 
􀂃 to export the feed from the UK;
 
􀂃 to fail to comply with the documentation and packaging requirements;
 
􀂃 to bring such feed on to a premises with ruminants for storage or use; and,
 
􀂃 to fail to comply with the requirements for transport and cleaning and disinfection of vehicles.
 
Part III - Details of Proposed Amendments
 
Schedule 2 – TSE Monitoring in Bovine Animals
 
 
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Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2008, the EU adopted Regulation (EC) No.103/2009 introducing new controls to reduce the risk of spreading BSE or classical scrapie to ruminant animals in uninfected flocks and herds through consumption of sheep and goats’ milk and milk products. The new controls also ensure that sheep and goats’ milk and milk products from flocks and herds in which TSE is suspected is not placed on the market unless BSE is excluded.
 
3.13 To administer these controls the following changes are proposed to the 2008 Regulations:
 
(i) Regulation 15 and Paragraph 4 of Schedule 4 of the 2008 Regulations would be amended to require an inspector to serve a notice to prohibit the movement of sheep or goat milk or milk products from a holding on which a TSE is suspected in sheep or goats.
 
(ii) A new paragraph will be inserted to enable the enforcement of the EU TSE Regulation preventing the feeding of milk products to ruminants other than on the holding of origin.
Classical Scrapie Controls
 
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