Saturday, February 11, 2012

PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep

PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep


Richard Rubenstein1,5,
Marie S Bulgin2,
Binggong Chang1,
Sharon Sorensen-Melson2,
Robert B Petersen3 and
Giuseppe LaFauci4

+ Author Affiliations





1 SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA;
2 University of Idaho, Caldwell, ID, USA;
3 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA;
4 NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY, USA

↵5 E-mail: richard.rubenstein@downstate.edu

Received 13 October 2011.
Accepted 3 February 2012.


Abstract



A scrapie-positive ewe was found in a flock that had been scrapie free for 13 years, but housed adjacent to scrapie-positive animals, separated by a wire fence. Live animal testing of the entire flock of 24 animals revealed 7 more subclinical scrapie-positive ewes. We hypothesized that they may have contracted the disease from scrapie-positive rams used for breeding four months prior, possibly through the semen. The genotypes of the ewe flock were highly scrapie-susceptible and the rams were infected with the "Caine" Scrapie Strain having a short incubation time of 4.3-14.6 mo. in sheep with 136/171 VQ/VQ and AQ/VQ genotypes. PrPSc accumulates in a variety of tissues in addition to the central nervous system. Although transmission of prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has been achieved via peripheral organ or tissue homogenates as well as by blood transfusion, neither infectivity nor PrPSc have been found in semen from scrapie-infected animals. Using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification followed by a surround optical fiber immunoassay, we demonstrate that semen from rams infected with a short incubation time scrapie strain contains prion disease-associated seeding activity that generated PrPSc in sPMCA. Injection of the ovinized transgenic mouse line TgSShpPrP with semen from scrapie-infected sheep resulted in PrPSc seeding activity in clinical and, probably as a result of the low titer, nonclinical mouse brain. These results suggest that the transmissible agent, or at least the seeding activity, for sheep scrapie is present in semen. This may be a strain specific phenomenon.







http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/early/2012/02/02/vir.0.038802-0.abstract







price of poker goes up for those Boone-Crocket type straw bred bucks...tss





Thursday, February 09, 2012

50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/50-game-farms-to-date-in-usa-infected.html







Saturday, February 11, 2012


Prion cross-species transmission efficacy is tissue dependent



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/prion-cross-species-transmission.html




2012





PIG IN A POKE !







Sunday, January 29, 2012


Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA European Virus-TSE Safety
Dr. Detwiler


Dr. Detwiler published Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA
European Virus-TSE Safety Forum\Presentations TSE\ Page 33 and 34 of 44 ;




http://www.pda.org/





http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/01/prion-disease-risks-in-21st-century.html









Wednesday, February 1, 2012




CJD and PLASMA / URINE PRODUCTS EMA Position Statements Alberto Ganan
Jimenez, European Medicines Agency PDA TSE Safety Forum, 30 June 2011




http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/cjd-and-plasma-urine-products-ema.html









Dr. Michael Coulthart, et al, Public Health Agency of Canada




- although not occurring to date, he estimates that report of just one
probable case of human CWD could trigger a public health crisis in North
America.


- epidemiological studies so far indicate the probability is very slight,
however, prion agents and their transmission properties are highly mutable
and adaptable and the possibility can not be ruled out.


- suggests those involved in human prion disease surveillance should
consider the possibility of human CWD and develop a readiness to deal with
it.



snip...



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/50-game-farms-to-date-in-usa-infected.html







Saturday, February 04, 2012

Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/wisconsin-16-age-limit-on-testing-dead.html









Envt.18: Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease






Candace K. Mathiason,† Amy Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Jenny G. Powers, Nicholas J. Haley and Edward A. Hoover






Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu






We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by four months post infection. Ten fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe— four of the fawns were viable, five were non-viable and one was a first trimester fetus harvested from a CWD-infected doe euthanized at end-stage disease. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn by IHC as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yielded positive results on another fawn at ten days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have demonstrated amplifiable prions in fetal placental or spleen tissue of three non-viable fawns and mammary tissue of the dams.






Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.











===========================







PPo3-18: A Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of the BSE Agent within Captive Cheetah Affected with Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy





Anna Bencsik, Sabine Debeer, Thierry Petit and Thierry Baron





Afssa; Unité ATNC; Lyon, France; Zoo de la Palmyre; Les Mathes, France





Key words: BSE, FSE, vertical transmission





Introduction. Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah. These cases are of particular interest since the 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, appears most likely due to maternal transmission.1





Results. Complete PrPd study showed the close likeness between the two cheetah cases. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques.





Materials and Methods. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), pathological form of PrP(PrPd) was analyzed in the brains and peripheral organs of these two cheetahs. Transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. Lesion profiles of the infected transgenic mice were analyzed as well as type and brain distribution of PrPd.





Conclusion. Collectively, these data indicate that both FSE cases harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. Because this is most probably a case of maternal transmission of the disease, this new observation may have some impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in human variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease.





References





1. Bencsik et al. PLoS One 2009; 4:6929.









=========================









PPo3-40: Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease







Candace K. Mathiason, Amy V. Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Nicholas Haley and Edward A. Hoover





Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Fort Collins, CO USA





Key words: Chronic wasting disease, vertical transmission, muntjac deer





We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by 4 months post infection. Six fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe. Six fawns were born to 6 CWD-infected doe; 4 of the fawns were non-viable. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yield positive results on another fawn at 10 days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have also demonstrated amplifiable prions in maternal placental (caruncule) and mammary tissue of the dam.





Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.







PRION 2011





landesbioscience.com









International Prion Congress: From agent to diseaseSeptember 8–11, 2010Salzburg, Austria









Friday, December 23, 2011


Detection of PrPres in Genetically Susceptible Fetuses from Sheep with Natural Scrapie




http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/12/detection-of-prpres-in-genetically.html









Studies into the maternal transmission of BSE

The early epidemiological studies did not find evidence of cattle to cattle transmission. Additional research was undertaken to investigate further whether BSE could be transmitted from cow to calf (otherwise known as vertical transmission).



Maternal transmission

A long-term cohort study was initiated in 1989 to examine maternally-associated risk factors for BSE. Interim findings were presented to SEAC in July 1996 and SEAC advised that maternal transmission would not sustain the BSE epidemic.



Since 2002, the probability of maternal transmission has been estimated to be approximately 1% in the last six months of the maternal incubation period (3). In 2003, SEAC were advised of the potential future change from culling all offspring born after July 1996, to a cull of offspring born within two years of the clinical onset of disease in the dam. SEAC advised that they saw no scientific grounds for maintaining the policy for culling offspring in the UK in place at that time.



Research has shown that embryos from BSE-infected cows inseminated with semen from BSE-infected bulls are unlikely to carry BSE infectivity even if they have been collected at the end-stage of the disease, when the risk of maternal transmission is believed to be highest (4). This finding contributed to the lifting of the EU ban on the export of embryos from the UK in 2002.



Action taken

Data from the epidemiological studies has been used by Defra to implement BSE and disease control and eradication strategies. As a result, the number of BSE cases in the UK - has declined dramatically.



References

1. Wilesmith JW, Wells GA, Cranwell MP & Ryan JB (1988) Vet. Rec. 123: 638-644.



2. Wilesmith JW, Ryan JB & Hueston WD (1992) Res. Vet. Sci. 52(3): 325-331.



3. Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Ghani AC & Anderson RM (2002) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 269: 2179-2190. Full text available.



4. Wrathall AE et al. (2002) Vet. Rec. 150(12): 365-378.



Links to other information

Table of all currently active and recently completed projects

Veterinary Risk Assessment on BSE Cohort Controls (May 2007, PDF 98 KB)





http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/farmanimal/diseases/atoz/bse/science-research/cattle/epidem-modelling.htm











Wednesday, December 30, 2009





Is there evidence of vertical transmission of variant CJD ?





J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry doi:10.1136/jnnp.2009.172148







http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/is-there-evidence-of-vertical.html










Friday, February 10, 2012



Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update (2012/1) potential iatrogenic (healthcare-acquired) exposure to CJD, and on the National Anonymous Tonsil Archive



http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cjd-biannual.html








24 Jul 00 Trade Statistics: UK to US




Compiled by Terry S.Singeltary Sr of Bacliff, Texas




[Opinion (webmaster): The US has focused for years on tracing, containing, and eradicating live animal imports from the UK or other countries with acknowledged BSE like Belgium, including some 499 cattle and the Vermont sheep.





This strategy does not acknowledge imports of rendered bovine products from England during the BSE period nor secondary products such as surgical catgut, which is to say surgical cowgut, or dairy cattle embryos, vaccines for veterinarian and human
medicines. What has become of these?


Mr. Singeltary, who lost his mother to CJD of unexplained origin a few years back and went on to became a well-known TSE activist, has tracked down voluminous pertinent import data through correspondence with UK officials and searches of government web sites. Imports of such products are frequently cited by Europeans in rating BSE risks in the US and in shutting out US exports.







Many people's eyes glaze over when reviewing reams of sometimes older trade statistics. There is no proof that any of the imported products was contaminated with BSE nor if so, any evidence that any BSE product lead to infection in US livestock, surgical patients, or what not. Nonetheless, the data obtained by Mr. Singeltary establish that an appalling variety and tonnage of products that were imported by the US from the UK and othr BSE-affected countries during the peak of the BSE epidemic years.]




10 January 1990 COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE

NOT FOR PUBLICATION

COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINES
WORKING PARTY ON BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

SURGICAL CATGUT SUTURES


2.1 At the first meeting of the Working Party on Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy on 6 September 1989, detailed
consideration was given to XXXXX Surgical Catgut. This
arose from the Company's response to the Letter to Licence
Holders, indicating that the bovine small intestine source
material was derived from UK cattle, unlike 8 other
licenced catgut sutures. In contrast XXXXX Surgical
Catgut was stated to hold over 90% share of the market for
catgut sutures, and to constitute approximately 83% of all
sutures used in U.K.


IMPORTS OF SUTURES FROM THE KNOWN BSE COUNTRY;


3006.10.0000: STERILE SURGICAL CATGUT, SIMILAR STERILE SUTURE MATERIALS
AND STERILETISSUE ADHESIVES FOR SURGICAL WOUND CLOSURE; AND SIMILAR
STERILE MATERIAL
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 ---> <--- 1998 YTD --->
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 10,801 3,116 143,058 40,068

Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 107 14
France . . . . . . . . . 81 49 2,727 1,132
Switzerland . . . . . . . --- --- 1,357 1,693
United Kingdom . . . . . 1,188 242 35,001 5,564

U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
Subheading 300210: ANTISERA AND OTHER BLOOD FRACTIONS, AND MODIFIED
IMMUNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

3002.10.0010: HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 25,740 1,827 270,357 20,476
Belgium . . . . . . . . . 14 8 145 60
France . . . . . . . . . --- --- 134 60
Netherlands . . . . . . . --- --- 11 5
Switzerland . . . . . . . 10,462 597 86,101 5,894
United Kingdom . . . . . --- --- 335 62

3002.10.0020: NORMAL HUMAN BLOOD SERA, WHETHER OR NOT FREEZE-DRIED
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 1,039 817 19,056 22,678
Austria . . . . . . . . . --- --- 9,194 18,707
Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 22 15
Netherlands . . . . . . . 353 2 6,733 41
Switzerland . . . . . . . 374 218 1,084 440
United Kingdom . . . . . --- --- 1 4

3002.10.0030: HUMAN IMMUNE BLOOD SERA
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 1,926 461 14,484 3,563
...
United Kingdom . . . . . 2 8 464 192

3002.10.0040: FETAL BOVINE SERUM (FBS)
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 2,727 233 131,486 8,502
...
Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 17 32
United Kingdom . . . . . 329 82 743 756


3002.10.0090: OTHER BLOOD FRACTIONS NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED OR INCLUDED
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 88,467 27,343 944,412 309,947
...
United Kingdom . . . . . 1,887 2,300 26,823 23,585

===================================================================


http://www.ita.doc.gov/industry/otea/Trade-Detail/Latest-December/
Imports/30/300290.html

U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date

Subheading 300290: HUMAN BLOOD; ANIMAL BLOOD PREPARED FOR THERAPEUTIC,
ETC. USES; TOXINS, CULTURES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS (EXCLUDING YEASTS) AND
SIMILAR PRODUCTS NESOI

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 36,178 643 250,982 11,604
...
United Kingdom . . . . . 584 39 11,292 588


http://www.ita.doc.gov/industry/otea/Trade-Detail/Latest-Month/Imports/
05/051199.html

U.S. Imports for Consumption: March 1999 and 1999 Year-to-Date

Subheading 051199: ANIMAL PRODUCTS, NESOI; DEAD HORSES AND OTHER EQUINE
ANIMALS, BOVINE ANIMALS, SHEEP, GOATS AND POULTRY, UNFIT FOR HUMAN
CONSUMPTION, NESOI

0511.99.2000: PARINGS AND SIMILAR WASTE OF RAW HIDES OR SKINS; GLUE
STOCK, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED OR INCLUDED
U.S. Imports for Consumption: March 1999 and 1999 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)


0511.99.4024: DAIRY CATTLE EMBRYOS
U.S. Imports for Consumption: March 1999 and 1999 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Number)

<--- Mar 1999 --- <--- 1999 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . --- --- 53 16
Canada . . . . . . . . . --- --- 9 3
France . . . . . . . . . --- --- 44 13

0511.99.4050: ANIMAL PRODUCTS NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED OR INCLUDED;
DEAD ANIMALS OF CHAPTER 1, UNFIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
U.S. Imports for Consumption: March 1999 and 1999 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Mar 1999 --- <--- 1999 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 718,476 2,313 2,206,867 4,739
Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 13 18
France . . . . . . . . . 1,088 14 1,489 20
United Kingdom . . . . . 11 3 38 9

http://www.ita.doc.gov/industry/otea/Trade-Detail/Latest-December/
Imports/30/300220.html


U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date

Subheading 300220: VACCINES FOR HUMAN MEDICINE

3002.20.0000: VACCINES FOR HUMAN MEDICINE
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 25,702 26,150 550,258 378,735
Belgium . . . . . . . . . 14,311 12,029 248,041 199,036
France . . . . . . . . . 3,902 4,859 87,879 92,845
Switzerland . . . . . . . 716 353 9,303 4,271
United Kingdom . . . . . 4,075 1,172 162,960 47,148

==================================================================


http://www.ita.doc.gov/industry/otea/Trade-Detail/Latest-December/
Imports/30/300230.html

U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date

Subheading 300230: VACCINES FOR VETRINARY MEDICINE

List of (6-digit) Subheadings in this (2-digit) Chapter
Next (6-Digit) Subheading ... Descending ... Ascending

Latest Monthly Data

Switch from U.S. Imports to U.S. Exports

About These Trade Data Tables

3002.30.0000: VACCINES FOR VETRINARY MEDICINE
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 --- <--- 1998 YTD ---
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value

=================================================================

WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 6,528 237 87,149 2,715
Canada . . . . . . . . . --- --- 2,637 305
Federal Rep. of Germany --- --- 104 5
Netherlands . . . . . . . 138 64 472 192
New Zealand . . . . . . . 6,390 173 83,882 1,895
United Kingdom . . . . . --- --- 54 318

=================================================================


http://www.ita.doc.gov/industry/otea/Trade-Detail/Latest-December/
Imports/30/300610.html

U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date

Subheading 300610: STERILE SURGICAL CATGUT, SIMILAR STERILE SUTURE
MATERIALS AND STERILE TISSUE ADHESIVES FOR SURGICAL WOUND CLOSURE;
STERILE HAEMOSTATICS, ETC.

3006.10.0000: STERILE SURGICAL CATGUT, SIMILAR STERILE SUTURE MATERIALS
AND STERILETISSUE ADHESIVES FOR SURGICAL WOUND CLOSURE; AND SIMILAR
STERILE MATERIAL
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars) (Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 107 14
Federal Rep. of Germany 1,795 356 16,878 3,741
France . . . . . . . . . 81 49 2,727 1,132

Subject: Re: exports from the U.K. of it's MBM to U.S.???
Date: Tue, 8 Feb 2000 14:03:16 +0000
From: S.J.Pearsall@esg.maff.gsi.gov.uk
To: flounder@wt.net (Receipt Notification Requested) (Non Receipt
Notification Requested)

Terry
meat and bonemeal is not specifically classified for overseas trade
purposes. The nearest equivalent is listed as "flours and meals of meat
or offals (including tankage), unfit for human consumption; greaves". UK
exports of this to the US are listed below:

Country Tonnes
1980
1981 12
1982
1983
1984 10
1985 2
1986
1987
1988
1989 20
1990

Subject: Re: Imports of MBM or Ruminants to the U.S. from foreign
Countries with the potential risk of BSE...
Date: Tue, 28 Dec 1999 17:19:15 -0500
From: Linda Detwiler
To: flounder@wt.net (Receipt Notification Requested)

I have attached the file ibov96.txt containing all of the bovine imports for 1996.

Subject: [Fwd: IMPORTED UK AND NETHERLANDS BEEF?] -Reply
Date: Thu, 3 Sep 1998 6:54:00 -0400
From: Linda Detwiler
To: flounder@wt.net (Receipt Notification Requested)

I will check on this as I had not heard about the UK. The Netherlands
would not have suprised me as they did not have a case until March
1997.
...
now my question would be, how many of these animals that fed on MBM's
from these countries, were imported to the United States,
via 3rd country routes??? i will give you that answer below...TSS

Marva Thompson
Foreign Trade Reference Room
202/482-2185

"The U.S. is apparently still importing beef, pork, sheep, and lamb
from countries in which BSE is found [this is probably
completely legal under regulations applicable at time of import--
webmaster]:

Bovine anmls bnlss ex prcssd frozen/U.S. Imports for Consumption 1997
year to date (custom value, in thousands of dollars)
(units of quantity: kilograms)

United Kingdom 37,122 kilograms, 43 thousand dollars
Netherlands 56,260 kilograms, 413 thousand dollars
Canada 18,141,481 kilograms, 23,914 million dollars

Livers of bovine animals, edible, frozen. U.S. Imports for consumption

Netherlands 19,230 kilograms, 25 thousand dollars
Canada 160,632 kilograms, 147 thousand dollars

Tongues of bovine animals, edible, frozen U.S. Imports for consumption

Netherlands 1,047 kilograms, 4 thousand dollars
Canada 767,859 kilograms, 2,028 million

Hi-qulty beef cuts w/bone in prcssd f/c u.S. Imports for consumption

Canada 25,332 kilograms, 37 thousand dollars

Beef cuts w/bone in excpt prcdssd fr/ch u.S. Imports for consumption

Netherlands 5,276 kilograms, 30 thousand dollars
Canada 117,142 kilograms, 353 thousand dollars

Meat bovine anmls cuts w/bone ex prrocssd fr us imports for consumption

Netherlands 51,836 kilograms, 444 thousand dollars
Canada 120,955,010 kilograms, 253,199 million

Cattle hides, whole, fresh or wet-salt u.S. Imports for consumption

Belgium 1,270 pieces, 112 thousand dollars
United kingdom 36 pieces, 3 thousand dollars
Ireland 12,797 pieces, 839 thousand dollars
Italy 50 pieces, 10 thousand dollars
Fr germany 2,500 pieces, 36 thousand dollars
Canada 1,405,430 pieces, 67,320 million dollars

Hides/skins
bovine anmls nesoi whole frh/wet-saltd u.S. Imports for consumption

United kingdom 13 pieces, 1 thousand dollars
Italy 4 pieces, 4 thousand dollars
Germany 9,455 pieces, 139 thousand dollars
Canada 567,816 pieces, 17,196 million dollars

Cattle hides, whole, fresh or wet-salted u.S. Imports for consumption

1998 year to date
Italy 7 pieces, 2 thousand dollars
Ireland 1,408 pieces, 85 thousand dollars
France 25 pieces 2 thousand dollars
Canada 965,355 pieces, 37,244 million dollars

Hides and skins of bovine animals, whole, nesoi, fresh or wet-salted
U.S. Imports for consumption

United kingdom 18 pieces, 3 thousand dollars
Sweden 1 pieces, 1 thousand dollars
Italy 2 pieces, 2 thousand dollars
Germany 5,565 pieces, 72 thousand dollars
Canada 84,327 pieces, 2,257 million dollars

Sheep, lamb skins, no wool, nesoi, pickled not split, u.S. Imports for
Consumption

United kingdom 9,504 pieces, 88 thousand dollars
Sheep, lamb skins, no wool, nesoi, pickled, split u.S. Imports for
Consumption

United Kingdom 149,580 pieces, 1,212 million dollars
Netherlands 50,400 pieces, 267 thousand dollars
Italy 4,175 pieces, 64 thousand dollars
France 13,644 pieces, 57 thousand dollars
Canada 131,642 pieces, 241 thousand dollars


Flawed inspection of food is a danger, senate panel told
9-11-98 Knight Rider Tribune News

The government's current system to check food imports for possible
health dangers is dangerously flawed, experts in the food
business told a Senate subcommittee Thursday. U.S. inspectors
check only 2 percent of all foreign shipments and consistently
issue low penalties to importers who break the rules, experts
said. Unscrupulous importers typically import large amounts of
products that will not pass (Food and Drug Administration)
inspection, said a former West Coast customs broker.

He said importers easily bypass inspections by docking at
high-volume ports, such as Los Angeles-Long Beach and New
York, where the inspection force is stretched thin.
Inspections are so low there they virtually pass right through.

Subject: MBM/U.K. imports of MBM to the U.S./BSE Inquiry
http://www.bse.org.uk/dfa/dfa25.htm
Date:Mon, 10 Apr 2000 15:14:21 -0700
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: flounder@wt.net

69. On 14 February 1990, Mr Meldrum wrote a letter to the
Chief Veterinary Officers of a number of countries. [76] On 15
February 1990, Mrs Attridge and other officials were sent a
copy of the letter of 14 February 1990 and a list of the
countries to which it had been sent. They were stated to be
the countries which had imported ruminant based meat
and bone meal from the United Kingdom. The countries listed
were Norway; Sweden, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Nigeria, Thailand, South Africa, Malaysia, Taiwan,
Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Canada, USA,
Turkey, Kenya, Malta, Libera, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Sri
Lanka, Puerto Rico, Curacao, Finland.[77] The letter from
Mr Meldrum included the following:
Although we have kept the Office Internationale des Epizooties (OIE)
fully informed about this new disease, and they will
shortly be disseminating information and recommendations to member
countries, I am writing to you on a personal basis to
ensure that you are aware of all the developments in relation to BSE,
including its likely cause. The majority of our findings
have now been published in the Veterinary Record.�[78]
70. On 20 February 1990, Dr Pickles wrote to Ms Verity
(APS/CMO). Dr Pickles� minute included the following:
1. Mr Meldrum is arguing that MAFF have already taken all the
necessary and responsible steps to warn importing countries
of the BSE dangers in UK meat and bone meal. Yet the action taken
so far overseas suggest the message has not got
through, or where it has this has been late. The first nation
that woke up to the danger did so a year after our own feed
ban. It seems even now several EC countries neither ban our
imports or the general feeding of ruminant protein. It also
seems the OIE and CVO have yet to inform the rest of the world.
2. I do not see how this can be claimed to be responsible�. We
do not need an expert group of the Scientific Veterinary
Committee to tell us British meat and bone meal is unsafe for
ruminants. I fail to understand why this cannot be tackled
from the British end which seems to be the only sure way of doing
it, preferably by banning exports. As CMO says in his
letter of 3 January surely it is short sighted for us to risk
being seen in future as having been responsible for the
introduction of BSE to the food chain in other countries.��[79]


http://www.mad-cow.org/00/jul00_dont_eat_sheep.html#hhh







Sunday, February 5, 2012


February 2012 Update on Feed Enforcement Activities to Limit the Spread of BSE


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/february-2012-update-on-feed.html








http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/




http://nor-98.blogspot.com/





http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/





http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/





http://bseusa.blogspot.com/





http://madcowusda.blogspot.com/





http://transmissible-mink-encephalopathy.blogspot.com/






TSS

No comments:

Post a Comment