Sunday, January 29, 2012

Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA European Virus-TSE Safety Dr. Detwiler

Dr. Detwiler published Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA European Virus-TSE Safety Forum\Presentations TSE\ Page 33 and 34 of 44 ;











Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies: An Update Highlighting Risks to Biopharmaceuticals





Linda A. Detwiler, DVM



Mississippi State University



College of Veterinary Medicine





snip...





Atypical BSE




Origin unknown




Low level of feed contamination cannot be excluded



Sporadic??




Pathogenesis not fully defined




Limited research – infectivity in peripheral nerves of experimental cases and muscle of natural cases (presumably linked to PNS) [Iwamaru et al., 2010; Suardi et al., 2009)




L type into macaques induced disease different from classical BSE. Shorter incubation periods suggesting more virulence




L type to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP had 100% attack rate




H type IC to macaques no signs of disease after 72 hours






Atypical BSE: Conclusions*




Both L-BSE and H-BSE have shown BSE-like characteristics




The precise relationship between Classical BSE, H-BSE and L-BSE is not yet clear. Experiments have shown that the potential for interspecies transmission of Atypical BSE is high.




Several elements indicate that the L-BSE agent has the potential to be a zoonotic agent.




In both primates and human PrP transgenic mice models the virulence of the L-BSE agent is significantly higher than that of Classical BSE.




To date, H type not reported to affect mice overexpressing Met allele of human PrP or primates





* EFSA Journal 2011; 9(1):1945




===============end...tss================





Dr. Detwiler states ;





“To date, H type not reported to affect mice overexpressing Met allele of human PrP or primates”




IT has been documented that atypical H-BSE _has_ been transmitted to humanized Tg mice, and I was told by Professor Kong that H-BSE can infect humans. please see ;




BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice.




The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.




Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.










P.4.23




Transmission of atypical BSE in humanized mouse models




Liuting Qing1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5, Qingzhong Kong1 1Case Western Reserve University, USA; 2Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University (Previously at USDA National Animal Disease Center), USA




Background: Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Atypical BSE cases have been discovered in three continents since 2004; they include the L-type (also named BASE), the H-type, and the first reported case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PRNP (termed BSE-M). The public health risks posed by atypical BSE were largely undefined.




Objectives: To investigate these atypical BSE types in terms of their transmissibility and phenotypes in humanized mice. Methods: Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were inoculated with several classical (C-type) and atypical (L-, H-, or Mtype) BSE isolates, and the transmission rate, incubation time, characteristics and distribution of PrPSc, symptoms, and histopathology were or will be examined and compared.




Results: Sixty percent of BASE-inoculated humanized mice became infected with minimal spongiosis and an average incubation time of 20-22 months, whereas only one of the C-type BSE-inoculated mice developed prion disease after more than 2 years. Protease-resistant PrPSc in BASE-infected humanized Tg mouse brains was biochemically different from bovine BASE or sCJD. PrPSc was also detected in the spleen of 22% of BASE-infected humanized mice, but not in those infected with sCJD. Secondary transmission of BASE in the humanized mice led to a small reduction in incubation time.*** The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible with distinct phenotypes in the humanized mice, but no BSE-M transmission has been observed so far.




Discussion: Our results demonstrate that BASE is more virulent than classical BSE, has a lymphotropic phenotype, and displays a modest transmission barrier in our humanized mice. BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice. The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.




Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.













P26




TRANSMISSION OF ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN HUMANIZED MOUSE MODELS





Liuting Qing1, Fusong Chen1, Michael Payne1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5*, and Qingzhong Kong1 1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; 2CEA, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology Department, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. *Previous address: USDA National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA




Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Two atypical BSE strains, BSE-L (also named BASE) and BSE-H, have been discovered in three continents since 2004. The first case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PrP gene (termed BSE-M) was also found in 2006 in the USA. The transmissibility and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains/isolates in humans were unknown. We have inoculated humanized transgenic mice with classical and atypical BSE strains (BSE-C, BSE-L, BSE-H) and the BSE-M isolate. We have found that the atypical BSE-L strain is much more virulent than the classical BSE-C.*** The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible in the humanized transgenic mice with distinct phenotype, but no transmission has been observed for the BSE-M isolate so far.




III International Symposium on THE NEW PRION BIOLOGY: BASIC SCIENCE, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY 2 - 4 APRIL 2009, VENEZIA (ITALY)











I ask Professor Kong ;




Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM




Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment




''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''




Professor Kong reply ;






.....snip






''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.''





Best regards,




Qingzhong Kong,





PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA




END...TSS





**********************************






Dr. Detwiler published Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA European Virus-TSE Safety Forum\Presentations TSE\






page 35 of 44




Atypical Scrapie




First publication 2003




Initially known as Nor 98




Speculated to be sporadic as low within flock prevalence




No PrPsc peripheral tissues




EFSA Journal (2005) 276, 1-30






Dr. Detwiler stated, from science that was apparently dated EFSA Journal (2005) 276, 1-30






“No PrPsc peripheral tissues”






I believe this is incorrect. ...tss please see ;







Ppo3-17:





ATypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues





Caroline Lacroux,1 Leonor Orge,2,* Sylvie L. Benestad,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Claire Litaise,1 Stéphanie Simon,5 Hugh Simmons,6 Séverine Lugan,1 Fabien Corbière,1 Pierrette Costes,1 Nathalie Morel,5 François Schelcher1 and Olivier Andréoletti1,* 1UMR INRA ENVT 1225; Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène; Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse; Toulouse, France; 2Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária; Estrada de Benfica, Lisboa, Portugal; 3National Veterinary Institute; Postboks; Oslo, Norway; 4INRA UR892; Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires; INRA; Jouy-en-Josas; 5CEA; Service de Pharmacologie et d’Immunoanalyse; IBiTec-S; DSV; CEA/Saclay; Gif sur Yvette cedex, France; 6VLA Weybridge; ASU; New Haw; Addlestone, Surrey UK





Key words: atypical, scrapie, peripheral tissues infectivity





Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was first identified in 1998 in Norway. It is now considered as a world widespread disease of small ruminants and currently represents more than the half of the detected TSE cases in Europe. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent biology and pathogenesis in its natural host is still poorly understood. Conversely to BSE and other small ruminants TSE agents, the ARR PrP allele does not provide protection against the disease, making the genetic selection policy inefficient to eradicate it. Based on the absence of detectable abnormal PrPSc in peripheral tissues the human and animal exposure risk to this specific TSE agent has been considered as low. In the present study we first demonstrated that infectivity can accumulate, even if no abnormal PrP is detectable, in lymphoid tissues, nerves and muscles from natural and experimental Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases. We furthermore demonstrated that, in comparison to other TSE agents, samples containing massive amount of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity can remain PrPSc negative. This feature probably impacts our perception of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie prevalence and spreading in field population. We finally evaluated, in both Atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie cases, the infectivity loads accumulating in peripheral tissues that currently enter unrestricted into the food chain. The obtained results indicate that dietary exposure risk to small ruminants TSE agents is much higher than commonly believed. This conclusion raises the question of the potential capacities such TSE agents to transmit in other species.













However, then on page 38 of 44, Dr. Detwiler states ;






“Peripheral infectivity despite no detectable PrPsc”






please see page ;







Atypical scrapie: Current Knowledge





In some countries number of atypical scrapie cases surpassing classical scrapie cases





Peripheral infectivity despite no detectable PrPsc





Announcement at Prion 2011 (May) - lateral transmission in natural disease





Transmission of atypical scrapie to porcinized transgenic mice – classical scrapie strains did not go







============end...tss===========






so, as a layperson, this has me a bit confused, i.e. confucius is confused again. I wonder if others were confused ???





Atypical Scrapie





“No PrPsc peripheral tissues” or “Peripheral infectivity despite no detectable PrPsc” ???






==============================






also, please see where atypical scrapie is transmissible ;






Published Date: 2010-03-12 19:00:03




Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Scrapie, atypical, ovine - Australia: (WA) susp




Archive Number: 20100312.0803




SCRAPIE, ATYPICAL, OVINE - AUSTRALIA: (WESTERN AUSTRALIA) SUSPECTED






*******************************************************************






snip... Communicated by: Terry S Singeltary Sr flounder9@verizon.net





[Although atypical scrapie is not yet ruled out, it is important to realize this is a type of scrapie that thus far has only tended to appear as a sporadic condition in older animals. Currently it has not been shown to follow the same genetic tendencies for propagation as the usual scrapie.




However, the atypical phenotypic appearance has been shown to be preserved on experimental passage.




Atypical scrapie was first identified in Norwegian sheep in 1998 and has subsequently been identified in many countries, as Australia may join that list. It is likely that this case will be sent to the UK for definitive conformation.




[Ref: M Simmons, T Konold, L Thurston, et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010, 6:14 [provisional abstract available at <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/6/14/abstract>]




"Background ----------- "Retrospective studies have identified cases predating the initial identification of this form of scrapie, and epidemiological studies have indicated that it does not conform to the behaviour of an infectious disease, giving rise to the hypothesis that it represents spontaneous disease. However, atypical scrapie isolates have been shown to be infectious experimentally, through intracerebral inoculation in transgenic mice and sheep. [Many of the neurological diseases can be transmitted by intracerebral inoculation, which causes this moderator to approach intracerebral studies as a tool for study, but not necessarily as a direct indication of transmissibility of natural diseases. - Mod.TG]




"The 1st successful challenge of a sheep with 'field' atypical scrapie from an homologous donor sheep was reported in 2007.




"Results -------- "This study demonstrates that atypical scrapie has distinct clinical, pathological, and biochemical characteristics which are maintained on transmission and sub-passage, and which are distinct from other strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the same host genotype.




"Conclusions ------------ Atypical scrapie is consistently transmissible within AHQ homozygous sheep, and the disease phenotype is preserved on sub-passage."




Lastly, this moderator wishes to thank Terry Singletary for some of his behind the scenes work of providing citations and references for this posting. - Mod.TG]




The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Australia is available at <http://healthmap.org/r/00co>. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]












The first case of atypical scrapie in Australia was recently detected through the active surveillance program for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Atypical scrapie is a rare, degenerative brain condition that occurs spontaneously in a very small proportion of older sheep and goats. It is a different disease to classical scrapie and other known TSEs. Australia remains free from scrapie.











Thursday, October 7, 2010




Australia first documented case of atypical scrapie confirmed First occurrence of atypical scrapie










Sunday, April 18, 2010




SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010










===================================






Dr. Detwiler states with no justified scientific evidence, as the OIE did, with guess work and or a prayer, here on page 39 of 44 that ;





Atypical Scrapie



The chapter does not cover so-called ‘atypical’ scrapie which is clinically, pathologically, biochemically and epidemiologically unrelated to ‘classical’ scrapie, may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep.




snip...




Atypical Scrapie



OIE



The chapter does not cover so-called ‘atypical’ scrapie which is clinically, pathologically, biochemically and epidemiologically unrelated to ‘classical’ scrapie, may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep.





really...REALLY !






putting the cart before the horse OIE TSE policy. ...TSS




THE O.I.E. and it's junk science continues to emerge, and spread, and put the cart before the horse so to speak about atypical Scrapie with it's may and may not be risk factors, because all science to date shows that in fact the Nor-98 is a risk factor to not only animal health, but human health as well.



SINCE when did the 'may not' and 'may' become sound science ? "may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep’ (22)."



The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Code) does not cover atypical scrapie/Nor 98 because, it states, the condition ‘… is clinically, pathologically, biochemically and epidemiologically unrelated to ‘classical’ scrapie, may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep’ (22). 22. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2009). – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_chapitre_1.14.9.htm. Last year, after examining member country submissions and investigating rigorous scientific research, the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) decided that atypical scrapie/Nor 98 should not be listed in its Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The Code sets out trade recommendations or restrictions for listed diseases or conditions, and the OIE determined there was no need for such recommendations around atypical scrapie/Nor 98.









Monday, November 30, 2009




USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE









Friday, February 11, 2011




Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues









Sunday, December 12, 2010




EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010










Thursday, December 23, 2010




Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009



Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011












Thursday, November 18, 2010




Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep












Saturday, November 6, 2010




TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS




INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation











PLEASE see more science below showing that indeed atypical Scrapie should be classified as with typical Scrapie, if not a higher risk factor. please see why, and more scientific studies showing risk factors at the end of my snips from

Dr. Detwiler Presentation Prion Disease Risks in the 21st Century 2011 PDA European Virus-TSE Safety. ...TSS







=================================







Dr. Detwiler section on CWD in cervids state ;




Chronic Wasting Disease



Spreading throughout the US and Western Canada



Elk, deer and moose



Imported and domestic cases in South Korea (Canadian origin)



Widespread tissues distribution (LRS,CNS, saliva, blood, urine)





====================================



Dr. Detwiler states here that ;



Conclusions: Threats to Biopharmaceuticals



Sourcing of raw materials from countries with poorly defined risks



Lack of compliance (SRM controls; Feed bans)



Premature relaxation of regulations



Emerging TSEs – Atypical BSE; Atypical scrapie



Chronic Wasting Disease – new strains, unchecked spread, new species?



TSEs spreading to other species – e.g.. swine



Infectivity in absence of PrPsc



==================end...tss===================



Greetings again,



o.k. folks, lets go over the last part, one at a time, and see how the USA, Canada, and Mexico size up. ...




> > > Conclusions: Threats to Biopharmaceuticals < < <



> > > Sourcing of raw materials from countries with poorly defined risks < < <




The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.







> > > Lack of compliance (SRM controls; Feed bans) < < <




10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007


Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST


RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II


___________________________________


PRODUCT


Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007


CODE


Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007


RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER


Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.


Firm initiated recall is ongoing.


REASON


Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.


VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE


42,090 lbs.


DISTRIBUTION


WI


___________________________________


PRODUCT


Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007


CODE


The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.


RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER


Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.


REASON


Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.


VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE


9,997,976 lbs.


DISTRIBUTION


ID and NV


END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007







see much more tonnage of recalled prohibited banned suspect BSE contaminated feed here ;




Saturday, November 6, 2010


TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU


Berne, 2010 TAFS INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation






Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR>


Prion disease update 2010 (11) PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11)






Saturday, July 23, 2011


CATTLE HEADS WITH TONSILS, BEEF TONGUES, SPINAL CORD, SPECIFIED RISK MATERIALS (SRM's) AND PRIONS, AKA MAD COW DISEASE







> > > Premature relaxation of regulations < < <




HOW can you have premature relaxation of a system, when said system failed from the start, on all counts, BSE FEED CONTROLS, BSE SURVEILLANCE AND BSE TESTING, how can this be ???



the BSE/TSE regulations and surveillance there for, was partial and voluntary i.e. feed ban, that was nothing more than ink on paper, could not, was not enforced. BSE surveillance and testing was terribly flawed, and proven to be so by the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG.




Friday, February 18, 2011


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VS GALEN J. NIEHUES FAKED MAD COW FEED TEST ON 92 BSE INSPECTION REPORTS FOR APPROXIMATELY 100 CATTLE OPERATIONS ''PLEADS GUILTY"






Wednesday, November 17, 2010


MAD COW TESTING FAKED IN USA BY Nebraska INSPECTOR Senator Mike Johanns STATE






Subject: USDA OIG SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS FY 2007 1st Half (bogus BSE sampling FROM HEALTHY USDA CATTLE) Date: June 21, 2007 at 2:49 pm PST


Owner and Corporation Plead Guilty to Defrauding Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program


An Arizona meat processing company and its owner pled guilty in February 2007 to charges of theft of Government funds, mail fraud, and wire fraud. The owner and his company defrauded the BSE Surveillance Program when they falsified BSE Surveillance Data Collection Forms and then submitted payment requests to USDA for the services. In addition to the targeted sample population (those cattle that were more than 30 months old or had other risk factors for BSE), the owner submitted to USDA, or caused to be submitted, BSE obex (brain stem) samples from healthy USDA-inspected cattle. As a result, the owner fraudulently received approximately $390,000. Sentencing is scheduled for May 2007.


snip...


Topics that will be covered in ongoing or planned reviews under Goal 1 include:


soundness of BSE maintenance sampling (APHIS),


implementation of Performance-Based Inspection System enhancements for specified risk material (SRM) violations and improved inspection controls over SRMs (FSIS and APHIS),


snip...


The findings and recommendations from these efforts will be covered in future semiannual reports as the relevant audits and investigations are completed.


4 USDA OIG SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS FY 2007 1st Half







THE USDA JUNE 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM WAS TERRIBLY FLAWED ;




CDC DR. PAUL BROWN TSE EXPERT COMMENTS 2006


In an article today for United Press International, science reporter Steve Mitchell writes:


Analysis: What that mad cow means


By STEVE MITCHELL UPI Senior Medical Correspondent


WASHINGTON, March 15 (UPI) -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture was quick to assure the public earlier this week that the third case of mad cow disease did not pose a risk to them, but what federal officials have not acknowledged is that this latest case indicates the deadly disease has been circulating in U.S. herds for at least a decade.


The second case, which was detected last year in a Texas cow and which USDA officials were reluctant to verify, was approximately 12 years old.


These two cases (the latest was detected in an Alabama cow) present a picture of the disease having been here for 10 years or so, since it is thought that cows usually contract the disease from contaminated feed they consume as calves. The concern is that humans can contract a fatal, incurable, brain-wasting illness from consuming beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen.


"The fact the Texas cow showed up fairly clearly implied the existence of other undetected cases," Dr. Paul Brown, former medical director of the National Institutes of Health's Laboratory for Central Nervous System Studies and an expert on mad cow-like diseases, told United Press International. "The question was, 'How many?' and we still can't answer that."


Brown, who is preparing a scientific paper based on the latest two mad cow cases to estimate the maximum number of infected cows that occurred in the United States, said he has "absolutely no confidence in USDA tests before one year ago" because of the agency's reluctance to retest the Texas cow that initially tested positive.


USDA officials finally retested the cow and confirmed it was infected seven months later, but only at the insistence of the agency's inspector general.


"Everything they did on the Texas cow makes everything they did before 2005 suspect," Brown said.


Despite this, Brown said the U.S. prevalence of mad cow, formally known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, did not significantly threaten human or cattle health.


"Overall, my view is BSE is highly unlikely to pose any important risk either in cattle feed or human feed," he said.


However, Jean Halloran of Consumers Union in Yonkers, N.Y., said consumers should be troubled by the USDA's secrecy and its apparent plan to dramatically cut back the number of mad cow tests it conducts.


"Consumers should be very concerned about how little we know about the USDA's surveillance program and the failure of the USDA to reveal really important details," Halloran told UPI. "Consumers have to be really concerned if they're going to cut back the program," she added.


Last year the USDA tested more than 300,000 animals for the disease, but it has proposed, even in light of a third case, scaling back the program to 40,000 tests annually.


"They seem to be, in terms of actions and policies, taking a lot more seriously the concerns of the cattle industry than the concerns of consumers," Halloran said. "It's really hard to know what it takes to get this administration to take action to protect the public."


The USDA has insisted that the safeguards of a ban on incorporating cow tissue into cattle feed (which is thought to spread the disease) and removal of the most infectious parts of cows, such as the brain and spinal cord, protect consumers. But the agency glosses over the fact that both of these systems have been revealed to be inadequately implemented.


The feed ban, which is enforced by the Food and Drug Administration, has been criticized by the Government Accountability Office in two reports, the most recent coming just last year. The GAO said the FDA's enforcement of the ban continues to have weaknesses that "undermine the nation's firewall against BSE."


USDA documents released last year showed more than 1,000 violations of the regulations requiring the removal of brains and spinal cords in at least 35 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, with some plants being cited repeatedly for infractions. In addition, a violation of similar regulations that apply to beef exported to Japan is the reason why Japan closed its borders to U.S. beef in January six weeks after reopening them.


Other experts also question the adequacy of the USDA's surveillance system. The USDA insists the prevalence of mad cow disease is low, but the agency has provided few details of its surveillance program, making it difficult for outside experts to know if the agency's monitoring plan is sufficient.


"It's impossible to judge the adequacy of the surveillance system without having a breakdown of the tested population by age and risk status," Elizabeth Mumford, a veterinarian and BSE expert at Safe Food Solutions in Bern, Switzerland, a company that provides advice on reducing mad cow risk to industry and governments, told UPI.


"Everybody would be happier and more confident and in a sense it might be able to go away a little bit for (the USDA) if they would just publish a breakdown on the tests," Mumford added.


UPI requested detailed records about animals tested under the USDA's surveillance plan via the Freedom of Information Act in May 2004 but nearly two years later has not received any corresponding documents from the agency, despite a federal law requiring agencies to comply within 30 days. This leaves open the question of whether the USDA is withholding the information, does not have the information or is so haphazardly organized that it cannot locate it.


Mumford said the prevalence of the disease in U.S. herds is probably quite low, but there have probably been other cases that have so far gone undetected. "They're only finding a very small fraction of that low prevalence," she said.


Mumford expressed surprise at the lack of concern about the deadly disease from American consumers. "I would expect the U.S. public to be more concerned," she said.


Markus Moser, a molecular biologist and chief executive officer of Prionics, a Swiss firm that manufactures BSE test kits, told UPI one concern is that if people are infected, the mad cow pathogen could become "humanized" or more easily transmitted from person to person.


"Transmission would be much easier, through all kinds of medical procedures" and even through the blood supply, Moser said.


© Copyright 2006 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved










CDC - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt ...


Dr. Paul Brown is Senior Research Scientist in the Laboratory of Central Nervous System ...


Address for correspondence: Paul Brown, Building 36, Room 4A-05, ...







PAUL BROWN COMMENT TO ME ON THIS ISSUE


Tuesday, September 12, 2006 11:10 AM



"Actually, Terry, I have been critical of the USDA handling of the mad cow issue for some years, and with Linda Detwiler and others sent lengthy detailed critiques and recommendations to both the USDA and the Canadian Food Agency." ........TSS







OR, what the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG found ;


Audit Report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program ­ Phase II and Food Safety and Inspection Service


Controls Over BSE Sampling, Specified Risk Materials, and Advanced Meat Recovery Products - Phase III


Report No. 50601-10-KC January 2006


Finding 2 Inherent Challenges in Identifying and Testing High-Risk Cattle Still Remain







Tuesday, January 1, 2008


BSE OIE USDA


Subject: OIE BSE RECOMMENDATION FOR USA, bought and paid for by your local cattle dealers i.e. USDA


Date: May 14, 2007 at 9:00 am PST


OIE BSE RECOMMENDATION FOR USA, bought and paid for by your local cattle dealers i.e. USDA


STATEMENT BY DR. RON DEHAVEN REGARDING OIE RISK RECOMMENDATION


March 9, 2007






they did not want to find BSE, and never intended to. ...tss




Tuesday, November 02, 2010


IN CONFIDENCE


The information contained herein should not be disseminated further except on the basis of "NEED TO KNOW".


BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992






2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006







> > > Emerging TSEs – Atypical BSE; Atypical scrapie < < <



> > > Chronic Wasting Disease – new strains, unchecked spread, new species? < < <



> > > TSEs spreading to other species – e.g.. swine < < <



> > > Infectivity in absence of PrPsc < < <







Monday, December 21, 2009



Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs


To the Editor: In a recent article in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Espinosa et al. (1) investigated the porcine transmission barrier to infection with bovine and ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in transgenic mice expressing the porcine prion protein. Bovine spongiform encepatholopathy of the classical type (BSE) derived from cattle and sheep, as well as atypical scrapie, transmitted to these mice, although with different effi - ciencies. Whereas sheep BSE showed a 100% attack rate, cattle BSE and atypical scrapie showed a higher transmission barrier in the fi rst passage. Unexpectedly, the electrophoretic profi le of the proteinase K–resistant prion protein (PrPres) in Western immunoblot (WB) analysis of all 3 TSEs shifted toward a common signature upon transmission. This was a 3-band pattern with a predominant monoglycosylated PrPres moiety and, therefore, clearly differed from those of the BSE and atypical scrapie inocula. The authors speculated that the porcine cellular prion protein (PrPc) might allow only for few options as it changes its conformation to the disease-associated prion protein. However, whether this effect is attributable to the porcine PrPc transgene or to the genetic background of the mouse model remains unknown.


To our knowledge, BSE has been successfully transmitted to pigs in 1 study, but WB data were not reported (2). We had access to central nervous system tissues of 1 of these animals (kindly provided by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency TSE Archive, Weybridge, UK) and aimed at assessing whether a similar effect occurs when cattle BSE affects pigs. Our results show a PrPres signature in BSEinfected pigs similar to that described for the porcine PrPc transgenic mice and clearly different from that in cattle (Figure). These fi ndings support the fi nding by Espinosa et al. that the molecular shift most likely was due to intrinsic properties of the porcine PrPc. Therefore, in this respect the mouse model appears to refl ect the situation in the pig.


BSE prions are considered to transmit to other species, such as exotic ruminants, cats, macaques, humans, sheep, and goats, without any obvious alterations of the molecular phenotype (3,4). Our study provides evidence that the molecular phenotype of classical BSE also may shift upon genuine interspecies transmission. Attempts to discriminate BSE from other prion diseases in humans and animals often rely at fi rst on the analysis of the PrPres signature in WB. Consequently, the situation described in our study complicates the interpretation of such disease surveillance data to assess public health risks for animal TSEs. Whether this applies to other TSEs and species remains to be addressed.


Figure. Molecular signature of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in pigs. A) Comparative Western immunoblot analysis of the proteinase K–resistant core fragment (PrPres) of the pathologic prion protein in BSE in cattle and in an experimentally BSE-infected pig using the monoclonal antibody 6H4 (Prionics, Schlieren, Switzerland). B) Average relative intensities of the diglycosylated (black bars), monoglycosylated (gray bars), and unglycosylated (white bars) PrPres moieties as determined by the Quantity One software package (Bio-Rad, Rheinach, Switzerland). Data are based on 4 independent runs, and error bars indicate SD. Note the different extent of PrPres glycosylation in bovine and porcine BSE. By contrast, the molecular masses of the unglycosylated PrPres were similar and scored 18.89 kDa (SD ± 0.28 kDa) and 18.90 kDa (SD ± 0.42 kDa) in bovine and porcine BSE, respectively. Molecular masses of the standards are indicated on the left in panel A.


Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2010







Torsten Seuberlich and Andreas Zurbriggen Author affi liation: University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland DOI: 10.3201/eid1601.091104


References


1. Espinosa JC, Herva ME, Andreoletti O, Padilla D, Lacroux C, Cassard H, et al. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1214–21. DOI: 10.3201/eid1508.081218


2. Wells GA, Hawkins SA, Austin AR, Ryder SJ, Done SH, Green RB, et al. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1021–31.


3. Collinge J, Sidle KC, Meads J, Ironside J, Hill AF. Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of ‘new variant’ CJD. Nature. 1996;383:685–90.


4. Hill AF, Desbruslais M, Joiner S, Sidle KC, Gowland I, Collinge J, et al. The same prion strain causes vCJD and BSE. Nature. 1997;389:448–50.


Address for correspondence: Torsten Seuberlich, NeuroCentre, Reference Laboratory for TSE in Animals, University of Berne, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, CH-3001 Berne, Switzerland; email: torsten.seuberlich@itn.unibe.ch







Thursday, October 15, 2009


Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs


Research article Open Access T


Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs


Timm Konold*1,2, John Spiropoulos1, Melanie J Chaplin3, Leigh Thorne3, Yvonne I Spencer1, Gerald AH Wells1 and Steve AC Hawkins1 Address: 1Department of Pathology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, UK, 2Royal Veterinary College, Infection and Immunity Research Group, North Mymms, Hatfield, UK and 3Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Genetics, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, UK Email: Timm Konold* - t.konold@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; John Spiropoulos - j.spiropoulos@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Melanie J Chaplin - m.j.chaplin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Leigh Thorne - l.thorne@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Yvonne I Spencer - y.i.spencer@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Gerald AH Wells - g.a.h.wells@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Steve AC Hawkins - s.a.c.hawkins@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk * Corresponding author



Abstract Background:



Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results: None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant change. The presence of neurological signs in pigs inoculated with BSE without detectable PrPd raises the possibility that the BSE agent may produce a prion disease in pigs that remains undetected by the current postmortem tests.


SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;







SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;



7 OF 10 LITTLE PIGGIES WENT ON TO DEVELOP BSE;



1: J Comp Pathol. 2000 Feb-Apr; 122(2-3): 131-43. Related Articles,


Links


Click here to read


The neuropathology of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the pig.


Ryder SJ, Hawkins SA, Dawson M, Wells GA.


Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.


In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of the brain, but mainly the forebrain. In addition, some vacuolar change was identified in the rostral colliculi and hypothalamic areas of normal control pigs. PrP accumulations were detected immunocytochemically in the brains of BSE-infected animals. PrP accumulation was sparse in many areas and its density was not obviously related to the degree of vacuolation. The patterns of PrP immunolabelling in control pigs differed strikingly from those in the infected animals.


PMID: 10684682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]







IN CONFIENCE



EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY



1. CMO should be aware that a pig inoculated experimentally (ic, iv, and ip) with BSE brain suspension has after 15 months developed an illness, now confirmed as a spongiform encephalopathy. This is the first ever description of such a disease in a pig, although it seems there ar no previous attempts at experimental inoculation with animal material. The Southwood group had thought igs would not be susceptible. Most pigs are slaughtered when a few weeks old but there have been no reports of relevant neurological illness in breeding sows or other elderly pigs. ...see full text ;







IN CONFIDENCE



So it is plausible pigs could be preclinically affected with BSE but since so few are allowed to reach adulthood this has not been recognised through clinical disease. ...







CONFIDENTIAL



EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY


While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...







we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.







May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. ...







3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. ...







But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. ...







Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....







BSE TO PIGS NEWS RELEASE







CONFIDENTIAL


BSE: PRESS PRESENTATION























INDUSTRY RESPONSE TYPICAL







DEFENSIVE BRIEFING







CONFIDENTIAL


pigs & pharmaceuticals



















COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINE NOT FOR PUBLICATION BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY WORKING GROUP


There are only two products using porcine brain and these use corticotrophin BP, made from porcine pituitary, source from outside the UK.............







SEE FULL TEXT ;









Saturday, December 3, 2011


Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat


Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011


Research


Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat


John Spiropoulos , Richard Lockey, Rosemary E. Sallis, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Thomas M. Holder, Katy E. Beck, and Marion M. Simmons


Author affiliations: Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, UK


Abstract


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded.


snip...


Discussion


snip... see full more here ;


Saturday, December 3, 2011


Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat Volume 17, Number


12—December 2011







Wednesday, January 18, 2012


BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE


February 1, 2012







Wednesday, July 06, 2011


Swine Are Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease by Intracerebral Inoculation


A single animal was positive for CWD by IHC and WB at 64 months PI. Two inoculated pigs and one control pig remain alive, so it is not possible to determine the attack rate of CWD in swine at this time.







Wednesday, October 12, 2011



White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation


snip...


This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.


snip...


Despite these differences, the results suggest that the species barrier between sheep and white-tailed deer is relatively weak.


snip...


The results of our work and the studies of CWD in white-tailed deer [38] suggest that free ranging white-tailed deer in general may be more susceptible to sheep scrapie than the deer used in our experiment due to the predominance of the 96G codon. A recent report 16 of oral transmission of CWD to white-tailed deer similarly describes different western blot patterns that were genotype related [38], but study specific differences including differences in genotypes assessed, source inoculum, and assessment of western blots derived from whole brain rather than region specific homogenates may preclude further comparison of that study with results presented here.


snip...


These transmission studies in conjunction with detailed analysis of biochemical characteristics of the resultant PrPSc will allow a better assessment of whether natural transmission of sheep scrapie to white-tailed deer presents a real risk and whether these results indicated the potential for selection or creation of new TSE strains after interspecies transmission.


It is unlikely that CWD will be eradicated from free-ranging cervids, and the disease is likely to continue to spread geographically [10]. However, the potential that 17 white-tailed deer may be susceptible to sheep scrapie by a natural route presents an additional confounding factor to halting the spread of CWD. This leads to the additional speculations that 1) infected deer could serve as a reservoir to infect sheep with scrapie offering challenges to scrapie eradication efforts and 2) CWD spread need not remain geographically confined to current endemic areas, but could occur anywhere that sheep with scrapie and susceptible cervids cohabitate.


This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation with a high attack rate and that the disease that results has similarities to CWD. These experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation to determine the likelihood of the potential transmission of sheep scrapie to white-tailed deer. If scrapie were to occur in white-tailed deer, results of this study indicate that it would be detected as a TSE, but may be difficult to differentiate from CWD without in-depth biochemical analysis.


Author: Justin GreenleeJodi SmithRobert Kunkle Credits/Source: Veterinary Research 2011, 42:107












Wednesday, September 21, 2011


Evidence for distinct CWD strains in experimental CWD in ferrets


Summary: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an evolving prion disease of cervids (deer, elk, moose) which has been recognized in North America and Korea. Infection of non-cervid reservoir or transport species in nature is not reported. However, the ferret, (Mustela putorius furo), is susceptible to CWD after experimental inoculation. Here we report that infection of ferrets with either of two ferret CWD isolates by various routes of exposure has revealed biologically distinct strain-like properties distinguished by different clinical progression and survival period. The isolates of ferret CWD were also differentiated by the distribution of the infectious prion protein (PrPCWD) in the brain and periphery, and by the proteinase K sensitivity of PrPCWD. These findings suggest that diversity in prion conformers exists in CWD-infected cervids.






see more here ;







Thursday, December 10, 2009


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Susceptibility of Several North American Rodents That Are Sympatric with Cervid CWD Epidemics






Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents


Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in “rigid loop” structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.






please see ;






Tuesday, January 10, 2012



ESHRE position statement concerning prion detection in urinary gonadotropin formulations









Friday, March 25, 2011




Detection of Prion Protein in Urine-Derived Injectable Fertility Products by a Targeted Proteomic Approach










Saturday, December 3, 2011




Candidate Cell Substrates, Vaccine Production, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies




Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011










Thursday, December 22, 2011




Risk of Prion Disease Transmission through Bovine-Derived Bone Substitutes: A Systematic Review




Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Dec 15. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2011.00407.x. [Epub ahead of print]










Thursday, December 29, 2011




Aerosols An underestimated vehicle for transmission of prion diseases?




PRION www.landesbioscience.com




please see more on Aerosols and TSE prion disease here ;










Monday, January 2, 2012




EFSA Minutes of the 6th Meeting of the EFSA Scientific Network on BSE-TSE Brussels, 29-30 November 2011










Sunday, July 03, 2011




J. Virol. doi:10.1128/JVI.05111-11 Copyright © 2011,American Society for Microbiology and/or the Listed Authors/Institutions. All Rights Reserved.




Prion Disease Detection, PMCA Kinetics, and IgG in Urine from Naturally/Experimentally Infected Scrapie Sheep and Preclinical/Clinical CWD Deer









Thursday, June 09, 2011




Detection of CWD prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission









UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN




Wednesday, September 08, 2010




CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010








Sunday, January 22, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission






Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections


Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.








J Vet Diagn Invest 21:454-463 (2009)



Nor98 scrapie identified in the United States



Christie M. Loiacono,' Bruce V. Thomsen, S. Mark Hall, Matti Kiupe!, Diane Sutton, Katherine O'Rourke, Bradd Barr, Lucy Anthenill, Deiwyn Keane


Abstract.


A distinct strain of scrapic identified in sheep of Norway in 1998 has since been identified in numerous countries throughout Europe. The disease is known as Nor98 or Not-98-like scrapic. among other names. Distinctions between classic scrapie and Nor98 scrapie are made based on histopathologv and immunodiagnostic results. There are also differences in the epidemiology, typical signalment, and likelihood of clinical signs being observed. In addition, sheep that have genotypes associated with resistance to classic scrapie are not spared from Nor98 disease. The various differences between classic and Nor98 scrapie have been consistently reported in the vast majority of cases described across Europe. The current study describes in detail the patholo gic changes and diagnostic results of the first 6 cases of' Nor98 scrapic disease diagnosed in sheep of the United States.


Key words: Hisiopathology: Nor98: PrP imniunolabeling; scrapie: sheep.


snip...


Results


Case I


The first case identified as consistent with Nor98 scrapie had nonclassic PrP distribution in brain tissue, no PrPSC in lymph tissue, and nonclassic migration of protein bands on a Western blot test. The animal was an aged, mottled-faced ewe that was traced back to a commercial flock in Wyoming. ...


Case 2


The second case was a clinically normal 8-year-old Suffolk ewe that had been in a quarantined flock for 5 years at a USDA facility in Iowa.


Case 3


A 16-year-old, white-faced, cross-bred wether was born to a black-faced ewe. He lived his entire life as a pet on a farm in California.


Case 4


The fourth case of Nor98 scrapie was identified in an approximately 8-year-old Dorset ewe that was born into a flock of approximately 20 ewes in Indiana.


Case 5


The fifth case was a clinically normal, approximately 3-year-old, white-faced, cross-bred ewe from an approximately 400 head commercial flock in Minnesota.


Case 6


The sixth case of Nor98 scrapie was identified in a 4-year-old, white-faced ewe that was purchased and added to a commercial flock in Pennsylvania


snip...


see full text ;







P03.141


Aspects of the Cerebellar Neuropathology in Nor98


Gavier-Widén, D1; Benestad, SL2; Ottander, L1; Westergren, E1 1National Veterinary Insitute, Sweden; 2National Veterinary Institute,


Norway Nor98 is a prion disease of old sheep and goats. This atypical form of scrapie was first described in Norway in 1998. Several features of Nor98 were shown to be different from classical scrapie including the distribution of disease associated prion protein (PrPd) accumulation in the brain. The cerebellum is generally the most affected brain area in Nor98. The study here presented aimed at adding information on the neuropathology in the cerebellum of Nor98 naturally affected sheep of various genotypes in Sweden and Norway. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings such as IHC for PrPd, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, amyloid, and cell markers for phagocytic cells were conducted. The type of histological lesions and tissue reactions were evaluated. The types of PrPd deposition were characterized. The cerebellar cortex was regularly affected, even though there was a variation in the severity of the lesions from case to case. Neuropil vacuolation was more marked in the molecular layer, but affected also the granular cell layer. There was a loss of granule cells. Punctate deposition of PrPd was characteristic. It was morphologically and in distribution identical with that of synaptophysin, suggesting that PrPd accumulates in the synaptic structures. PrPd was also observed in the granule cell layer and in the white matter. The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.


***The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.







PR-26


NOR98 SHOWS MOLECULAR FEATURES REMINISCENT OF GSS


R. Nonno1, E. Esposito1, G. Vaccari1, E. Bandino2, M. Conte1, B. Chiappini1, S. Marcon1, M. Di Bari1, S.L. Benestad3, U. Agrimi1 1 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Rome, Italy (romolo.nonno@iss.it); 2 Istituto Zooprofilattico della Sardegna, Sassari, Italy; 3 National Veterinary Institute, Department of Pathology, Oslo, Norway


Molecular variants of PrPSc are being increasingly investigated in sheep scrapie and are generally referred to as "atypical" scrapie, as opposed to "classical scrapie". Among the atypical group, Nor98 seems to be the best identified. We studied the molecular properties of Italian and Norwegian Nor98 samples by WB analysis of brain homogenates, either untreated, digested with different concentrations of proteinase K, or subjected to enzymatic deglycosylation. The identity of PrP fragments was inferred by means of antibodies spanning the full PrP sequence. We found that undigested brain homogenates contain a Nor98-specific PrP fragment migrating at 11 kDa (PrP11), truncated at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus, and not N-glycosylated. After mild PK digestion, Nor98 displayed full-length PrP (FL-PrP) and N-glycosylated C-terminal fragments (CTF), along with increased levels of PrP11. Proteinase K digestion curves (0,006-6,4 mg/ml) showed that FL-PrP and CTF are mainly digested above 0,01 mg/ml, while PrP11 is not entirely digested even at the highest concentrations, similarly to PrP27-30 associated with classical scrapie. Above 0,2 mg/ml PK, most Nor98 samples showed only PrP11 and a fragment of 17 kDa with the same properties of PrP11, that was tentatively identified as a dimer of PrP11. Detergent solubility studies showed that PrP11 is insoluble in 2% sodium laurylsorcosine and is mainly produced from detergentsoluble, full-length PrPSc. Furthermore, among Italian scrapie isolates, we found that a sample with molecular and pathological properties consistent with Nor98 showed plaque-like deposits of PrPSc in the thalamus when the brain was analysed by PrPSc immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results show that the distinctive pathological feature of Nor98 is a PrP fragment spanning amino acids ~ 90-155. This fragment is produced by successive N-terminal and C-terminal cleavages from a full-length and largely detergent-soluble PrPSc, is produced in vivo and is extremely resistant to PK digestion.


*** Intriguingly, these conclusions suggest that some pathological features of Nor98 are reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.


119







A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes


Annick Le Dur*,?, Vincent Béringue*,?, Olivier Andréoletti?, Fabienne Reine*, Thanh Lan Laï*, Thierry Baron§, Bjørn Bratberg¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte?, Pierre Sarradin**, Sylvie L. Benestad¶, and Hubert Laude*,? +Author Affiliations


*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ?Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; ?Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; §Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway


***Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA (received for review March 21, 2005)


Abstract Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. *** These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.







Monday, December 1, 2008


When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers


Authors


Andreoletti O., Herva M. H., Cassard H., Espinosa J. C., Lacroux C., Simon S., Padilla D., Benestad S. L., Lantier F., Schelcher F., Grassi J., Torres, J. M., UMR INRA ENVT 1225, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse.France; ICISA-INlA, Madrid, Spain; CEA, IBiTec-5, DSV, CEA/Saclay, Gif sur Yvette cedex, France; National Veterinary Institute, Postboks 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway, INRA IASP, Centre INRA de Tours, 3738O Nouzilly, France.


Content


Atypical scrapie is a TSE occurring in small ruminants and harbouring peculiar clinical, epidemiological and biochemical properties. Currently this form of disease is identified in a large number of countries. In this study we report the transmission of an atypical scrapie isolate through different species barriers as modeled by transgenic mice (Tg) expressing different species PRP sequence.


The donor isolate was collected in 1995 in a French commercial sheep flock. inoculation into AHQ/AHQ sheep induced a disease which had all neuro-pathological and biochemical characteristics of atypical scrapie. Transmitted into Transgenic mice expressing either ovine or PrPc, the isolate retained all the described characteristics of atypical scrapie.


Surprisingly the TSE agent characteristics were dramatically different v/hen passaged into Tg bovine mice. The recovered TSE agent had biological and biochemical characteristics similar to those of atypical BSE L in the same mouse model. Moreover, whereas no other TSE agent than BSE were shown to transmit into Tg porcine mice, atypical scrapie was able to develop into this model, albeit with low attack rate on first passage.


Furthermore, after adaptation in the porcine mouse model this prion showed similar biological and biochemical characteristics than BSE adapted to this porcine mouse model. Altogether these data indicate.


(i) the unsuspected potential abilities of atypical scrapie to cross species barriers


(ii) the possible capacity of this agent to acquire new characteristics when crossing species barrier


These findings raise some interrogation on the concept of TSE strain and on the origin of the diversity of the TSE agents and could have consequences on field TSE control measures.











12/10/76


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE


Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY


snip...


A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie A] The Problem Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries. The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep. It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible. Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates.


One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias" Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.


snip...



76/10.12/4.6







Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.


Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).


Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0


Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)


C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland


SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).







Wednesday, February 16, 2011


IN CONFIDENCE


SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES


IN CONFIDENCE







Sunday, April 18, 2010


SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010







Monday, April 25, 2011


Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep


Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011








Wednesday, January 18, 2012



Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie



Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology: February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147








Thursday, June 23, 2011


Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits







Saturday, June 25, 2011


Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque


"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"







Sunday, June 26, 2011


Risk Analysis of Low-Dose Prion Exposures in Cynomolgus Macaque







Friday, December 23, 2011


Oral Transmission of L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Primate Model


Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012 Dispatch









=====================


"The origin of atypical BSE is not yet determined. According to EFSA's scientific opinion published in 2008, all the cases of atypical BSE were reported with birth dates before the real feed ban in January 2001 in Europe. Therefore, the possibility of those atypical cases attributing to the contaminated feeds, just as in classical BSE, cannot be completely denied."


=====================




atypical BSE TSE cases have been around for a long long time, so yes indeed MBM or SRM could very well and most likely did contain atypical TSE of all strains in the USA, and the typical strains as well, of all species. the North America and the USA has typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and two strains now of Chronic Wasting Disease, call them typical and atypical, or call them what you want, all this has been rendered and fed to food producing livestock for humans and animals for years in the USA. these are the facts, like them or not. please see ;




why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $




snip...


5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.


snip...


R. BRADLEY







1992


IN CONFIDENCE


BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367)







1992


NEW BRAIN DISORDER


3. WHAT ABOUT REPORTS OF NEW FORM OF BSE ?


THE VETERINARY RECORD HAS PUBLISHED AN ARTICLE ON A NEW BRAIN DISORDER OF CATTLE DISCOVERED THROUGH OUR CONTROL MEASURES FOR BSE. ALTHOUGH IT PRESENTS SIMILAR CLINICAL SIGNS TO BSE THERE ARE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY AND INCUBATION PERIODS BETWEEN THE TWO. MUST EMPHASISE THAT THIS IS _NOT_ BSE.


4. IS THIS NEW BRAIN DISORDER A THREAT ?


WE DO NOT EVEN KNOW WHETHER THE AGENT OF THIS DISEASE IS TRANSMISSIBLE. IN ANY CASE, CASES SO FAR IDENTIFIED HAD SHOWN SIMILAR SYMPTOMS TO THOSE OF BSE, AND THEREFORE HAVE BEEN SLAUGHTERED AND INCINERATED, SO THAT IF A TRANSMISSIBLE AGENT WERE INVOLVED IT WOULD HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED. ...







Tuesday, November 17, 2009


SEAC NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS (IBNC) FROM THE VETERINARY LABORATORIES AGENCY (VLA) SEAC 103/1







NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS


"All of the 15 cattle tested showed that the brains had abnormally accumulated PrP"


2009









''THE LINE TO TAKE'' ON IBNC $$$ 1995 $$$


1995


page 9 of 14 ;


30. The Committee noted that the results were unusual. the questioned whether there could be coincidental BSE infection or contamination with scrapie. Dr. Tyrell noted that the feeling of the committee was that this did not represent a new agent but it was important to be prepared to say something publicly about these findings. A suggested line to take was that these were scientifically unpublishable results but in line with the policy of openness they would be made publicly available and further work done to test their validity. Since the BSE precautions were applied to IBNC cases, human health was protected. Further investigations should be carried out on isolations from brains of IBNC cases with removal of the brain and subsequent handling under strict conditions to avoid the risk of any contamination.


31. Mr. Bradley informed the Committee that the CVO had informed the CMO about the IBNC results and the transmission from retina and he, like the Committee was satisfied that the controls already in place or proposed were adequate. ... snip... see full text











Wednesday, July 28, 2010


Atypical prion proteins and IBNC in cattle DEFRA project code SE1796 FOIA Final report







Tuesday, November 02, 2010


BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992








Wednesday, May 25, 2011


O.I.E. Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission and prion (TSE) disease reporting 2011


----- Original Message -----


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


To: BSE-L@LISTS.AEGEE.ORG


Cc: trade@oie.int ; oie@oie.int ; f.diaz@oie.int ; scientific.dept@oie.int ; cjdvoice@yahoogroups.com ; BLOODCJD@YAHOOGROUPS.COM


Sent: Tuesday, May 24, 2011 2:24 PM


Subject: O.I.E. Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission and prion (TSE) disease reporting 2011







Friday, January 6, 2012


OIE 2012 Training Manual on Wildlife Diseases and Surveillance and TSE Prion disease







Thursday, January 26, 2012


The Risk of Prion Zoonoses


Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 411-413 DOI: 10.1126/science.1218167







Thursday, January 26, 2012


Facilitated Cross-Species Transmission of Prions in Extraneural Tissue


Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 472-475 DOI: 10.1126/science.1215659









U.S.A. 50 STATE BSE MAD COW CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001


Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001


Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de


######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########


Greetings List Members,


I was lucky enough to sit in on this BSE conference call today and even managed to ask a question. that is when the trouble started.


I submitted a version of my notes to Sandra Blakeslee of the New York Times, whom seemed very upset, and rightly so.


"They tell me it is a closed meeting and they will release whatever information they deem fit. Rather infuriating."


and i would have been doing just fine, until i asked my question. i was surprised my time to ask a question so quick.


(understand, these are taken from my notes for now. the spelling of names and such could be off.)


[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.


[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]


[host Richard] could you repeat the question?


[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?


[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.


[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary


[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?


[not sure whom speaking] NO


from this point, i was still connected, got to listen and tape the whole conference. at one point someone came on, a woman, and ask again;


[unknown woman] what group are you with?


[TSS] CJD Watch and my Mom died from hvCJD we are trying to tract down CJD and other human TSE's world wide. i was invited to sit in on this from someone inside the USDA/APHIS and that is why i am here. do you intend on banning me from this conference now?


at this point the conference was turned back up, and i got to finish listening. They never answered or even addressed my one question, or even addressed the issue. BUT, i will try and give you a run-down for now, of the conference.


IF i were another Country, I would take heed to my notes, BUT PLEASE do not depend on them. ask for transcript from;


RBARNS@ORA.FDA.GOV 301-827-6906


he would be glad to give you one ;-)


Rockville Maryland, Richard Barns Host


BSE issues in the U.S., How they were labelling ruminant feed? Revising issues.


The conference opened up with the explaining of the U.K. BSE epidemic winding down with about 30 cases a week.


although new cases in other countries were now appearing.


Look at Germany whom said NO BSE and now have BSE.


BSE increasing across Europe.


Because of Temporary Ban on certain rendered product, heightened interest in U.S.


A recent statement in Washington Post, said the New Administration (old GW) has a list of issues. BSE is one of the issues.


BSE Risk is still low, minimal in U.S. with a greater interest in MBM not to enter U.S.


HOWEVER, if BSE were to enter the U.S. it would be economically disastrous to the render, feed, cattle, industries, and for human health.


(human health-they just threw that in cause i was listening. I will now jot down some figures in which they told you, 'no need to write them down'. just hope i have them correct. hmmm, maybe i hope i don't ???)


80% inspection of rendering


*Problem-Complete coverage of rendering HAS NOT occurred.


sizeable number of 1st time FAILED INITIAL INSPECTION, have not been reinspected (70% to 80%).


Compliance critical, Compliance poor in U.K. and other European Firms.


Gloria Dunason Major Assignment 1998 goal TOTAL compliance. This _did not_ occur. Mixed level of compliance, depending on firm.


Rendering FDA license and NON FDA license


system in place for home rendering & feed 76% in compliance 79% cross contamination 21% DID NOT have system 92% record keeping less than 60% total compliance


279 inspectors 185 handling prohibited materials


Renderer at top of pyramid, significant part of compliance. 84% compliance


failed to have caution statement render 72% compliance & cross contamination caution statement on feed, 'DO NOT FEED TO CATTLE'


56 FIRMS NEVER INSPECTED


1240 FDA license feed mills 846 inspected


"close to 400 feed mills have not been inspected"


80% compliance for feed.


10% don't have system.


NON-FDA licensed mills There is NO inventory on non licensed mills. approximately 6000 to 8000 Firms ??? 4,344 ever inspected. "FDA does not have a lot of experience with"


40% do NOT have caution statement 'DO NOT FEED'.


74% Commingling compliance


"This industry needs a lot of work and only half gotten to"


"700 Firms that were falitive, and need to be re-inspected, in addition to the 8,000 Firms."


Quote to do BSE inspection in 19 states by end of January or 30 days, and other states 60 days. to change feed status??? Contract check and ask questions and pass info.


At this time, we will take questions.


[I was about the third or fourth to ask question. then all B.S.eee broke loose, and i lost my train of thought for a few minutes. picked back up here]


someone asking about nutritional supplements and sourcing, did not get name. something about inspectors not knowing of BSE risk??? the conference person assuring that Steve Follum? and the TSE advisory Committee were handling that.


Some other Dr. Vet, whom were asking questions that did not know what to do???


[Dennis Wilson] California Food Agr. Imports, are they looking at imports?


[Conference person] they are looking at imports, FDA issued imports Bulletin.


[Linda Singeltary ??? this was a another phone in question, not related i don't think] Why do we have non-licensed facilities?


(conference person) other feed mills do not handle as potent drugs???


Dennis Blank, Ken Jackson licensed 400 non FDA 4400 inspected of a total of 6000 to 8000, (they really don't know how many non licensed Firms in U.S. they guess 6000 to 8000??? TSS)


Linda Detwiler asking everyone (me) not to use emergency BSE number, unless last resort. (i thought of calling them today, and reporting the whole damn U.S. cattle herd ;-) 'not'


Warren-Maryland Dept. Agr. Prudent to re-inspect after 3 years. concerned of Firms that have changed owners.


THE END


TSS






snip...see full text and more here on tissue donor herds and the TSE Prion disease ;




U.S.A. 50 STATE BSE MAD COW CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001







Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Update, October 31, 2005 INTRODUCTION The United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) held a public meeting on July 25, 2006 in Washington, D.C. to present findings from the Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Update, October 31, 2005 (report and model located on the FSIS website:







Comments on technical aspects of the risk assessment were then submitted to FSIS.


Comments were received from Food and Water Watch, Food Animal Concerns Trust (FACT), Farm Sanctuary, R-CALF USA, Linda A Detwiler, and Terry S. Singeltary.


This document provides itemized replies to the public comments received on the 2005 updated Harvard BSE risk assessment. Please bear the following points in mind:







Owens, Julie


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [flounder9@verizon.net]


Sent: Monday, July 24, 2006 1:09 PM


To: FSIS RegulationsComments


Subject: [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)


Page 1 of 98








Tuesday, March 16, 2010


COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Hansard Import restrictions on beef FRIDAY, 5 FEBRUARY 2010 AUSTRALIA


COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA


Proof Committee Hansard


RRA&T 2 Senate Friday, 5 February 2010


RURAL AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS AND TRANSPORT


[9.03 am]


BELLINGER, Mr Brad, Chairman, Australian Beef Association CARTER, Mr John Edward, Director, Australian Beef Association CHAIR—Welcome. Would you like to make an opening statement? Mr Bellinger—Thank you. The ABA stands by its submission, which we made on 14 December last year, that the decision made by the government to allow the importation of beef from BSE affected countries is politically based, not science based. During this hearing we will bring forward compelling new evidence to back up this statement. When I returned to my property after the December hearing I received a note from an American citizen. I will read a small excerpt from the mail he sent me in order to reinforce the dangers of allowing the importation of beef from BSE affected countries. I have done a number of press releases on this topic, and this fellow has obviously picked my details up from the internet. His name is Terry Singeltary and he is from Bacliff, Texas. He states, and rightfully so: You should be worried. Please let me explain. I’ve kept up with the mad cow saga for 12 years today, on December 14th 1997, some four months post voluntary and partial mad cow feed ban in the USA, I lost my mother to the Heinemann variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). I know this is just another phenotype of the infamous sporadic CJDs. Here in the USA, when USA sheep scrapie was transmitted to USA bovine, the agent was not UK BSE—it was a different strain. So why then would human TSE from USA cattle look like UK CJD from UK BSE? It would not. So this accentuates that the science is inconclusive still on this devastating disease. He goes on to state:


snip...see full text 110 pages ;







for those interested, please see much more here ;








Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee


The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government’s decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010 2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo—has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50







Monday, October 10, 2011


EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story


snip...


EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.


snip...









see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;







Thursday, August 12, 2010


Seven main threats for the future linked to prions


First threat


The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.


***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.


Second threat


snip...








Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis














full text with source references ;









CANADA CJD UPDATE 2011


CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20112 As of January 31, 2011


3. Final classification of 49 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 is pending.



snip...







USA 2011



USA


National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center


Cases Examined1


(November 1, 2010)


Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD


1996 & earlier 51 33 28 5 0 0


1997 114 68 59 9 0 0


1998 87 51 43 7 1 0


1999 121 73 65 8 0 0


2000 146 103 89 14 0 0


2001 209 119 109 10 0 0


2002 248 149 125 22 2 0


2003 274 176 137 39 0 0


2004 325 186 164 21 0 13


2005 344 194 157 36 1 0


2006 383 197 166 29 0 24


2007 377 214 187 27 0 0


2008 394 231 205 25 0 0


2009 425 258 215 43 0 0


2010 333 213 158 33 0 0


TOTAL 38315 22656 1907 328 4 3


1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;


2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;


3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;


4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;


5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;


6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.







Please notice where sporadic CJD cases in 1996 went from 28 cases, to 215 cases in 2009, the highest recorded year to date. sporadic CJD is on a steady rise, and has been since 1996.


I also urge you to again notice these disturbing factors in lines 5 and 6 ;


5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;


6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.



========end=====tss=====2011




Monday, August 9, 2010


National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined (July 31, 2010)


(please watch and listen to the video and the scientist speaking about atypical BSE and sporadic CJD and listen to Professor Aguzzi)






THE steady rise of sporadic CJD cases in Canada AND USA, with many unusual cases of ''PENDING CLASSIFICATIONS" which have been pending now FOR 3 YEARS. HOW long can this cover-up continue $$$




The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.








SEE FULL TEXT AND MORE HERE ;



Saturday, March 5, 2011



MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA








2011 Monday, September 26, 2011



L-BSE BASE prion and atypical sporadic CJD


























TSS


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