Friday, August 7, 2015

Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates

Research Article

 

Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates

 

Enric Vidal , Natalia Fernández-Borges , Belén Pintado, Hasier Eraña, Montserrat Ordóñez, Mercedes Márquez, Francesca Chianini, Dolors Fondevila, Manuel A. Sánchez-Martín, Olivier Andreoletti, Mark P. Dagleish, Martí Pumarola, Joaquín Castilla

 

PLOS

 

Published: August 6, 2015 •DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004977

 

Abstract

 

Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab). Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD), experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML) and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE) and rabbit (de novo NZW) strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML) tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd) deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK) resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits.

 

Author Summary

 

Prions, the infectious agents responsible for causing mad cow disease, amongst other diseases, can transmit from one species to another. For example, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy can transmit to humans resulting in invariably fatal variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. We wanted to study the susceptibility of rabbits as, until recently, they were considered a prion resistant species. Once proven otherwise, we wanted to know which particular prions rabbits were susceptible to. With this aim, a transgenic mouse was designed expressing the rabbit prion protein gene instead of the corresponding mouse gene to model the transmission barrier between rabbits and other species. The resultant mice where challenged with several field prion isolates including classical and atypical strains of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, sheep Scrapie and cervid Chronic Wasting disease. The transgenic mice were susceptible to classical and atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy prions and also to mouse-adapted Scrapie prions. This information must be taken into account when assessing the risk of using ruminant derived protein as a protein source to feed rabbits.

 

snip...

 

Discussion

 

This is the first report of in vivo evidence suggesting that TgRab mice are susceptible to cross species transmission of prion strains. This not only reinforces that rabbits can no longer be considered TSE resistant, but also that there is a possibility they could act as a reservoir for other prion strains. As such, rabbits must be taken into account when determining the epidemiology of several TSE both in relation to the species of origin, especially sympatric ones, but also to potential zoonotic transmission.

 

In previous studies we demonstrated that rabbits were able to propagate abnormal prions and that these were transmissible to other rabbits. However, this was only one prion strain which was generated de novo in an in vitro PMCA assay in rabbit brain homogenate (a spontaneous rabbit prion strain) and on first passage it had only a very limited attack rate [23]. This new mouse model, which responded in a comparable manner to rabbits when challenged with the same in vitro generated rabbit derived inoculum, has allowed us to evaluate the TgRab’s susceptibility to a number of actual field prions strains from a variety of different species. Although the use of rabbits would have been the most appropriate model there are strong, particularly budgetary, limitations due to the longer lifespan of rabbits and the need to use level 3 biosafety facilities. Thus, a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was designed to overcome these limitations and allow us to determine its susceptibility to different prion strains.

 

No polymorphisms have been described in the PRNP rabbit gene, therefore several mouse transgenic lines were generated expressing rabbit PrPC at different expression levels. The line with the highest possible PrPC expression levels was selected to allow for easier prion propagation capacity but the overexpression was not so high as to generate a spontaneous phenotype at an early age which would preclude the attainment of infectivity/susceptibility data. The hemizygous TgRab line met these criteria with levels of PrPC between 5 to 6 times those present in rabbits. The use of transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrPC to obtain the infectivity titer of specific prion isolates has been shown to be equivalent to titrations obtained through bioassay in the natural host [50]. Phenotyping of the newly developed prion transgenic model was essential, especially as the levels of PrPc expression present have not been shown to be problematic in other models [41,46]. Eighty percent of the TgRab mice presented with a late onset spontaneous neurological disease phenotype (S3 Fig and S4 Fig) which, fortunately, did not interfere in the interpretation of prion susceptibility results. This allowed us to work with a model that faithfully reproduced the behavior in rabbits with respect to their capability to propagate different prion strains. One cannot exclude the possibility that the presence of spontaneous disease might create a toxic environment in the brain which artificially enhances the transmission of certain strains. Therefore a thorough knowledge of the PrPC overexpression-related changes in uninfected controls was essential to identify the true prion disease status and validity of susceptibility.

 

Lesion morphology and profiling within the brain and identification of specific PrPd deposition-types allowed unequivocal identification of infected animals (either spontaneous or as a result of an inoculation). Further biochemical detection of the presence of PrPres by western blotting confirmed the ability of morphological techniques to identify an infected animal. Additionally, as PrPC overexpression may mask an incipient infection, second passages are required to confirm if rabbits are totally resistant to those prion isolates to which they initially appeared to be, such as SSBP/1, atypical scrapie or CWD, and these experiments are ongoing.

 

Once validated the TgRab model was used to evaluate which TSE strains were able to infect the model (Table 2). Previous attempts in rabbits had concluded they were resistant, probably due to incomplete studies and the strong barrier of rabbits to propagate prions [34]. Initially classical cattle BSE, the most relevant field strain, was tested and found to be infectious on first passage with a low attack rate (4/9) and relatively long incubation period (551dpi±10). The strain properties observed in the infected TgRab mice (western blotting, brain lesion and PrPd deposition profiles) were typical of BSE and indistinguishable from those obtained in other BSE murine models [36]. Parallel bioassay studies were conducted with the BSE isolate previously amplified in vitro using rabbit normal brain homogenate as a substrate (BSE-RaPrPres, this inoculum was characterised previously in a TgBov mouse model by our group [36]). These animals showed a 100% (12/12) attack rate and a shortened incubation period (396dpi ±12 vs 551dpi ±10) compared to the cattle BSE inoculated TgRab mice. This reduction already indicated that a transmission barrier between species had been overcome thanks to the in vitro adaptation of the cattle BSE-C to rabbit PrPC, a second passage was performed from that isolate which also showed a 100% attack rate (3/3). Its incubation period was reduced to 322dpi ±12 (mean ± s.e.m.) indicating further host adaptation (S5 Fig).

 

SheepBSE, derived from BSE-C, infected TgRab mice with a 100% attack rate (9/9), a relatively short incubation time (368±10 dpi) and with lesion and PrPd brain profiles identical to those of BSE-C inoculated mice, suggesting that the same strain was being propagated through both isolates. This enhanced virulence of sheepBSE compared to BSE-C has been previously demonstrated in other experimental scenarios [29,51]. The results obtained with sheep scrapie differed completely as, in agreement with early experiments in rabbits [34], none of the TgRab mice inoculated with SSBP/1 showed any evidence of a prion disease on first passage. However, this result does not preclude that, if further in vivo SSBP/1 passages were to be performed, the transmission barrier would be crossed. As in the case of BSE in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), where after an initial resistance a bank vole adapted BSE strain was obtained which was highly transmissible [52,53]. Conversely, ME7 and RML scrapie, both murine adapted sheep scrapie strains, infected TgRab mice on first passage and their incubation times, PrPres biochemical profiles, lesion profiles and PrPd deposition patterns were clearly distinguishable from cattle derived strains. Together these data are the first evidence that TgRab mice are not only able to propagate prions but they do it maintaining clearly the different distinguishing strain features (Figs 1, 3 and 4) which strongly suggests that rabbits may also.

 

It is noteworthy that both ME7 and RML, which originated from serial passages of SSBP/1 in different rodents [54,55], directly propagated in TgRab mice on first passage. Conversely, SSBP/1 did not infect TgRab mice on first passage. The murine adapted prion strains behaved differently to their parent strain, possibly because passage through rodents had selected for a strain capable of crossing the rodent species barriers. The situation is analogous to CWD which will infect hamsters after initial passage through ferrets [9]. In the present work, previous adaptation of scrapie to rodents, possibly resulting in a higher sequence identity in some specific and crucial PrP regions with rabbits compared to sheep, allowed rodent adapted scrapie prions to misfold rabbit PrPC. In previous studies ME7 did not infect rabbits after 4–5 years of incubation, with the exception of a single inconclusive case [23,34]. This result is difficult to extrapolate since we are discussing different species, of differing lifespans and with a species barrier between them. The PrPC overexpression in TgRab may have allowed ME7 to propagate more efficiently than in rabbits which suggests that if the original rabbit experiments had been performed over the maximum lifespan of rabbits ME7 may have propagated on first passage also.

 

Once BSE in cattle has been virtually controlled, CWD in cervids is the animal prion disease with the most repercussions, at least in the North American continent. The uncertainty of its transmissibility to humans [56] and its unique ability to spread through the free ranging cervid population make its study highly relevant with respect to transmissibility to other species. Moreover CWD prions are known to be shed and are highly persistent in the environment. Rabbits are a sympatric species with cervids. Even though CWD has been shown to transmit on first passage to many species including sheep, cattle [57], squirrel monkeys [58], cats [59], hamsters [60], ferrets [9], mink [61], bank voles and deer mice (Genus Peromyscus) [62] its transmissibility efficiency is relatively low with very long incubation periods and low attack rates. For instance, wild type mice could not be readily infected, so tga20 mice overexpressing murine PrPC were required to prove susceptibility to CWD [63] or required a second passage [64]. Another example is the transmission of CWD to cats, which required an incubation period of longer than 4 years [59]. The present study showed CWD was not able to infect TgRab on first passage (0/12). Further experiments are required to confirm the resistance of rabbits to CWD including a blind second passage and bioassays with CWD previously passaged in other species, especially rodents [9]. This will rule out an analogous situation as the one observed in this paper with sheep scrapie whereby SSBP/1 does not transmit to TgRab but murine passaged counterparts, ME7 and RML, do.

 

With respect to the atypical prion strains of purported spontaneous origin [18,65,66], BSE-L infected TgRab mice on first passage and, although the attack rate was low (3/11), they had the shortest incubation period observed in this model so far (221dpi for the first animal to die, mean 280±26dpi). The lesion and PrPd deposition brain profiles differed considerably from those of BSE-C. None of the TgRab mice inoculated with atypical scrapie showed evidence of a TSE with the exception of one animal, euthanized at 742 dpi which, even though no histological lesions nor PrPd deposits were present suggestive of infection, it was positive by PrPd ELISA. This result could not be confirmed by western blotting. However, this ELISA detects PrPd through its affinity to an anionic ligand not due to its resistance to protease K so we cannot rule out this single mouse was positive. A second passage is ongoing which will determine the result.

 

Initial in vitro experiments predicted that BSE as well as SSBP/1 and CWD isolates were able to missfold rabbit PrPC. However, a discrepancy was found with the bioassay results since neither SSBP/1 nor CWD infected TgRab mice on first passage. Several saPMCA rounds were needed in order to amplify the different isolates, varying in number depending of each strain. Thus, it is not surprising that on first passage some of the isolates do not transmit.

 

Besides the PRNP sequence, another component of the transmission barrier is the genetic background in which each PrPC is contained. This has been demonstrated by infectivity studies showing BSE propagated more efficiently in RIII mice than C57/Black mice, two mice strains of the same species with the same PRNP gene [67]. Or when the genetic background (i.e. passage through different inbred mouse lines) determined not only the incubation period but also the propagation of two biochemically different BSE-derived strains [68]. For these reasons the belief that rabbits were resistant to prion infection was not only attributed to the rabbit PrPC sequence but also to its genetic background. To study whether the genetic background of rabbits was responsible for the apparent prion resistance, Houdebine’s group generated transgenic rabbits expressing an ovine PrPC which was known to easily misfold. Upon inoculation with ovine prion strains these rabbits succumbed to prion disease further proving that rabbits are not resistant to prions (results published paired with this article) and that the genetic background is not a limiting factor [37].

 

The differential susceptibility observed between actual rabbits and the transgenic model presented here can be explained by the higher PrPC expression levels of TgRab mice. Lower expression mouse lines would probably only be susceptible on first passage to strains previously adapted to rabbit PrPC as occurs with rabbits. It has taken more than three decades to finally dismiss the rabbit as a prion resistant species. We believe that the studies presented here confirm that in vitro studies are of great help in interpreting in vivo results, leave no room for misinterpretation, and that it can be ascertained that rabbits, and probably all other mammal species [21], are susceptible to infection by specific prion strains. The prion strain and its species of origin determine the extent of susceptibility, but neither rabbit PRNP nor their genetic background suggest they are resistant to prion propagation. Unfortunately, as with other mammals, the exact molecular mechanisms governing the capricious choice of strains that can be propagated in a certain species is still unknown.

 

In light of our results, especially susceptibility to spontaneous cattle prions (BSE-L), the restrictions on rabbits being fed ruminant protein should be maintained sine die to minimize the chances of any prion strain transmitting to rabbits.

 

Supporting Information

 

Figures

 

Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 1 Table 1 Table 2 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 1 Table 1 Table 2

 

Citation: Vidal E, Fernández-Borges N, Pintado B, Eraña H, Ordóñez M, Márquez M, et al. (2015) Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates. PLoS Pathog 11(8): e1004977. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004977

 

Editor: Surachai Supattapone, Dartmouth Medical School, USA, UNITED STATES

 

Received: February 11, 2015; Accepted: May 26, 2015; Published: August 6, 2015

 

Copyright: © 2015 Vidal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

 

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

 

Funding: This work was financially supported by 3 national grants from Spain [AGL2009-11553-C02-01 (JC), AGL2012-37988-C04-01 (JC) and AGL2008-05296-C02 (EV)], a Basque government grant (PI2010-18) (JC), two CTP grants (CTP11-P04 and CTP2013-P05) (JC), 3 InterReg grants [EFA205/11 and EFA218/11) (JC); EFA282/13—Transprion (MP, DF, EV)], Etortek Research Programs 2011/2013 (JC) and by Agència de Salut pública de Catalunya, Departament de Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya (EV). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

 

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

 


 

I remember ;

 

> Despite rabbits no longer being able to be classified as resistant to TSEs, an outbreak of “mad rabbit disease” is unlikely.

 

Rabbits are not resistant to prion infection

Francesca Chianinia,1, Natalia Fernández-Borgesb,c,1, Enric Vidald, Louise Gibbarda, Belén Pintadoe, Jorge de Castroc, Suzette A. Priolaf, Scott Hamiltona, Samantha L. Eatona, Jeanie Finlaysona, Yvonne Panga, Philip Steelea, Hugh W. Reida, Mark P. Dagleisha, and Joaquín Castillab,c,g,2 Author Affiliations

 

aMoredun Research Institute, Penicuik, Near Edinburgh EH26 0PZ, Scotland, United Kingdom; bCIC bioGUNE, Derio 48160, Bizkaia, Spain; gIKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011, Bizkaia, Spain; cDepartment of Infectology, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, FL 33458; fLaboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840; dCentre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA), UAB-IRTA, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; and eCentro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain Edited by Reed B. Wickner, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, and approved February 16, 2012 (received for review December 6, 2011)

 

Abstract Full Text Authors & Info Figures SI Metrics Related Content PDF PDF + SI Abstract The ability of prions to infect some species and not others is determined by the transmission barrier. This unexplained phenomenon has led to the belief that certain species were not susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and therefore represented negligible risk to human health if consumed. Using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, we were able to overcome the species barrier in rabbits, which have been classified as TSE resistant for four decades. Rabbit brain homogenate, either unseeded or seeded in vitro with disease-related prions obtained from different species, was subjected to serial rounds of PMCA. De novo rabbit prions produced in vitro from unseeded material were tested for infectivity in rabbits, with one of three intracerebrally challenged animals succumbing to disease at 766 d and displaying all of the characteristics of a TSE, thereby demonstrating that leporids are not resistant to prion infection. Material from the brain of the clinically affected rabbit containing abnormal prion protein resulted in a 100% attack rate after its inoculation in transgenic mice overexpressing rabbit PrP. Transmissibility to rabbits (>470 d) has been confirmed in 2 of 10 rabbits after intracerebral challenge. Despite rabbits no longer being able to be classified as resistant to TSEs, an outbreak of “mad rabbit disease” is unlikely.

 

in vitro replication scrapie transmissible spongiform encephalopathy Footnotes ↵1F.C. and N.F.-B. contributed equally to this work.

 

↵2To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: castilla@joaquincastilla.com Author contributions: F.C., N.F.-B., S.A.P., and J.d.C. designed research; F.C., N.F.-B., E.V., L.G., B.P., J.d.C., S.A.P., S.H., S.L.E., J.F., Y.P., P.S., H.W.R., M.P.D., and J.C. performed research; F.C., N.F.-B., E.V., S.A.P., and J.C. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; F.C., N.F.-B., E.V., S.A.P., and J.C. analyzed data; and F.C., N.F.-B., S.A.P., H.W.R., M.P.D., and J.C. wrote the paper.

 

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

 

This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.

 

This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1120076109/-/DCSupplemental.

 


 

 >>> Despite rabbits no longer being able to be classified as resistant to TSEs, an outbreak of “mad rabbit disease” is unlikely.

 

seems to be more concern with the latest paper. we went from ‘’Despite rabbits no longer being able to be classified as resistant to TSEs, an outbreak of “mad rabbit disease” is unlikely’’, in 2012, to ‘’This information must be taken into account when assessing the risk of using ruminant derived protein as a protein source to feed rabbits.’’ ‘’In light of our results, especially susceptibility to spontaneous cattle prions (BSE-L), the restrictions on rabbits being fed ruminant protein should be maintained sine die to minimize the chances of any prion strain transmitting to rabbits.’’

 

never say never with the tse prion aka mad cow type disease, just to correct something, atypical L-type BASE BSE has never been proven to be spontaneous under natural conditions in the wild. ...just saying...terry

 

P.108: Successful oral challenge of adult cattle with classical BSE

 

Sandor Dudas1,*, Kristina Santiago-Mateo1, Tammy Pickles1, Catherine Graham2, and Stefanie Czub1 1Canadian Food Inspection Agency; NCAD Lethbridge; Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; 2Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture; Pathology Laboratory; Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada

 

Classical Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-type BSE) is a feed- and food-borne fatal neurological disease which can be orally transmitted to cattle and humans. Due to the presence of contaminated milk replacer, it is generally assumed that cattle become infected early in life as calves and then succumb to disease as adults.

 

Here we challenged three 14 months old cattle per-orally with 100 grams of C-type BSE brain to investigate age-related susceptibility or resistance. During incubation, the animals were sampled monthly for blood and feces and subjected to standardized testing to identify changes related to neurological disease.

 

At 53 months post exposure, progressive signs of central nervous system disease were observed in these 3 animals, and they were euthanized. Two of the C-BSE animals tested strongly positive using standard BSE rapid tests, however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE. Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

 

Our study demonstrates susceptibility of adult cattle to oral transmission of classical BSE. We are further examining explanations for the unusual disease presentation in the third challenged animal.

 

========================

 

***Our study demonstrates susceptibility of adult cattle to oral transmission of classical BSE. ***

 

P.86: Estimating the risk of transmission of BSE and scrapie to ruminants and humans by protein misfolding cyclic amplification

 

Morikazu Imamura, Naoko Tabeta, Yoshifumi Iwamaru, and Yuichi Murayama National Institute of Animal Health; Tsukuba, Japan

 

To assess the risk of the transmission of ruminant prions to ruminants and humans at the molecular level, we investigated the ability of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) of typical and atypical BSEs (L-type and H-type) and typical scrapie to convert normal prion protein (PrPC) from bovine, ovine, and human to proteinase K-resistant PrPSc-like form (PrPres) using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA).

 

Six rounds of serial PMCA was performed using 10% brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing bovine, ovine or human PrPC in combination with PrPSc seed from typical and atypical BSE- or typical scrapie-infected brain homogenates from native host species. In the conventional PMCA, the conversion of PrPC to PrPres was observed only when the species of PrPC source and PrPSc seed matched. However, in the PMCA with supplements (digitonin, synthetic polyA and heparin), both bovine and ovine PrPC were converted by PrPSc from all tested prion strains. On the other hand, human PrPC was converted by PrPSc from typical and H-type BSE in this PMCA condition.

 

Although these results were not compatible with the previous reports describing the lack of transmissibility of H-type BSE to ovine and human transgenic mice, ***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

 

================

 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. ***

 


 

O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations

 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Val erie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. *** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, ***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold longe incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), ***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

 

===============

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases...TSS

 

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QUANTITY: 2,790 tons of ruminant feed products and 14,000 tons of non-ruminant feed products. REASON: The animal feed products may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues.

 

 RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETMED -- CLASS IIPRODUCT & CODES: Animal feed products, packaged in 5, 25, 50, and 55 pound bags, and in bulk, intended for both ruminant and non-ruminant animals. The products are as follows: Recall # V-195-1 through V-350-1.

 

RUMINANT FEED PRODUCTS:

 

RECALL NO. PRODUCT NO. PRODUCT NAME

 

V-195-1 40150 B. 30% Calf Pellet V-196-1 40250 B. 16% Calf Pellet V-197-1 40350 B. 16% Calf Ration V-198-1 40450 B. 18% Calf Starter V-199-1 40600 B. 38% Dairy Pellet V-200-1 40650 B. 38% Dairy Pellet V-201-1 40750 B. 16% Dairy Feed V-202-1 40950 B. 40% Beef Pellet V-203-1 41150 B. 18% Lamb Starter Pellet V-204-1 41250 B. 39% Lamb Conc. Pellet V-205-1 41350 B. 14% Lamb & Beef Pellet V-206-1 41450 B. 16% Goat Feed V-207-1 42150 B. 32% Expectation Pellet V-208-1 42250 B. Llama & Alpaca Pellet V-209-1 42350 B. 32% Calf Grower Pellet V-210-1 42650 B. Llama & Alpaca Crums V-211-1 42750 B. 38% Hay Booster 2 V-212-1 42850 B. 25% Pasture Booster V-213-1 43100 B. 16% Grower/Dev Pellet V-214-1 43150 B. 16% Grower/Dev Pellet V-215-1 43700 WH 32% Calf Gro Pellet V-216-1 43750 WH 32% Calf Gro Pellet V-217-1 43850 B. 38% Dairy Mix V-218-1 44250 B. 17% Doe Pellet V-219-1 44350 B. 21% Buck Pellet V-220-1 44450 Legends Ranch Pellet V-221-1 44500 Legends 17% Breeder Pellet V-222-1 1652 B. Vitamin E-20 V-223-1 1614 B. Vitamin A-30 V-224-1 44550 Legends 17% Breeder Pellet V-225-1 44650 Legends 13.5% Rut Pellet V-226-1 44750 Deer Starter (J) V-227-1 44940 Llama Premix (J) FSC V-228-1 45150 Empire 25% Calf Pellet V-229-1 45450 Berry Llama Pellet V-230-1 45950 50% Beef Conc. (Meal) V-231-1 46250 B. 12% Sweet Livestock V-232-1 46350 B. 1440 Bovatec Pellet V-233-1 46400 Liberty 38% Dairy Pellet V-234-1 46450 Liberty 38% Dairy Pellet V-235-1 47150 B. 14% Gold-n-Grower V-236-1 47250 B. 12% Gold-n-Conditioner V-237-1 47450 B. 18% Gold-n-Lamb V-238-1 47800 Homeworth Dairy Pellet V-239-1 47850 Homeworth Dairy Pellet V-240-1 47900 B. 36% Hi Fat Dairy Pellet V-241-1 47950 B. 36% Hi Fat Dairy Pellet V-242-1 48550 B. 16% Calf Pellet CA V-243-1 49200 Mastead Dairy Base V-244-1 49300 KLEJKA Dairy Base V-245-1 49650 Deer Premix (J) HFB V-246-1 49750 39% Lamb Premix (J) HFB V-247-1 49850 Lamb Starter Premix (J) HFB V-248-1 120850 Brood Cow Deluxe Mineral V-249-1 152850 B. A-D-E Mix

 

NON-RUMINANT FEED PRODUCTS:

 

V-250-1 10150 B. Miracle Starter V-251-1 10350 B. 21% Broiler Starter V-252-1 10450 B. Pullet Grower & Developer V-253-1 10550 B. 18% Layer Breeder Pellets V-254-1 10750 B. 20% Gold Std. Laying Crum V-255-1 10950 B. 17% Complete Laying Crums V-256-1 11050 B. 16% Prosperity Layer Crums V-257-1 11100 B. 40% Poultry Concentrate V-258-1 11150 B. 40% Poultry Concentrate V-259-1 11250 B. 28% Turkey Starter Crums V-260-1 11350 20% Gig "4" Pellets V-261-1 11450 B. 16% Prosperity Layer Pellets V-262-1 11550 18% Game Bird Breeder Pellets V-263-1 11650 B. 19% Ratite Grower Diet V-264-1 11750 B. 23% Ratite Breeder Diet V-265-1 12100 B. 40% Poultry Concentrate Crums V-266-1 12550 B. 32% Base Poultry Mix V-267-1 13250 B. 28% Turkey Starter V-268-1 13450 B. 20% Poultry Grower V-269-1 14325 B. Game Bird Mix - Coarse V-270-1 20150 B. 18% Pig Starter Pellets V-271-1 20250 B. 16% Pig Grower Pellets V-272-1 20450 B. 14% Porkmaker 100 Pellets V-273-1 20550 B. 40% Gro 'Em Lean V-274-1 21850 B. 27% Hi-Fat Swine Base V-275-1 23000 Mt. Hope Hevy Hog V-276-1 30050 12% Pleasure Horse - Sweet V-277-1 30150 Alfa + Performer 10 Sweet V-278-1 30250 14% Grass + Perf Sweet V-279-1 30450 12% Wrangler - Complete V-280-1 30550 B. 12% Pleasure Horse Pellets V-281-1 30650 B. 32% Gro' N Win Pellets V-282-1 30750 12% Wrangler Cubes V-283-1 30950 18% Foal Starter V-284-1 31050 B. 14% Alfa + Dev Pellets V-285-1 31150 B. Alfa + Performer 10 Pel V-286-1 31200 Grass +Performer 14 Pel V-287-1 31250 Grass +Performer 14 Pel V-288-1 31350 12% Mustang V-289-1 31450 Endurance - 101 Extruded V-290-1 31550 B. Equine Energy - UK V-291-1 31650 B. 16% Grass + Dev Pellets V-292-1 31750 16% Grass + Dev Cubes V-293-1 31850 16% Grass + Dev Sweet V-294-1 31950 B. 11% Alfa Gro 'N Win Pel V-295-1 32050 B. Sho' Win Pellets V-296-1 32250 B. Senior Formula V-297-1 32350 Oscar Horse Mix V-298-1 32450 B. Ultimate Finish V-299-1 32550 Crossfire Horse Feed V-300-1 32650 B. Equine 16% Growth V-301-1 32750 B. Reduced Energy Formula V-302-1 32850 B. Training Formula V-303-1 32950 B. Cadence Formula V-304-1 33150 B. Track 12 Horse Feed V-305-1 33350 Spears 16% GR + Dev Cubes V-306-1 33400 B. 14% Supreme Horse Pellets V-307-1 33450 B. 14% Supreme Horse Pellets V-308-1 33650 B. Race'N Win V-309-1 33750 B. 14% Prominent Horse Feed V-310-1 33850 B. Unbeetable Horse Feed V-311-1 34750 Cargill Senior Horse V-312-1 34850 Cargill Vitality Gold V-313-1 35150 Chagrin 12% Sweet Fd V-314-1 35250 Smith Pure Pleasure V-315-1 35750 Roundup 10% Horse Pellets V-316-1 35850 12% Summerglo Horse V-317-1 36255 B. Grass +Min&VitBase - Mexico V-318-1 36850 Miller's 12% Horse Feed V-319-1 37155 B. Gro'Win Base Mix - Mexico V-320-1 38000 B. 32% Premium Mixer Pellets V-321-1 38050 B. 32% Premium Mixer Pellets V-322-1 38100 36% Maintenance Mixer Pellets V-323-1 38150 36% Maintenance Mixer Pellets V-324-1 50150 Terramycin Crumbles

 

=========================

 

V-325-1 60105 16% Rabbit Pellets V-326-1 60125 16% Rabbit Pellets V-327-1 60150 B. 16% Rabbit Pellets V-328-1 60205 18% Rabbit Developer V-329-1 60250 B. 18% Rabbit Developer V-330-1 60450 B. 16% Rabbit Maintenance

 

=========================

 

V-331-1 90150 B. Buckeye Scratch V-332-1 90225 Gold Standard Scratch V-333-1 90250 Gold Standard Scratch V-334-1 90350 Intermediate Scratch V-335-1 90450 B. Chick Grains V-336-1 90525 B. Shelled Corn V-337-1 90550 B. Shelled Corn V-338-1 90650 B. Cracked Corn V-339-1 90825 B. Fine Cracked Corn V-340-1 90850 B. Fine Cracked Corn V-341-1 91000 Steam Flaked Corn V-342-1 91050 Steam Flaked Corn V-343-1 91750 Oats - HP Crimped V-344-1 91850 B. HP Sweet Crimped Oats V-345-1 95550 Land O' Lakes Shelled Corn V-346-1 95650 Land O' Cracked Corn V-347-1 95850 Land O' Lakes Chick Crack V-348-1 100850 B. Alfalfa Pellets V-349-1 101850 Cooked Full Fat Soybean V-350-1 122200 Magnatone M-4-B Pels Bulk MANUFACTURER: Buckeye Feed Mills, Dalton, Ohio. RECALLED BY: Manufacturer visited local customers on April 17, 2001. On April 18 and 19, 2001, manufacturer mailed and faxed recall notices. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

DISTRIBUTION: Al, CT, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, IA, KY, ME, MD, MA, MO, MN, MS, NH, NJ, NY, NC, OH, OR, PA, RI, TN, VA, WV, and WI.

 

QUANTITY: 2,790 tons of ruminant feed products and 14,000 tons of non-ruminant feed products.

 

REASON: The animal feed products may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues.

 


 

 10 years post mad cow feed ban August 1997

 

10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007

 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST

 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007

 

CODE

 

Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.

 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

42,090 lbs.

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

WI

 

___________________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007

 

CODE

 

The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

9,997,976 lbs.

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

ID and NV

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007

 


 

16 years post mad cow feed ban August 1997

 

2013

 

Sunday, December 15, 2013

 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE

 


 

17 years post mad cow feed ban August 1997

 

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE DECEMBER 2014 BSE TSE PRION

 


 

Sunday, June 14, 2015

 

Larry’s Custom Meats Inc. Recalls Beef Tongue Products That May Contain Specified Risk Materials BSE TSE Prion

 


 

DR. DEHAVEN:

 

snip...

 

*** As far as spontaneous cases, that is a very difficult issue.

 

***There is no evidence to prove that spontaneous BSE occurs in cattle; but here again it's an issue of proving a negative.

 

*** We do know that CJD, the human version of the disease, does occur spontaneously in humans at the rate of about 1 in 1 million.

 

*** We don't have enough data to definitively say that spontaneous cases of BSE in cattle occur or do not occur.

 

“Again, it's a very difficult situation to prove a negative.

 

“So a lot of research is ongoing. Certainly if we do come up with any positive samples in the course of this surveillance we will be looking at that question in evaluating those samples but no scientifically hard evidence to confirm or refute whether or not spontaneous cases of BSE occur.

 

snip...

 


 


 

What irks many scientists is the USDA’s April 25 statement that the rare disease is not generally associated with an animal consuming infected feed.

 

The USDA’s conclusion is a gross oversimplification, said Dr. Paul Brown, one of the worlds experts on this type of disease who retired recently from the National Institutes of Health.

 

"(The agency) has no foundation on which to base that statement.

 

We can’t say it’s not feed related, agreed Dr. Linda Detwiler, an official with the USDA during the Clinton Administration now at Mississippi State.

 

In the May 1 email to me, USDA’s Cole backed off a bit. No one knows the origins of atypical cases of BSE, she said

 

Few scientists would argue that the one California cow which never was headed to the U.S. food supply represents a health hazard.

 

But many maintain that the current surveillance is insufficient.

 

Dr. Kurt Giles, an expert in neurogenerative diseases now at the University of California, San Francisco, was at Oxford during the British outbreak.

 

He told me USDA’s assurances about safety today remind him of British statements during the 1980s.

 

It is so reminiscent of that absolute certainty, he said.

 

Robert Bazell is NBC's chief science and medical correspondent. Follow him on Facebook and on Twitter @RobertBazellNBC

 


 


 


 

THE USDA JUNE 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM WAS TERRIBLY FLAWED ;

 

CDC DR. PAUL BROWN TSE EXPERT COMMENTS 2006

 

In an article today for United Press International, science reporter Steve Mitchell writes:

 

Analysis: What that mad cow means

 

By STEVE MITCHELL UPI Senior Medical Correspondent

 

WASHINGTON, March 15 (UPI) -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture was quick to assure the public earlier this week that the third case of mad cow disease did not pose a risk to them, but what federal officials have not acknowledged is that this latest case indicates the deadly disease has been circulating in U.S. herds for at least a decade.

 

The second case, which was detected last year in a Texas cow and which USDA officials were reluctant to verify, was approximately 12 years old.

 

These two cases (the latest was detected in an Alabama cow) present a picture of the disease having been here for 10 years or so, since it is thought that cows usually contract the disease from contaminated feed they consume as calves. The concern is that humans can contract a fatal, incurable, brain-wasting illness from consuming beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen.

 

"The fact the Texas cow showed up fairly clearly implied the existence of other undetected cases," Dr. Paul Brown, former medical director of the National Institutes of Health's Laboratory for Central Nervous System Studies and an expert on mad cow-like diseases, told United Press International. "The question was, 'How many?' and we still can't answer that."

 

Brown, who is preparing a scientific paper based on the latest two mad cow cases to estimate the maximum number of infected cows that occurred in the United States, said he has "absolutely no confidence in USDA tests before one year ago" because of the agency's reluctance to retest the Texas cow that initially tested positive.

 

USDA officials finally retested the cow and confirmed it was infected seven months later, but only at the insistence of the agency's inspector general.

 

"Everything they did on the Texas cow makes everything they did before 2005 suspect," Brown said.

 

SNIP...

 

UPI requested detailed records about animals tested under the USDA's surveillance plan via the Freedom of Information Act in May 2004 but nearly two years later has not received any corresponding documents from the agency, despite a federal law requiring agencies to comply within 30 days. This leaves open the question of whether the USDA is withholding the information, does not have the information or is so haphazardly organized that it cannot locate it.

 

SNIP...

 

Markus Moser, a molecular biologist and chief executive officer of Prionics, a Swiss firm that manufactures BSE test kits, told UPI one concern is that if people are infected, the mad cow pathogen could become "humanized" or more easily transmitted from person to person.

 

"Transmission would be much easier, through all kinds of medical procedures" and even through the blood supply, Moser said.

 

© Copyright 2006 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved

 


 


 

CDC - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt ... Dr. Paul Brown is Senior Research Scientist in the Laboratory of Central Nervous System ... Address for correspondence: Paul Brown, Building 36, Room 4A-05, ...

 


 

PAUL BROWN COMMENT TO ME ON THIS ISSUE

 

Tuesday, September 12, 2006 11:10 AM

 

"Actually, Terry, I have been critical of the USDA handling of the mad cow issue for some years, and with Linda Detwiler and others sent lengthy detailed critiques and recommendations to both the USDA and the Canadian Food Agency." ........TSS

 


 

FRANCE HAVE AN EPIDEMIC OF SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BSE ‘’LOL’’

 

spontaneous atypical BSE ???

 

if that's the case, then France is having one hell of an epidemic of atypical BSE, probably why they stopped testing for BSE, problem solved $$$

 

As of December 2011, around 60 atypical BSE cases have currently been reported in 13 countries, *** with over one third in France.

 


 

so 20 cases of atypical BSE in France, compared to the remaining 40 cases in the remaining 12 Countries, divided by the remaining 12 Countries, about 3+ cases per country, besides Frances 20 cases. you cannot explain this away with any spontaneous BSe. ...TSS

 

Sunday, October 5, 2014

 

France stops BSE testing for Mad Cow Disease

 


 

spontaneous TSE prion, that's wishful thinking. on the other hand, if spontaneous did ever happen (never once documented in the field), it would be our worst nightmare, due to feed. just saying.

 

*** We describe the transmission of spongiform encephalopathy in a non-human primate inoculated 10 years earlier with a strain of sheep c-scrapie. Because of this extended incubation period in a facility in which other prion diseases are under study, we are obliged to consider two alternative possibilities that might explain its occurrence. We first considered the possibility of a sporadic origin (like CJD in humans). Such an event is extremely improbable because the inoculated animal was 14 years old when the clinical signs appeared, i.e. about 40% through the expected natural lifetime of this species, compared to a peak age incidence of 60–65 years in human sporadic CJD, or about 80% through their expected lifetimes. ***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 

>>> Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility. <<<

 


 


 

2014

 

***Moreover, L-BSE has been transmitted more easily to transgenic mice overexpressing a human PrP [13,14] or to primates [15,16] than C-BSE.

 

***It has been suggested that some sporadic CJD subtypes in humans may result from an exposure to the L-BSE agent.

 

*** Lending support to this hypothesis, pathological and biochemical similarities have been observed between L-BSE and an sCJD subtype (MV genotype at codon 129 of PRNP) [17], and between L-BSE infected non-human primate and another sCJD subtype (MM genotype) [15].

 

snip...

 


 

All the cases of BSE identified during the major outbreak in the UK were of the same strain type [19]. However, an atypical form of BSE, Bovine Amyloidotic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE), was discovered in Italy in 2004 in two old (11 and 15 year old) asymptomatic cows post mortem [19]. Other atypical forms of BSE were subsequently reported in France, Germany and Japan [19-22]. The frequency of atypical BSE may be similar to the occurrence of sporadic CJD, which is about 1 per million individuals [23]. BASE can be biochemically differentiated from BSE by the different mobility of PrP fragments on gel electrophoresis. BASE can also be distinguished from BSE histo-pathologically based on differences in the distribution of vacuoles in the brain. ***BASE shares molecular and histopathological features with the MV2 sub-type of human sporadic

 


 

 

Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice

 

Short report Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice Hiroyuki Okada*, Kentaro Masujin*, Kohtaro Miyazawa and Takashi Yokoyama

 

* Corresponding authors: Hiroyuki Okada okadahi@affrc.go.jp - Kentaro Masujin masujin@affrc.go.jp

 

Author Affiliations

 

National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

 

For all author emails, please log on.

 

Veterinary Research 2015, 46:81 doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0211-2

 

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/46/1/81

 

Received: 3 February 2015 Accepted: 8 June 2015 Published: 13 July 2015

 

© 2015 Okada et al.

 

 

The transmission experiment reported here shows that the host range of L-BSE prions can be extended by inter-species transmission. Further experimental transmission of L-BSE/sheep along with L-BSE into humanized PrP mice will be necessary to evaluate the potential risk for humans.

 

see full text ;

 


 

 

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

 

Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice

 


 

IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure

 

Posted by flounder on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT

 


 

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

 

*** Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?

 


 

 

Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

 

Cristina Casalone*†, Gianluigi Zanusso†‡, Pierluigi Acutis*, Sergio Ferrari‡, Lorenzo Capucci§, Fabrizio Tagliavini¶, Salvatore Monaco‡ , and Maria Caramelli* *Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Via Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; ‡Department of Neurological and Visual Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; §Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and ¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico ‘‘Carlo Besta,’’ Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

 

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular, and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans, causing variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called ‘‘species barrier’’ between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a protease- resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc. Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.

 

SNIP...

 

Discussion

 

In natural and experimental TSEs, PrPSc deposition represents an early event that occurs weeks to months before the development of spongiform changes (20, 21). As a consequence, the detection of PrPSc by Western immunoblot provides a unique opportunity in the diagnosis of BSE early in the incubation period and, therefore, in presymptomatic animals. The identification of the present cattle by postmortem biochemical tests, in the absence of clear neurological involvement, suggests that the disorder was detected at early stages, and this may also explain the lack of widespread vacuolar changes.

 

Previous pathological studies in clinically suspect cases of BSE in Great Britain have provided evidence for a uniform pattern in the severity and distribution of vacuolar lesions in affected animals, with medulla oblongata nuclei being the most involved (22). While confirming that the BSE epidemic has been sustained by a single agent, these studies have assessed the validity of statutory criteria for the diagnosis of BSE, which is currently based on both histopathological and immunobiochemical exam- ination of the medulla. However, the prevailing involvement of cortical regions in the cattle with amyloid deposition suggests that postmortem brain sampling should not be limited to the obex. In addition, a careful analysis of PrPSc glycoform profiles at the confirmatory Western immunoblot may provide a molecular means of identifying atypical cases of bovine TSE.

 

Bovine Amyloidotic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE): A Second Bovine TSE. The present findings show that a previously undescribed pathological and immunohistochemical phenotype, associated with cattle TSE, is related to the presence of a PrPSc type with biochemical properties, including the gel mobility of the protease-resistant fragment and glycoform ratios, different from those encountered in cattle BSE. Brain deposition of this pathological isoform of cattle PrP correlates with the formation of PrP-amyloid plaques, as opposed to typical BSE cases. Although in several natural and experimental recipients of the BSE agent, including humans (13), neuropathological changes are characterized by the presence of PrP-positive amyloid deposits with surrounding vacuolation, cattle BSE is not associated with PrP-amyloid plaque formation. On the basis of the above features, we propose to name the disease described here BASE. Although observed in only two cattle, the BASE phenotype could be more common than expected. In previous studies, amyloid congophilic plaques were found in 1 of 20 BSE cases examined systematically for amyloid (23), and it was reported that focal cerebral amyloidosis is present in a small proportion of BSE cases (24). Although no biochemical analysis of PrPSc glycotype is available for these animals with ‘‘atypical BSE phenotype,’’ our present results underscore the importance of performing a strain-typing in bovine TSE with amyloid deposition.

 

In sCJD, the neuropathological phenotype largely correlates with the molecular type of PrPSc and distinct polymorphic sites of PRNP (9, 19). This is in contrast with the situation in cattle, where different genotypes have been reported based on the variable numbers of octapeptide repeats in each allele, but no evidence for single-codon polymorphisms in the PrP gene has been established (25, 26). Because the present animals shared a similar genetic background and breed, differences in disease phenotypes between cattle with BSE and BASE can be tentatively related only to distinct PrPSc types or alternative routes of infection and spread of prion pathology. Accordingly, the lack of involvement of the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus and the slight involvement of the brainstem in BASE, suggests a route for spreading of the agent other than the alimentary tract. Therefore, unless the BASE agent propagates throughout the olfactory pathway or other peripheral routes, it is possible that this disorder represents a sporadic form of cattle TSE, which would also explain the difference in ages between the two groups of affected animals.

 

Phenotypic Similarities Between BASE and sCJD. The transmissibility of CJD brains was initially demonstrated in primates (27), and classification of atypical cases as CJD was based on this property (28). To date, no systematic studies of strain typing in sCJD have been provided, and classification of different subtypes is based on clinical, neuropathological, and molecular features (the polymorphic PRNP codon 129 and the PrPSc glycotype) (8, 9, 15, 19).

 

The importance of molecular PrPSc characterization in assessing the identity of TSE strains is underscored by several studies, showing that the stability of given disease-specific PrPSc types is maintained upon experimental propagation of sCJD, familial CJD, and vCJD isolates in transgenic PrP-humanized mice (8, 29). Similarly, biochemical properties of BSE- and vCJDassociated PrPSc molecules remain stable after passage to mice expressing bovine PrP (30). Recently, however, it has been reported that PrP-humanized mice inoculated with BSE tissues may also propagate a distinctive PrPSc type, with a ‘‘monoglycosylated- dominant’’ pattern and electrophoretic mobility of the unglycosylated fragment slower than that of vCJD and BSE (31). Strikingly, this PrPSc type shares its molecular properties with the a PrPSc molecule found in classical sCJD. This observation is at variance with the PrPSc type found in M V2 sCJD cases and in cattle BASE, showing a monoglycosylated-dominant pattern but faster electrophoretic mobility of the protease-resistant fragment as compared with BSE. In addition to molecular properties of PrPSc, BASE and M V2 sCJD share a distinctive pattern of intracerebral PrP deposition, which occurs as plaque-like and amyloid-kuru plaques. Differences were, however, observed in the regional distribution of PrPSc. While inM V2 sCJD cases the largest amounts of PrPSc were detected in the cerebellum, brainstem, and striatum, in cattle BASE these areas were less involved and the highest levels of PrPSc were recovered from the thalamus and olfactory regions.

 

In conclusion, decoding the biochemical PrPSc signature of individual human and animal TSE strains may allow the identification of potential risk factors for human disorders with unknown etiology, such as sCJD. However, although BASE and sCJD share several characteristics, caution is dictated in assessing a link between conditions affecting two different mammalian species, based on convergent biochemical properties of diseaseassociated PrPSc types. Strains of TSE agents may be better characterized upon passage to transgenic mice. In the interim until this is accomplished, our present findings suggest a strict epidemiological surveillance of cattle TSE and sCJD based on molecular criteria.

 


 

***In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

 


 

Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY (see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 


 

 

 SUMMARY REPORT CALIFORNIA BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY CASE INVESTIGATION JULY 2012 (ATYPICAL L-TYPE BASE)

 

Summary Report BSE 2012

 

Executive Summary

 


 

Saturday, August 4, 2012

 

*** Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012 ***

 


 

Saturday, August 4, 2012

 

Update from APHIS Regarding Release of the Final Report on the BSE Epidemiological Investigation

 


 

Atypical BSE (BASE) Transmitted from Asymptomatic Aging Cattle to a Primate

 

Conclusion/Significance Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products.

 


 

Sunday, September 1, 2013

 

*** Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

 

We previously described the biochemical similarities between PrPres derived from L-BSE infected macaque and cortical MM2 sporadic CJD: those observations suggest a link between these two uncommon prion phenotypes in a primate model (it is to note that such a link has not been observed in other models less relevant from the human situation as hamsters or transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP [28]). We speculate that a group of related animal prion strains (L-BSE, c-BSE and TME) would have a zoonotic potential and lead to prion diseases in humans with a type 2 PrPres molecular signature (and more specifically type 2B for vCJD)

 

snip...

 

Together with previous experiments performed in ovinized and bovinized transgenic mice and hamsters [8,9] indicating similarities between TME and L-BSE, the data support the hypothesis that L-BSE could be the origin of the TME outbreaks in North America and Europe during the mid-1900s.

 


 

TEXAS ATYPICAL H-BSE MAD COW CASE

 

On June 24, 2005, the USDA announced receipt of final results from The Veterinary Laboratories Agency in Weybridge, England, confirming BSE in a cow that had conflicting test results in 2004. This cow was from Texas, died at approximately 12 years of age, and represented the first endemic case of BSE in the United States. (see Texas BSE Investigation, Final Epidemiology Report, August 2005 External Web Site Policy PDF Document Icon (PDF – 83 KB))

 

ALABAMA ATYPICAL H-TYPE GENETIC BSE

 

On March 15, 2006, the USDA announced the confirmation of BSE in a cow in Alabama. The case was identified in a non-ambulatory (downer) cow on a farm in Alabama. The animal was euthanized by a local veterinarian and buried on the farm. The age of the cow was estimated by examination of the dentition as 10-years-old. It had no ear tags or distinctive marks; the herd of origin could not be identified despite an intense investigation (see second featured item above and Alabama BSE Investigation, Final Epidemiology Report, May 2006 External Web Site PolicyPDF Document Icon (PDF – 104 KB)).

 

In August 2008, several ARS investigators reported that a rare, genetic abnormality that may persist within the cattle population "is considered to have caused" BSE in this atypical (H-type) BSE animal from Alabama. (See Identification of a Heritable Polymorphism in Bovine PRNP Associated with Genetic Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: Evidence of Heritable BSE External Web Site Policy. Also see BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation External Web Site Policy.)

 

On December 23, 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced a presumptive diagnosis of the first known case of BSE in the United States. It was in an adult Holstein cow from Washington State. This diagnosis was confirmed by an international reference laboratory in Weybridge, England, on December 25. Trace-back based on an ear-tag identification number and subsequent genetic testing confirmed that the BSE-infected cow was imported into the United States from Canada in August 2001. Because the animal was non-ambulatory (a "downer cow") at slaughter, brain tissue samples were taken by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service as part of its targeted surveillance for BSE. However the animal's condition was attributed to complications from calving. After the animal was examined by a USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) veterinary medical officer both before and after slaughter, the carcass was released for use as food for human consumption. During slaughter, the tissues considered to be at high risk for the transmission of the BSE agent were removed. On December 24, 2003, FSIS recalled beef from cattle slaughtered in the same plant on the same day as the BSE positive cow. (see Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Dairy Cow - Washington State, 2003.)

 


 

Tuesday, August 22, 2006

 

BSE ATYPICAL TEXAS AND ALABAMA UPDATE JANUARY 20, 2007

 


 

LAST MAD COW IN USA, IN CALIFORNIA, WAS ATYPICAL L-TYPE BASE BSE TSE PRION DISEASE Thursday, February 20, 2014

 

Unnecessary precautions BSE MAD COW DISEASE Dr. William James FSIS VS Dr. Linda Detwiler 2014

 


 

IF, spontaneous BSE was ever to be proven, it would be the industry, and consumer’s worst nightmare. you could never ever eradicate mad cow disease, no matter how hard you try...terry

 

*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply ;

 


 

OR, what the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG found ;

 

Audit Report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program ­ Phase II and Food Safety and Inspection Service

 

Controls Over BSE Sampling, Specified Risk Materials, and Advanced Meat Recovery Products - Phase III

 

Report No. 50601-10-KC January 2006

 

Finding 2 Inherent Challenges in Identifying and Testing High-Risk Cattle Still Remain

 


 

ALSO, PLEASE SEE ;

 

31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT

 

*** Ruminant feed ban for cervids in the United States? ***

 

31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT

 


 


 

LET'S take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow. This new prionopathy in humans? the genetic makeup is IDENTICAL to the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow, the only _documented_ mad cow in the world to date like this, ......wait, it get's better. this new prionpathy is killing young and old humans, with LONG DURATION from onset of symptoms to death, and the symptoms are very similar to nvCJD victims, OH, and the plaques are very similar in some cases too, bbbut, it's not related to the g-h-BSEalabama cow, WAIT NOW, it gets even better, the new human prionpathy that they claim is a genetic TSE, has no relation to any gene mutation in that family. daaa, ya think it could be related to that mad cow with the same genetic make-up ??? there were literally tons and tons of banned mad cow protein in Alabama in commerce, and none of it transmitted to cows, and the cows to humans there from ??? r i g h t $$$ ALABAMA MAD COW g-h-BSEalabama In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

 


 


 

Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY (see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 


 

her healthy calf also carried the mutation

 

(J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008).

 

This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine-human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks.

 

Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: maf12@cam.ac.uk Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

 


 

Thursday, July 24, 2014

 

*** Protocol for further laboratory investigations into the distribution of infectivity of Atypical BSE SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA New protocol for Atypical BSE investigations

 


 

 Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY (see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 


 

PLOS Singeltary Comment ;

 

*** ruminant feed ban for cervids in the United States ? ***

 

31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT

 


 

19 May 2010 at 21:21 GMT

 

*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply ;

 


 

 

*** ATYPICAL BSE AND POTENTIAL FOR ANIMAL PROTEIN FEED TO BE A LINK THERE FROM ***

 

 

P.9.21 Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

 

Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada

 

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle. Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres.

 

Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

 

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

 

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. * It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

 

 

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

 

 

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. *** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. *** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

 

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss

 


 

Thursday, July 24, 2014

 

*** Protocol for further laboratory investigations into the distribution of infectivity of Atypical BSE SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA New protocol for Atypical BSE investigations

 


 

Guidance for Industry Ensuring Safety of Animal Feed Maintained and Fed On-Farm Draft Guidance FDA-2014-D-1180 Singeltary Comment

 


 


 

Thursday, February 20, 2014

 

***Oral Transmission of L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Primate Model

 


 

***Infectivity in skeletal muscle of BASE-infected cattle

 


 

***feedstuffs- It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

 


 

***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

 


 

full text ;

 

atypical L-type BASE BSE

 


 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

 


 

Saturday, January 31, 2015

 

RAPID ADVICE 17-2014 : Evaluation of the risk for public health of casings in countries with a “negligible risk status for BSE” and on the risk of modification of the list of specified risk materials (SRM) with regard to BSE

 


 

Conclusion/Significance: Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products.

 


 


 


 

1. The BSE epidemic

 

1.1. The origin of the BSE epidemic will probably never be determined with certainty.

 

1.2. We do not know whether or not some of the BARB cases represent truly sporadic classical BSE. If there are spontaneous cases then BSE will never be eradicated although reducing surveillance could make it appear that BSE has been eradicated.

 

snip...

 

5.3. It was stated that the number of sporadic CJD cases was rising. Participants were invited to discuss the reason for this. It was suggested that this was likely to be due to improved surveillance with more cases of sporadic CJD being detected (i.e. through MRI scans). There had been a similar increase in sporadic CJD in countries which did not have a BSE epidemic but improved their surveillance. This supported this theory and suggested that the increase in sporadic CJD was not related to the BSE outbreak.

 


 

Atypical BSE: Transmissibility

 

Linda Detwiller, 5/10/2011

 

 BASE (L) transmitted to:  cattle (IC) - inc < 20 mos and oral?)

 

 Cynomolgus macaques (IC)

 

 Mouse lemurs (IC and oral)

 

 wild-type mice (IC)

 

 bovinized transgenic mice (IC and IP)

 

 humanized transgenic mice (IC)

 

 H cases transmitted to:

 

 cattle – IC incubations < 20 months

 

 bovinized transgenic mice (IC)

 

 ovinized transgenic mice (IC)

 

 C57BL mice (IC)

 

 One study did not transmit to humanized PrP Met 129 mice

 

Evaluation of Possibility of Atypical

 

BSE Transmitting to Humans

 

 Possble interpretation:

 

 L type seems to transmit to nonhuman primates with greater ease than classical BSE

 

 L type also transmitted to humanized transgenic mice with higher attack rate and shorter incubation period than classical?

 

 H type did not transmit to Tg Hu transgenic mice

 

Linda Detwiller, 5/10/2011

 


 

I ask Professor Kong ;

 

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM

 

Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

 

IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....

 

Professor Kong reply ;

 

.....snip

 

As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.

 

Best regards, Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA

 

BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice. The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.

 

Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.

 


 


 

P.4.23 Transmission of atypical BSE in humanized mouse models

 

Liuting Qing1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5, Qingzhong Kong1 1Case Western Reserve University, USA; 2Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University (Previously at USDA National Animal Disease Center), USA

 

Background: Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Atypical BSE cases have been discovered in three continents since 2004; they include the L-type (also named BASE), the H-type, and the first reported case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PRNP (termed BSE-M). The public health risks posed by atypical BSE were argely undefined.

 

Objectives: To investigate these atypical BSE types in terms of their transmissibility and phenotypes in humanized mice.

 

Methods: Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were inoculated with several classical (C-type) and atypical (L-, H-, or Mtype) BSE isolates, and the transmission rate, incubation time, characteristics and distribution of PrPSc, symptoms, and histopathology were or will be examined and compared.

 

Results: Sixty percent of BASE-inoculated humanized mice became infected with minimal spongiosis and an average incubation time of 20-22 months, whereas only one of the C-type BSE-inoculated mice developed prion disease after more than 2 years. Protease-resistant PrPSc in BASE-infected humanized Tg mouse brains was biochemically different from bovine BASE or sCJD. PrPSc was also detected in the spleen of 22% of BASE-infected humanized mice, but not in those infected with sCJD. Secondary transmission of BASE in the humanized mice led to a small reduction in incubation time. The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible with distinct phenotypes in the humanized mice, but no BSE-M transmission has been observed so far.

 

Discussion: Our results demonstrate that BASE is more virulent than classical BSE, has a lymphotropic phenotype, and displays a modest transmission barrier in our humanized mice. BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice. The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.

 

Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.

 


 


 


 

14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases H-type and L-type Atypical BSE January 2010 (special pre-congress edition)

 

18.173 page 189

 

Experimental Challenge of Cattle with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE

 

A. Buschmann1, U. Ziegler1, M. Keller1, R. Rogers2, B. Hills3, M.H. Groschup1. 1Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany, 2Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Products & Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 3Health Canada, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Secretariat, Ottawa, Canada

 

Background: After the detection of two novel BSE forms designated H-type and L-type atypical BSE the question of the pathogenesis and the agent distribution of these two types in cattle was fully open. From initial studies of the brain pathology, it was already known that the anatomical distribution of L-type BSE differs from that of the classical type where the obex region in the brainstem always displays the highest PrPSc concentrations. In contrast in L-type BSE cases, the thalamus and frontal cortex regions showed the highest levels of the pathological prion protein, while the obex region was only weakly involved.

 

Methods:We performed intracranial inoculations of cattle (five and six per group) using 10%brainstemhomogenates of the two German H- and L-type atypical BSE isolates. The animals were inoculated under narcosis and then kept in a free-ranging stable under appropriate biosafety conditions. At least one animal per group was killed and sectioned in the preclinical stage and the remaining animals were kept until they developed clinical symptoms. The animals were examined for behavioural changes every four weeks throughout the experiment following a protocol that had been established during earlier BSE pathogenesis studies with classical BSE.

 

Results and Discussion: All animals of both groups developed clinical symptoms and had to be euthanized within 16 months. The clinical picture differed from that of classical BSE, as the earliest signs of illness were loss of body weight and depression. However, the animals later developed hind limb ataxia and hyperesthesia predominantly and the head. Analysis of brain samples from these animals confirmed the BSE infection and the atypical Western blot profile was maintained in all animals. Samples from these animals are now being examined in order to be able to describe the pathoge esis and agent distribution for these novel BSE types.

 

Conclusions: A pilot study using a commercially avaialble BSE rapid test ELISA revealed an essential restriction of PrPSc to the central nervous system for both atypical BSE forms. A much more detailed analysis for PrPSc and infectivity is still ongoing.

 


 

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

 

Further characterisation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes after inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain

 


 

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

 

Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

 


 

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

 

Porcine Prion Protein Amyloid or mad pig disease PSE

 


 

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

 

Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice

 


 

IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure

 

Posted by flounder on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT

 


 

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

 

*** Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?

 


 

2015 FDA UPDATE BSE

 

Tuesday, August 4, 2015

 

*** FDA U.S. Measures to Protect Against BSE ***

 


 


 

BANNED MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE IN ALABAMA

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6;

 

b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6;

 

c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6;

 

d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6.

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

477.72 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

AL

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) Dairy feed, custom, Recall # V-134-6;

 

b) Custom Dairy Feed with Monensin, Recall # V-135-6.

 

CODE

 

None. Bulk product

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Recalling Firm: Burkmann Feed, Greeneville, TN, by Telephone beginning on June 28, 2006.

 

Manufacturer: H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of dairy feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

1,484 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

TN and WV

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR SEPTEMBER 6, 2006

 

###

 


 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE - CLASS II

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-115-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Hiseville Feed & Seed Co., Hiseville, KY, by telephone and letter on or about July 14, 2006. FDA initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

Approximately 2,223 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

KY

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-116-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Rips Farm Center, Tollesboro, KY, by telephone and letter on July 14, 2006. FDA initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

1,220 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

KY

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-117-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Kentwood Co-op, Kentwood, LA, by telephone on June 27, 2006. FDA initiated recall is completed.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

40 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

LA and MS

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk Dairy Feed, Recall V-118-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Cal Maine Foods, Inc., Edwards, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

7,150 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

MS

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-119-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Walthall County Co-op, Tylertown, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

87 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

MS

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-120-6

 

CODE

 

None

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

350 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

AL and MS

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet,

 

50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;

 

b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet,

 

50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;

 

c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower,

 

50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;

 

d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;

 

e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-125-6;

 

f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-126-6;

 

g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6

 

CODE

 

All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006.

 

Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

7,541-50 lb bags

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

AL, GA, MS, and TN

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006

 

###

 


 

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

 

Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST PRODUCT

 

a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;

 

b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;

 

c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;

 

d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;

 

*** e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;

 

f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;

 

g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;

 

h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;

 

i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;

 

j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;

 

k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;

 

l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;

 

m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 CODE

 

Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION AL and FL

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

 

###

 


 

MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248.128.67

 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II

 

______________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6;

 

b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6;

 

c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6;

 

d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 CODE

 

a) Bulk

 

b) None

 

c) Bulk

 

d) Bulk

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION Nationwide

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006

 

###

 


 

what about that ALABAMA MAD COW, AND MAD COW FEED THERE FROM IN THAT STATE ???

 

Saturday, August 14, 2010

 

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

 

*** (see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

 

BANNED MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE IN ALABAMA

 

Date: September 6, 2006 at 7:58 am PST PRODUCT

 

a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6;

 

b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6;

 

c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6;

 

d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6.

 

CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

 

REASON

 

Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 477.72 tons

 

DISTRIBUTION AL

 

______________________________

 

 


 

 

Saturday, March 21, 2015

 

Canada and United States Creutzfeldt Jakob TSE Prion Disease Incidence Rates Increasing

 


 

 

 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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