Wednesday, May 17, 2017

SHIC FUNDED STUDY SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION VIA FEED

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Subject: SHIC FUNDED STUDY SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION VIA FEED


Subject: SHIC FUNDED STUDY SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION VIA FEED




Greetings of Authors and Scientist of study ;

SHIC FUNDED STUDY SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION VIA FEED

i have been very concerned about this for some time, with relations to the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion aka mad cow type disease. with the recent findings by ARS Research, about the oral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion to Pigs, and the severe loophole that still exist today in the FDA Sec. 589.1 589.2. Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed Animal, proteins prohibited in ruminant feed, has been a colossal failure. I have proven this. But things just got much worse, with the ARS Research paper recently released showing oral transmission of CWD to pigs. this is big, really big, and this loophole in the FDA 589.1 ruminant feed ban must finally be closed ASAP. This failure has been going on for much to long, and i urge you all to take heed to this, and to finally do something about it. this loophole MUST BE CLOSED NOW, see ;

I. Introduction

Under FDA’s BSE feed regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. This guidance document describes FDA’s recommendations regarding the use in all animal feed of all material from deer and elk that are positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) or are considered at high risk for CWD. The potential risks from CWD to humans or non-cervid animals such as poultry and swine are not well understood. However, because of recent recognition that CWD is spreading rapidly in white-tailed deer, and because CWD’s route of transmission is poorly understood, FDA is making recommendations regarding the use in animal feed of rendered materials from deer and elk that are CWD-positive or that are at high risk for CWD.

*** In general, FDA’s guidance documents do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities. Instead, guidances describe the Agency’s current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited. The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required...

***BUT NOT REQUIRED ???

1. SHIC Funded Study Suggests Potential for Pathogen Transmission Via Feed 
By Swine Health Information Center 

KTICRadio.com 

May 12, 2017

Ames, Iowa - In preliminary findings, a study conducted by Pipestone Applied Research and South Dakota State University shows the potential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viruses to contaminate and survive in feed ingredients, including soybean meal (SBM) and dried distillers grains (DDGs). The study is based on a model simulating the transboundary movement of contaminated ingredients that was developed to identify "high risk combinations" of viruses and feed ingredients. The entire white paper is available at http://www.swinehealth.org/pathogen-transmission-white-paper/.

The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) is interested in discovering potential risks to the US pork industry and has provided significant funding for this ongoing work. The SHIC Swine Disease Matrix was used to identify target viral pathogens for evaluation in the study. Researchers used "surrogate viruses" in some instances which allowed study of closely related and structurally similar viruses.

This research examined multiple viruses for their ability to survive under shipping conditions coming into the US. Preliminary data indicate the survival of viruses and surrogate viruses including the Seneca Virus A (surrogate for FMDV and of interest itself), Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (surrogate for Pseudorabies virus), and PRRSV (using PRRSV 174) during the 37-day study period. Ingredients frequently supporting virus survival include SBM, lysine, choline, and Vitamin D, and, in some cases, DDGs. Other products were not shown to consistently support viral survival during the 37-day study period. In the process, a subset of viruses has also been recovered from pork casings and different kinds of pet food. None of the viruses survived the 37-day incubation period in the absence of a feed component matrix.

Full text: 



Pathogen Transmission White Paper

Published by  Paul Sundberg at  May 9, 2017Categories Tags 

Modeling the transboundary survival of foreign animal disease pathogens in contaminated feed ingredients.

Introduction: The North American swine industry is under constant threat of foreign animal disease (FAD) entry. Should a pathogen such as Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) ever infect our swine populations via accidental or intentional means, it would cripple our export markets and produce significant animal suffering and economic loss.  In recent years, the emergence of 2 strains of PEDV, Porcine Delta-Coronavirus and Seneca Virus A to the US has exposed significant gaps in our ability to biosecure our livestock populations. While the root cause of pathogen entry has not been determined, current and published data suggest that contaminated feed ingredients may have played a role (1,2). To better understand this risk, models simulating the transboundary movement of contaminated ingredients were developed to identify “high risk combinations” of viruses and feed ingredients (2). Once identified, evaluation of the efficacy of several chemical mitigants will ensue.

Materials & Methods: Based on the Swine Health Information Center pathogen matrix, FAD “target” viral pathogens were identified as significant risks to the US swine industry. Due to the inability to work with certain target pathogens, we used “surrogate viruses”, which allowed us to study closely related and structurally similar viruses. The designated FAD target pathogen and its (surrogate) were as follows: Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Seneca Virus A), Classical Swine Fever Virus (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus), Pseudorabies Virus (Bovine HerpesVirus-1), Nipah virus (Canine Distemper Virus), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (Porcine Sapelovirus) and Vesicular Exanthema Virus (Feline Calicivirus). Other selected pathogens (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 174, Porcine Circovirus, African Swine Fever Virus, Influenza A Virus of Swine H1N1 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) were also included in our study. Using a model previously validated to study the risk of contaminated feed ingredients for the transboundary spread of PEDV (1), we selected feed ingredients known to be imported from China (Beijing) to the USA (Des Moines) based on the US Govt Harmonized Tariff Schedule. These included organic & conventional soybean meal, soy oil cake, DDGS, lysine, choline, vitamin D, pork sausage casings, and several pet foods (dry & moist). Samples were incubated in an environmental chamber for 37 days programmed using actual T and % RH data recorded during a journey from China to the US. For the purpose of ASFV evaluation, an Eastern European model (Warsaw, Poland to Des Moines) was developed. At designated intervals post-inoculation, samples were tested by PCR for the presence of viral nucleic acid and viability by virus isolation and swine bioassay (as needed).

Results: Preliminary data indicate the survival of the Seneca Virus A, Bovine Herpesvirus-1, Feline Calicivirus and PRRSV 174 during the 37 day study period. Notably, ingredients that frequently supported virus survival include soy products, lysine, choline and Vitamin D. In contrast, the Classical Swine Fever Virus surrogate (Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, and the Nipah virus surrogate (Canine Distemper Virus) did not survive the 37-day journey. In addition, a subset of viruses have also been recovered from casings and pet foods. It is important to note that none of the viruses survived the 37-day incubation period in the absence of a feed matrix. Of particular interest are the PRRSV results, as the virus survived in conventional soybean meal and DDGS. Viruses currently under evaluation include African Swine Fever Virus, Porcine Circovirus, Swine Vesicular Disease (Porcine Sapelovirus) and IAV-S H1N1.

Discussion: These preliminary results suggest that a subset of contaminated feed ingredients could serve as vehicles for FAD introduction to the US. The PRRSV data provide new insights on the role of area spread. Follow-up studies will evaluate the role of various feed additives to serve as mitigants for the purpose of risk reduction. This project will apply candidate mitigants pre-contamination and post-contamination to select ingredients and evaluate their ability to neutralize virus using the transboundary model.

References:

Dee S, et al. Modeling the transboundary risk of feed ingredients contaminated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus BMC Vet Res, 2016, 12:51.

Dee S, et al. An evaluation of contaminated complete feed as a vehicle for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection of naïve pigs following consumption via natural feeding behavior: Proof of concept. BMC Vet Res 2014,10:176.

SHIC FUNDED STUDY SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION VIA FEED

BY Swine Health Information Center | May 12, 2017

Home › News › Agricultural News

SHIC Funded Study Suggests Potential for Pathogen Transmission Via Feed

Ames, Iowa — In preliminary findings, a study conducted by Pipestone Applied Research and South Dakota State University shows the potential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viruses to contaminate and survive in feed ingredients, including soybean meal (SBM) and dried distillers grains (DDGs). The study is based on a model simulating the transboundary movement of contaminated ingredients that was developed to identify “high risk combinations” of viruses and feed ingredients. The entire white paper is available at http://www.swinehealth.org/pathogen-transmission-white-paper/.

The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) is interested in discovering potential risks to the US pork industry and has provided significant funding for this ongoing work. The SHIC Swine Disease Matrix was used to identify target viral pathogens for evaluation in the study. Researchers used “surrogate viruses” in some instances which allowed study of closely related and structurally similar viruses.

This research examined multiple viruses for their ability to survive under shipping conditions coming into the US. Preliminary data indicate the survival of viruses and surrogate viruses including the Seneca Virus A (surrogate for FMDV and of interest itself), Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (surrogate for Pseudorabies virus), and PRRSV (using PRRSV 174) during the 37-day study period. Ingredients frequently supporting virus survival include SBM, lysine, choline, and Vitamin D, and, in some cases, DDGs. Other products were not shown to consistently support viral survival during the 37-day study period. In the process, a subset of viruses has also been recovered from pork casings and different kinds of pet food. None of the viruses survived the 37-day incubation period in the absence of a feed component matrix.

These results suggest a subset of contaminated feed ingredients could serve as vehicles for foreign animal disease, other transboundary introduction in the US and possibly circulation of viruses within the US. In particular, the PRRSV data may provide new insights and areas of further study on the role of area spread.

Further mitigation research has already begun. This process will include testing of a variety of feed additives that might be able to neutralize these pathogens when added to feed during milling or other processes that may help mitigate risk.

Heat treatment during corn processing into DDGs and soybean conversion into SBM should neutralize pathogens present on the corn kernel or bean prior to processing. However, research at Kansas State University has shown the potential for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) contamination of feed during the milling process if PEDV is present within the feed mill emphasizing the need for feed mill biosecurity plans (https://www.aasv.org/shap/issues/v24n3/v24n3p154.pdf). Although, more information is needed about oral viral infective doses to accurately assess risk.


Greetings again,

i write with great urgency, about something that has been ignored for much too long, and there is not a political party alive that can NOT take some sort of credit for all it's failures. with great urgency, i ask that you submit this to the 2017 FDA Science Forum. i have followed the mad cow saga or what i call the mad cow follies since December 14, 1997, every day, day in and day out, i have followed the science. i am no scientist, have no PhDs, but i lost my mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, and i just made a promise to mom, never forget, and never let them forget, before we all do. 

The FDA Sec. 589.1 589.2 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed Animal, proteins prohibited in ruminant feed, has been a colossal failure. I have proven this. But things just got much worse, with the ARS Research paper recently released showing oral transmission of CWD to pigs. this is big, really big, and this loophole in the FDA 589.1 ruminant feed ban must finally be closed ASAP. This failure has been going on for much to long, and i urge you all to take heed to this, and to finally do something about it. 

thank you kindly, 

terry

WD of deer and elk is spreading across North America and cannot be stopped.
The tse prion aka mad cow type disease is not your normal pathogen.
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
You cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat. 

you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
The TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
You can bury it and it will not go away.
The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with.
that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
cwd to humans, consumption, exposure, sub-clinical, iatrogenic, what if ?
i strenuously urge you all to rethink this cutting of funds for research of the TSE Prion disease. 

seems if my primitive education does not fail me, intracranial means inside the skull, and peroral means by the mouth. seems the price of tse prion poker just keeps going up...terry

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
Location: Virus and Prion Research
Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease
Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin
Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent. Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC. Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). 
Conclusions: 
This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge. 
CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. 
This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease. 
Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.
CONFIDENTIAL
EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...
 we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.
May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. 
3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. 
But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. 
Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....
 snip...see much more here ; 
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017 
Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/04/disease-associated-prion-protein.html

Porcine prion protein amyloid 

Per Hammarstr€om and Sofie Nystr€om* IFM-Department of Chemistry; Link€oping University; Link€oping, Sweden 

ABSTRACT. Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. 

Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. 

KEYWORDS. prion, pig, amyloid fibril, misfolding, transmissibility, seeding, TSE, prion strain, strain adaptation

snip...

What about pigs? 

 In several recent papers which in our view have not received sufficient attention the notion of prion resistant pigs was challenged by generation of transgenic mice with knocked out endogenous PrP and overexpressed PoPrP. Different lines of tgPoPrP mouse were proven to be susceptible to clinical disease triggered by a variety of prion strains, suggesting that the surrogate host species (mouse) and prion strain are more important than what PrP sequence it expresses for neurotoxicity to commence. In more detail, Torres and colleagues experimentally subjected transgenic mouse lines expressing porcine PrP to a number of different TSE isolates.24-26 Their studies demonstrate that prion infection is strain specific when porcine PrP is overexpressed (4x) and used as in vivo substrate. PoTg001 mice inoculated with classical scrapie, regardless of donor genotype, resisted prion disease both at first and second passage (Fig. 3b). On the other hand, Nor98 scrapie (Atypical scrapie) as well as BSE from both cattle and BoTg mouse model resulted in clinical disease in the PoTg001 mice. However, in the first generation, disease progression was slow. Incubation time until death was as long as 600 d and the hit rate was low. This indicates that disease has barely developed by the time the mice reach their natural life span limit which in this study was set to 650 d Already in the second passage the hit rate was 100 % and the incubation time was cut in half (Fig. 3b). No further shortening of incubation time was observed upon third passage. This shows that PoPrP is capable of forming infectious and neurotoxic prions in vivo if triggered by a compatible prion strain and if given enough time to develop. Both BSE and Nor98 rapidly adapts to the PoPrP host sequence, resulting in higher penetrance as well as in markedly shorter life span already in the second passage, well within the limits of normal life span for a mouse.

There are several crucial variables which impact the susceptibility of prion diseases and transmission studies.27 PrP sequence of host, PrP sequence of prion, prion strain, prion dosage, PrP expression level of host, host genetic background, route of transmission and neuroinvasiveness if peripherally infected.28 Importantly the PrP expression level corresponds to the rate of prion disease onset.1 This likely reflects 2 converging variables: a) PrP as a substrate to the prion misfolding reaction i.e. selfcatalyzed conversion and b) PrP as a mediator of neurotoxicity through interactions with misfolded PrP within prions.

The non-homologous recPrPs presented here and in,12 easily adapt to each other and form amyloid fibrils in accordance with what is seen in vivo when inoculum composed of BoPrP used to challenge mice expressing PoPrP (Fig. 3b).24-26 A review of the literature showed that BSE strains have a high degree of penetrance in both experimental and accidental transmission. Over 50% of the species reported to be susceptible to prion disease were infected by a BSE strain.19 Recent data form our lab shows that the promiscuity of BoPrP fibrils holds true also in the case of recombinant in vitro experiments. When cross-seeding human, bovine, porcine, feline and canine PrPs with any of the other, the recBoPrP seed outcompetes the other seeds in all instances except when the HuPrP acted as substrate (Data not shown). In this case recPoPrP fibrils have the highest seeding efficiency (Fig. 1). These findings in combination with the Torres experiments,24-26 implicate that a PoPrP substrate in vivo (in pigs) could adapt to an amyloidogenic prion strain of bovine or ovine prion disease and hence replicate in the new host.

For adaptation of experimental strains through multiple passages, donors are selected based on neurotoxicity (that is on TSE disease phenotype) not on basis of amyloid fibril formation. Hence the traits of transmissible amyloidotypic prion strains may be largely unexplored if these strains require more time to transform to neurotoxic strains e.g. as proposed by Baskakov’s model of deformed templating.8 There is experimental evidence for BSE transmission into pig via parenteral routes.16 with an incubation period of 2–3 years, well within what is to be considered normal lifespan. For a breeding sow in industrial scale pig farming that is 3–5 y (Bojne Andersson, personal communication).29,30 In small scale and hobby farming both sows and boars may be kept significantly longer. Collinge and Clarke.31 describe how prion titers reach transmissibility levels well before the prion burden is high enough to be neurotoxic and cause clinical disease. It is known that prion strains need time and serial passages to adapt. Knowing that pigs in modern farming are rarely kept for enough time for clinical signs to emerge in prion infected pigs it is important to be vigilant if there is a sporadic porcine spongiform encephalopathy (PSE) as has been seen in cattle (BASE) and sheep (Nor98). Hypothetically such a sporadic and then infectious event could further adapt and over a few generations have reached the point where clinical PSE is established within the time frame where pigs are being slaughtered for human consumption (Fig. 4).

FIGURE 4. Potential prion strain adaptation in pig. The red horizontal gradient indicates the hietherto unkown prion toxicity tolerance threshold for pigs, the blue vertical line indicates normal slaughter age for industrial pig farming, the green vertical line indicates the normal lifespan of a breeding sow in industrial scale pig farming, orange areas indicate window of neurotoxic prions before onset of clinical disease (dark orange indicates subclinical BSE as reported by Wells et al,16 pale orange indicate hypothetic outcome of PSE and strain adaptation. On the outmost right a potential subclinical sporadic PSE.

USE OF MATERIALS DERIVED FROM PIG IN VIEW OF PORCINE PrP AMYLOID

The pig is the most versatile species used by humans for food and other applications. Over 1,5 billion pigs are slaughtered each year worldwide for human use.32 Besides juicy pork sirloin other parts from pig are used for making remarkably diverse things such as musical instruments, china, leather, explosives, lubricants etc. Pig offal is used for human medicine, e.g., hormone preparations such as insulin and cerebrolysin, in xenographs, sutures, heparin and in gelatin for drug capsules.33,34

And that means not only pork, it means your pigskin wallet, catgut surgical suture...in tallow, in butter. It is undoubtedly in the blood supply. DC Gajdusek (From R. Rhodes ''Deadly Feast'' 35)

While the late Carleton Gajdusek had strong views in diverse areas of prion biology, according to journalist Richard Rhodes,35 he was correct on his prediction on BSE prions (vCJD) in the blood supply18 (see text box above). An opinionated scientist can sometimes be ignored due to a judgment of character and Gajdusek was certainly provocative. Notwithstanding society should remain vigilant on the possibility that Gajdusek was also prophetic on porcine prions given the exceptionally wide spread use of pigs in everyday human life and medicine. As discussed previously it is currently not established what relations transmissible neurotoxic prion strains and amyloid morphotypic mature APrP strains have. Given the hypotheses that amyloidotypic PrP conformations can transmit with low neurotoxicity.7,36 it is interesting to reflect on possible implications. Pigs are slaughtered at 6–8 months of age. Because amyloid deposition is associated with old age, this is likely far too young for spontaneous development of APrP amyloid from PoPrP as well as other amyloidogenic proteins. From the perspective of seeded amyloidogenesis it is however a potential ideal case for highly transmissible titers of APrP (Fig. 4). In such a scenario the potential of porcine prions constitutes the perfect storm, clinically silent due to neurotoxic resistance and with high titers of transmissibility. When it comes to prions CNS material is most heavily infected. In addition, however, fat tissue (to make lard and tallow) is known to harbor extraordinary amounts of amyloid in systemic amyloidoses.37 Amyloid fibrils of misfolded large proteins (AA, AL, ATTR) are notoriously hydrophobic due to the abnormal exposure of hydrophobic residues which normally in the folded structure being hidden in the protein core. The amyloid accumulation in fat tissue is likely a phase-separation from a rather hydrophilic environment in circulation toward the hydrophobic environment provided by adipocytes. Adipose tissue could in addition represent an in vivo environment well suitable for fibril formation. What about APrP?

In analysis of mice expressing Glycophosphatidylinositol, (GPI)-anchorless PrP, abdominal fat contains appreciable amounts of infectious prions in APrP isoform stained with ThS.38 Notably mice overexpressing anchorless PrP provides a silent carrier status for a long time prior to presenting symptoms and is severely afflicted by amyloid fibril formation following scrapie (RML) infection.39 Recall that this study showed that GPI-anchored PrP is needed to present clinical neurotoxicity. Evidently circulating anchorless-PrP (analogous to recPrP) is more amyloidogenic compared to GPI-anchored PrP and is poorly neuroinvasive.28 Amyloidosis is systemic in anchorless-PrP mice and is not limited to fat but is also found as extensive cardiac amyloid deposits.39 Interestingly cardiac APrP was recently reported in one BSE inoculated rhesus macaque which showed symptoms of cardiac distress prior to death from prion neurotoxicity.40 It is noteworthy that transgenic mice expressing PoPrP appear sensitive to strains with biochemical features of amyloidogenic prion strains i.e., BSE and Nor98.25,26,36 (Fig. 3b). We recently adopted the parallel inregister intermolecular b-sheet structural model of the APrP fibril from the Caughey lab to rationalize cross-seeding between various PrP sequences.12,41 It is tempting to use this structural model to speculate on the adaptation of mono-N-glycolsylated PoPrP at the expense of double-N-glycolylated PrP in the original BSE inoculum reported in the Torres experiments.25,26 In this APrP model monoglycosylated PrP at N197 is structurally compatible while N181 is not, due to burial in the in-register intermolecular cross-beta sheet (Fig. 5).

It appears that amyloidotypic prion strains, APrP, are transmissible but associated with lower neurotoxicity compared to diffuse aggregated PrP associated with synaptic PrP accumulations. It is possible that the amino acid substitutions in PoPrP compared to HuPrP and BoPrP are important for neurotoxic signal transmission (Fig. 2b, 5). The main issue hereby is that transmissibility of APrP will remain undetected unless used for surveillance. AA amyloidosis is frequent in many animals (e.g. cattle and birds) but is exceptionally rare in pigs.42 suggesting that APrP should it reside in pig fat would be traceable using newly developed screening methods.37

CONCLUDING REMARKS 

Should the topic of porcine PrP amyloid be more of a worry than of mere academic interest? Well perhaps. Prions are particularly insidious pathogens. A recent outbreak of peripheral neuropathy in human, suggests that exposure to aerosolized porcine brain is deleterious for human health.43,44 Aerosolization is a known vector for prions at least under experimental conditions.45-47 where a mere single exposure was enough for transmission in transgenic mice. HuPrP is seedable with BoPrP seeds and even more so with PoPrP seed (Fig. 1), indicating that humans could be infected by porcine APrP prions while neurotoxicity associated with spongiform encephalopathy if such a disease existed is even less clear. Importantly transgenic mice over-expressing PoPrP are susceptible to BSE and BSE passaged through domestic pigs implicating that efficient downstream neurotoxicity pathways in the mouse, a susceptible host for prion disease neurotoxicity is augmenting the TSE phenotype.25,26 Prions in silent carrier hosts can be infectious to a third species. Data from Collinge and coworkers.21 propose that species considered to be prion free may be carriers of replicating prions. Especially this may be of concern for promiscuous prion strains such as BSE.19,48 It is rather established that prions can exist in both replicating and neurotoxic conformations.49,50 and this can alter the way in which new host organisms can react upon cross-species transmission.51 The na€ıve host can either be totally resistant to prion infection as well as remain non-infectious, become a silent non-symptomatic but infectious carrier of disease or be afflicted by disease with short or long incubation time. The host can harbor and/or propagate the donor strain or convert the strain conformation to adapt it to the na€ıve host species. The latter would facilitate infection and shorten the incubation time in a consecutive event of intra-species transmission. It may be advisable to avoid procedures and exposure without proper biosafety precautions as the knowledge of silence carrier species is poor. One case of iatrogenic CJD in recipient of porcine dura mater graft has been reported in the literature.52 The significance of this finding is still unknown. The low public awareness in this matter is exemplified by the practice of using proteolytic peptide mixtures prepared from porcine brains (Cerebrolysin) as a nootropic drug. While Cerebrolysin may be beneficial for treatment of severe diseases such as vascular dementia,53 a long term follow-up of such a product for recreational use is recommended.

DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed

FUNDING

This work was supported by G€oran Gustafsson foundation, the Swedish research council Grant #2011-5804 (PH) and the Swedish Alzheimer association (SN).

REFERENCES




ONE DECADE POST MAD COW FEED BAN OF AUGUST 1997...2007 

10,000,000 POUNDS REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

2007 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II PRODUCT 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007 CODE Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing. 

REASON Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 42,090 lbs. DISTRIBUTION WI 
___________________________________ 

PRODUCT Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007 

CODE The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified. 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. 
Firm initiated recall is complete. 

REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 9,997,976 lbs. DISTRIBUTION ID and NV 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007 


NEW URL LINK; 


another NEWER LINK;


SUNDAY, APRIL 23, 2017 
FDA Sec. 589.1 589.2 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed Animal, proteins prohibited in ruminant feed current of April 1 2016


‘’The statement you were concerned about was corrected to "One sorghum DDGS out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with animal protein prohibited for use in ruminant feed and was channeled to poultry feed."

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Sent: Thursday, October 01, 2015 9:18 PM


Subject: Re: TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES

***UDATED CORRECTION BY AUTHOR...SEE EMAIL TO ME...terry

From: Kyung-Min Lee Sent: Thursday, October 01, 2015 1:39 PM

To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. ; BSE-L@LISTS.AEGEE.ORG


Subject: RE: TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES

Dear Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Thank for your interest and concern about our published article entitled “Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas”. I should apologize you and others that there were some errors and misleading statements in this article due to inappropriate terminology. The statement you were concerned about was corrected to "One sorghum DDGS out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with animal protein prohibited for use in ruminant feed and was channeled to poultry feed." We requested the journal editor to correct some errors and the relevant statements, or to withdraw the article from the journal.

Again I sincerely apologize for any confusion and inconvenience this may cause. Thanks.

best wishes,

Kyung-Min

Kyung-Min Lee, Ph. D. Research Scientist Office of the Texas State Chemist

Texas A&M AgriLife Research P.O. Box 3160, College Station, TX 77841-3160 Phone: 979-845-4113 (ext 132) Email:kml@otsc.tamu.edu Fax: 979-845-1389

snip...end...tss

my link corrected

Sunday, September 27, 2015

TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES


kind regards, terry

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Sent: Monday, September 28, 2015 8:30 PM


Subject: Fw: TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Sent: Sunday, September 27, 2015 4:39 PM



Subject: TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES

TEXAS One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined.

J Food Prot. 2015 Oct;78(10):1861-9. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-157.

Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas.

Lee KM1, Herrman TJ2. Author information 1Office of the Texas State Chemist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas 77841, USA. kml@otsc.tamu.edu. 2Office of the Texas State Chemist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas 77841, USA.

Abstract

This study evaluated distillers grain (DG) by-products produced in different ethanol plants and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between corn and sorghum by-products as well as wet distillers grain with solubles and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry-grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples out of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is much lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 corn DDGS, 1 corn wet distillers grain with solubles, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples out of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG by-products averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated corn DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level. The study results raised some important issues associated with the quality and use of DG by-products, suggesting several approaches and strategies for their effective and safe use as a feed ingredient to promote animal and human health and welfare.

PMID: 26408135 [PubMed - in process]



THIS LOOPHOLE MUST BE CLOSED!

IF LEFT AS NON-BINDING LIKE THE LAST 15 YEARS, IT WILL BE AS WORTHLESS AS THE LAST 15 YEARS, NOTHING BUT INK ON PAPER!

SEE MARCH 2016 UPDATE OF THIS VERY IMPORTANT DOCKET ;

Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission

Greetings again FDA and Mr. Pritchett et al,

I would kindly like to comment on ;

Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission

#158

Guidance for Industry

Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed

This version of the guidance replaces the version made available September15, 2003.

This document has been revised to update the docket number, contact information, and standard disclosures. Submit comments on this guidance at any time.

Submit electronic comments to http://www.regulations.gov. Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. All comments should be identified with the Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186).

For further information regarding this guidance, contact Burt Pritchett, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-222), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Place, Rockville, MD 20855, 240-402-6276, E-mail: burt.pritchett@fda.hhs.gov.

Additional copies of this guidance document may be requested from the Policy and Regulations Staff (HFV-6), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Place, Rockville, MD 20855, and may be viewed on the Internet at either http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/default.htm or http://www.regulations.gov.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine March 2016

Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

2

Guidance for Industry Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed

This guidance represents the current thinking of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) on this topic. It does not establish any rights for any person and is not binding on FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if it satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations. To discuss an alternative approach, contact the FDA office responsible for this guidance as listed on the title page.

I. Introduction

Under FDA’s BSE feed regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. This guidance document describes FDA’s recommendations regarding the use in all animal feed of all material from deer and elk that are positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) or are considered at high risk for CWD. The potential risks from CWD to humans or non-cervid animals such as poultry and swine are not well understood. However, because of recent recognition that CWD is spreading rapidly in white-tailed deer, and because CWD’s route of transmission is poorly understood, FDA is making recommendations regarding the use in animal feed of rendered materials from deer and elk that are CWD-positive or that are at high risk for CWD.

*** In general, FDA’s guidance documents do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities. Instead, guidances describe the Agency’s current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited. The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required.

II. Background

CWD is a neurological (brain) disease of farmed and wild deer and elk that belong in the animal family cervidae (cervids). Only deer and elk are known to be susceptible to CWD by natural transmission. The disease has been found in farmed and wild mule deer, white-tailed deer, North American elk, and in farmed black-tailed deer. CWD belongs to a family of animal and human diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). These include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or “mad cow” disease) in cattle; scrapie in sheep and goats; and classical and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases (CJD and vCJD) in humans. There is no known treatment for these diseases, and there is no vaccine to prevent them. In addition, although validated postmortem diagnostic tests are available, there are no validated diagnostic tests for CWD that can be used to test for the disease in live animals.

Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

III. Use in animal feed of material from CWD-positive deer and elk

Material from CWD-positive animals may not be used in any animal feed or feed ingredients. Pursuant to Sec. 402(a)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, animal feed and feed ingredients containing material from a CWD-positive animal would be considered adulterated. FDA recommends that any such adulterated feed or feed ingredients be recalled or otherwise removed from the marketplace.

IV. Use in animal feed of material from deer and elk considered at high risk for CWD Deer and elk considered at high risk for CWD include: (1) animals from areas declared by State officials to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones; and (2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period immediately before the time of slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

FDA recommends that materials from deer and elk considered at high risk for CWD no longer be entered into the animal feed system. Under present circumstances, FDA is not recommending that feed made from deer and elk from a non-endemic area be recalled if a State later declares the area endemic for CWD or a CWD eradication zone. In addition, at this time, FDA is not recommending that feed made from deer and elk believed to be from a captive herd that contained no CWD-positive animals be recalled if that herd is subsequently found to contain a CWD-positive animal.

V. Use in animal feed of material from deer and elk NOT considered at high risk for CWD FDA continues to consider materials from deer and elk NOT considered at high risk for CWD to be acceptable for use in NON-RUMINANT animal feeds in accordance with current agency regulations, 21 CFR 589.2000. Deer and elk not considered at high risk include: (1) deer and elk from areas not declared by State officials to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones; and (2) deer and elk that were not at some time during the 60-month period immediately before the time of slaughter in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

3


Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission

Greetings again FDA and Mr. Pritchett et al,

MY comments and source reference of sound science on this very important issue are as follows ;

Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed Singeltary Submission

I kindly wish to once again submit to Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed.

Thank you kindly for allowing me to comment again, ...and again...and again, on a topic so important, why it is ‘NON-BINDING’ is beyond me.

this should have been finalized and made ‘BINDING’ or MANDATORY OVER A DECADE AGO.

but here lay the problem, once made ‘BINDING’ or ‘MANDATORY’, it is still nothing but ink on paper.

we have had a mad cow feed ban in place since August 1997, and since then, literally 100s of millions of pounds BANNED MAD COW FEED has been sent out to commerce and fed out (see reference materials).

ENFORCEMENT OF SAID BINDING REGULATIONS HAS FAILED US TOO MANY TIMES.

so, in my opinion, any non-binding or voluntary regulations will not work, and to state further, ‘BINDING’ or MANDATORY regulations will not work unless enforced.

with that said, we know that Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion easily transmits to other cervid through the oral route.

the old transmission studies of BSE TSE floored scientist once they figured out what they had, and please don’t forget about those mink that were fed 95%+ dead stock downer cow, that all came down with TME. please see ;

It is clear that the designing scientists must also have shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


it is clear that the designing scientists must have also shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle

Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.

snip...

The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...


*** PLEASE SEE THIS URGENT UPDATE ON CWD AND FEED ANIMAL PROTEIN ***

Sunday, March 20, 2016

Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed ***UPDATED MARCH 2016*** Singeltary Submission


SEE MAD COW FEED VIOLATIONS AFER MAD COW FEED VIOLATIONS ;


Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0764 for Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards Singeltary Comment Submission




TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION DISEASE USA FDA PART 589 BSE CWD FEED LOOPHOLE 


SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. 

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. 

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. *** 

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss 


*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply 


Wednesday, July 15, 2015 

Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed? 


***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE. 

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only. 

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure *** 

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT 


TITLE: PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN REINDEER AND DEMONSTRATION OF HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION
*** DECEMBER 2016 CDC EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL CWD HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION
*** INFECTIOUS AGENT OF SHEEP SCRAPIE MAY PERSIST IN THE ENVIRONMENT FOR AT LEAST 16 YEARS ***
GUDMUNDUR GEORGSSON1, SIGURDUR SIGURDARSON2 AND PAUL BROWN3
Title: Pathological features of chronic wasting disease in reindeer and demonstration of horizontal transmission
 Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.
Claudio Soto
Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
Prion and prion-like proteins are misfolded protein aggregates with the ability to selfpropagate to spread disease between cells, organs and in some cases across individuals. I n T r a n s m i s s i b l e s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathies (TSEs), prions are mostly composed by a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc), which propagates by transmitting its misfolding to the normal prion protein (PrPC). The availability of a procedure to replicate prions in the laboratory may be important to study the mechanism of prion and prion-like spreading and to develop high sensitive detection of small quantities of misfolded proteins in biological fluids, tissues and environmental samples. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA is a platform technology that may enable amplification of any prion-like misfolded protein aggregating through a seeding/nucleation process. In TSEs, PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of one single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. Using PMCA we have been able to detect PrPSc in blood and urine of experimentally infected animals and humans affected by vCJD with high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we have expanded the principles of PMCA to amplify amyloid-beta (Aβ) and alphasynuclein (α-syn) aggregates implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. Experiments are ongoing to study the utility of this technology to detect Aβ and α-syn aggregates in samples of CSF and blood from patients affected by these diseases.
=========================
***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.
========================
Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.
with CWD TSE Prions, I am not sure there is any absolute yet, other than what we know with transmission studies, and we know tse prion kill, and tse prion are bad. science shows to date, that indeed soil, dirt, some better than others, can act as a carrier. same with objects, farm furniture. take it with how ever many grains of salt you wish, or not. if load factor plays a role in the end formula, then everything should be on the table, in my opinion...tss
 Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles
Author Summary
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of incurable neurological diseases likely caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (‘‘mad cow’’ disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are unique among TSEs because they can be transmitted between animals, and the disease agents appear to persist in environments previously inhabited by infected animals. Soil has been hypothesized to act as a reservoir of infectivity and to bind the infectious agent. In the current study, we orally dosed experimental animals with a common clay mineral, montmorillonite, or whole soils laden with infectious prions, and compared the transmissibility to unbound agent. We found that prions bound to montmorillonite and whole soils remained orally infectious, and, in most cases, increased the oral transmission of disease compared to the unbound agent. The results presented in this study suggest that soil may contribute to environmental spread of TSEs by increasing the transmissibility of small amounts of infectious agent in the environment.
tse prion soil
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.
>>>Particle-associated PrPTSE molecules may migrate from locations of deposition via transport processes affecting soil particles, including entrainment in and movement with air and overland flow. <<<
Fate of Prions in Soil: A Review
Christen B. Smith, Clarissa J. Booth, and Joel A. Pedersen*
Several reports have shown that prions can persist in soil for several years. Significant interest remains in developing methods that could be applied to degrade PrPTSE in naturally contaminated soils. Preliminary research suggests that serine proteases and the microbial consortia in stimulated soils and compost may partially degrade PrPTSE. Transition metal oxides in soil (viz. manganese oxide) may also mediate prion inactivation. Overall, the effect of prion attachment to soil particles on its persistence in the environment is not well understood, and additional study is needed to determine its implications on the environmental transmission of scrapie and CWD.
P.161: Prion soil binding may explain efficient horizontal CWD transmission
Conclusion. Silty clay loam exhibits highly efficient prion binding, inferring a durable environmental reservoir, and an efficient mechanism for indirect horizontal CWD transmission.
>>>Another alternative would be an absolute prohibition on the movement of deer within the state for any purpose. While this alternative would significantly reduce the potential spread of CWD, it would also have the simultaneous effect of preventing landowners and land managers from implementing popular management strategies involving the movement of deer, and would deprive deer breeders of the ability to engage in the business of buying and selling breeder deer. Therefore, this alternative was rejected because the department determined that it placed an avoidable burden on the regulated community.<<<
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission
Timm Konold1*, Stephen A. C. Hawkins2, Lisa C. Thurston3, Ben C. Maddison4, Kevin C. Gough5, Anthony Duarte1 and Hugh A. Simmons1
1 Animal Sciences Unit, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 2 Pathology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK, 3 Surveillance and Laboratory Services, Animal and Plant Health Agency Penrith, Penrith, UK, 4 ADAS UK, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK, 5 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, UK
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) have suggested that objects on a scrapie affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing, and other objects that sheep may rub against) used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation, sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five) or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven). This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock 8 weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23) through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12) on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie free. The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.
snip...
Discussion
Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible disease because it has been reported in naïve, supposedly previously unexposed sheep placed in pastures formerly occupied by scrapie-infected sheep (4, 19, 20). Although the vector for disease transmission is not known, soil is likely to be an important reservoir for prions (2) where – based on studies in rodents – prions can adhere to minerals as a biologically active form (21) and remain infectious for more than 2 years (22). Similarly, chronic wasting disease (CWD) has re-occurred in mule deer housed in paddocks used by infected deer 2 years earlier, which was assumed to be through foraging and soil consumption (23).
Our study suggested that the risk of acquiring scrapie infection was greater through exposure to contaminated wooden, plastic, and metal surfaces via water or food troughs, fencing, and hurdles than through grazing. Drinking from a water trough used by the scrapie flock was sufficient to cause infection in sheep in a clean building. Exposure to fences and other objects used for rubbing also led to infection, which supported the hypothesis that skin may be a vector for disease transmission (9). The risk of these objects to cause infection was further demonstrated when 87% of 23 sheep presented with PrPSc in lymphoid tissue after grazing on one of the paddocks, which contained metal hurdles, a metal lamb creep and a water trough in contact with the scrapie flock up to 8 weeks earlier, whereas no infection had been demonstrated previously in sheep grazing on this paddock, when equipped with new fencing and field furniture. When the contaminated furniture and fencing were removed, the infection rate dropped significantly to 8% of 12 sheep, with soil of the paddock as the most likely source of infection caused by shedding of prions from the scrapie-infected sheep in this paddock up to a week earlier.
This study also indicated that the level of contamination of field furniture sufficient to cause infection was dependent on two factors: stage of incubation period and time of last use by scrapie-infected sheep. Drinking from a water trough that had been used by scrapie sheep in the predominantly pre-clinical phase did not appear to cause infection, whereas infection was shown in sheep drinking from the water trough used by scrapie sheep in the later stage of the disease. It is possible that contamination occurred through shedding of prions in saliva, which may have contaminated the surface of the water trough and subsequently the water when it was refilled. Contamination appeared to be sufficient to cause infection only if the trough was in contact with sheep that included clinical cases. Indeed, there is an increased risk of bodily fluid infectivity with disease progression in scrapie (24) and CWD (25) based on PrPSc detection by sPMCA. Although ultraviolet light and heat under natural conditions do not inactivate prions (26), furniture in contact with the scrapie flock, which was assumed to be sufficiently contaminated to cause infection, did not act as vector for disease if not used for 18 months, which suggest that the weathering process alone was sufficient to inactivate prions.
PrPSc detection by sPMCA is increasingly used as a surrogate for infectivity measurements by bioassay in sheep or mice. In this reported study, however, the levels of PrPSc present in the environment were below the limit of detection of the sPMCA method, yet were still sufficient to cause infection of in-contact animals. In the present study, the outdoor objects were removed from the infected flock 8 weeks prior to sampling and were positive by sPMCA at very low levels (2 out of 37 reactions). As this sPMCA assay also yielded 2 positive reactions out of 139 in samples from the scrapie-free farm, the sPMCA assay could not detect PrPSc on any of the objects above the background of the assay. False positive reactions with sPMCA at a low frequency associated with de novo formation of infectious prions have been reported (27, 28). This is in contrast to our previous study where we demonstrated that outdoor objects that had been in contact with the scrapie-infected flock up to 20 days prior to sampling harbored PrPSc that was detectable by sPMCA analysis [4 out of 15 reactions (12)] and was significantly more positive by the assay compared to analogous samples from the scrapie-free farm. This discrepancy could be due to the use of a different sPMCA substrate between the studies that may alter the efficiency of amplification of the environmental PrPSc. In addition, the present study had a longer timeframe between the objects being in contact with the infected flock and sampling, which may affect the levels of extractable PrPSc. Alternatively, there may be potentially patchy contamination of this furniture with PrPSc, which may have been missed by swabbing. The failure of sPMCA to detect CWD-associated PrP in saliva from clinically affected deer despite confirmation of infectivity in saliva-inoculated transgenic mice was associated with as yet unidentified inhibitors in saliva (29), and it is possible that the sensitivity of sPMCA is affected by other substances in the tested material. In addition, sampling of amplifiable PrPSc and subsequent detection by sPMCA may be more difficult from furniture exposed to weather, which is supported by the observation that PrPSc was detected by sPMCA more frequently in indoor than outdoor furniture (12). A recent experimental study has demonstrated that repeated cycles of drying and wetting of prion-contaminated soil, equivalent to what is expected under natural weathering conditions, could reduce PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period in hamsters inoculated with soil samples (30). This seems to apply also to this study even though the reduction in infectivity was more dramatic in the sPMCA assays than in the sheep model. Sheep were not kept until clinical end-point, which would have enabled us to compare incubation periods, but the lack of infection in sheep exposed to furniture that had not been in contact with scrapie sheep for a longer time period supports the hypothesis that prion degradation and subsequent loss of infectivity occurs even under natural conditions.
In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes.
Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission ***
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3
this next bit of science is very important, please study this...terry

TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 2017 

*** Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep ***


***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.
P-145 Estimating chronic wasting disease resistance in cervids using real time quaking- induced conversion
Nicholas J Haley1, Rachel Rielinqer2, Kristen A Davenport3, W. David Walter4, Katherine I O'Rourke5, Gordon Mitchell6, Juergen A Richt2
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Midwestern University, United States; 2Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University; 3Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; 5Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture; 6Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWO
In mammalian species, the susceptibility to prion diseases is affected, in part, by the sequence of the host's prion protein (PrP). In sheep, a gradation from scrapie susceptible to resistant has been established both in vivo and in vitro based on the amino acids present at PrP positions 136, 154, and 171, which has led to global breeding programs to reduce the prevalence of scrapie in domestic sheep. In cervids, resistance is commonly characterized as a delayed progression of chronic wasting disease (CWD); at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified. To model the susceptibility of various naturally-occurring and hypothetical cervid PrP alleles in vitro, we compared the amplification rates and efficiency of various CWD isolates in recombinant PrPC using real time quaking-induced conversion. We hypothesized that amplification metrics of these isolates in cervid PrP substrates would correlate to in vivo susceptibility - allowing susceptibility prediction for alleles found at 10 frequency in nature, and that there would be an additive effect of multiple resistant codons in hypothetical alleles. Our studies demonstrate that in vitro amplification metrics predict in vivo susceptibility, and that alleles with multiple codons, each influencing resistance independently, do not necessarily contribute additively to resistance. Importantly, we found that the white-tailed deer 226K substrate exhibited the slowest amplification rate among those evaluated, suggesting that further investigation of this allele and its resistance in vivo are warranted to determine if absolute resistance to CWD is possible.
***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.
PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO

ZOONOSIS OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION POTENTIAL TO HUMANS

PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP AGAIN $

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

10:30 First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 

Dr Stefanie Czub University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canada 


seems if my primitive education does not fail me, intracranial means inside the skull, and peroral means by the mouth. seems the price of tse prion poker just keeps going up...terry

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
Location: Virus and Prion Research
Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease
Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin
Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent. Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC. Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). 
Conclusions: 
This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge. 
CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. 
This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease. 
Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.
CONFIDENTIAL
EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...
 we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.
May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. 
3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. 
But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. 
Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....
 snip...see much more here ; 
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017 
Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease
SUNDAY, APRIL 23, 2017 
FDA Sec. 589.1 589.2 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed Animal, proteins prohibited in ruminant feed current of April 1 2016


SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK *** 
We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. 
In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 
We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 
Student Presentations Session 2 
The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions 
Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 
***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 
CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. 
Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders 
PRION 2016 TOKYO 
Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions. 
PRION 2016 TOKYO In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016 PRION 2016 Tokyo Prion 2016 
Cervid to human prion transmission 
Kong, Qingzhong 
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 
Abstract 
Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. We hypothesize that: 
(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues; 
(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence; 
(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans; and 
(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches. 
Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of "humanized" Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental "human CWD" samples will also be generated for Aim 3. 
Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1. 
Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental "human CWD" samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. 
Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans. 
Public Health Relevance There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans. 
Key Molecular Mechanisms of TSEs 
Zabel, Mark D. 
Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States 
Abstract Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, cervids, bovids, and ovids. The absolute requirement of PrPC expression to generate prion diseases and the lack of instructional nucleic acid define prions as unique infectious agents. Prions exhibit species-specific tropism, inferring that unique prion strains exist that preferentially infct certain host species and confront transmission barriers to heterologous host species. However, transmission barriers are not absolute. Scientific consensus agrees that the sheep TSE scrapie probably breached the transmission barrier to cattle causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy that subsequently breached the human transmission barrier and likely caused several hundred deaths by a new-variant form of the human TSE Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK and Europe. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. A groundbreaking discovery made last year revealed that mice infected with heterologous prion strains facing significant transmission barriers replicated prions far more readily in spleens than brains6. Furthermore, these splenic prions exhibited weakened transmission barriers and expanded host ranges compared to neurogenic prions. These data question conventional wisdom of avoiding neural tissue to avoid prion xenotransmission, when more promiscuous prions may lurk in extraneural tissues. Data derived from work previously funded by NIH demonstrate that Complement receptors CD21/35 bind prions and high density PrPC and differentially impact prion disease depending on the prion isolate or strain used. Recent advances in live animal and whole organ imaging have led us to generate preliminary data to support novel, innovative approaches to assessing prion capture and transport. We plan to test our unifying hypothesis for this proposal that CD21/35 control the processes of peripheral prion capture, transport, strain selection and xenotransmission in the following specific aims. 
1. Assess the role of CD21/35 in splenic prion strain selection and host range expansion. 
2. Determine whether CD21/35 and C1q differentially bind distinct prion strains 
3. Monitor the effects of CD21/35 on prion trafficking in real time and space 
4. Assess the role of CD21/35 in incunabular prion trafficking 
Public Health Relevance Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are devastating illnesses that greatly impact public health, agriculture and wildlife in North America and around the world. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. Early this year Canada reported its first case of BSE in over a decade audits first case of CWD in farmed elk in three years, underscoring the need for continued vigilance and research. Identifying mechanisms of transmission and zoonoses remains an extremely important and intense area of research that will benefit human and other animal populations. 
PMCA Detection of CWD Infection in Cervid and Non-Cervid Species 
Hoover, Edward Arthur 
Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States 
LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ 
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 
Monday, May 02, 2016 
*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo *** 

Saturday, April 23, 2016 

PRION 2016 TOKYO Saturday, April 23, 2016 

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online Taylor & Francis Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop 

Abstracts 

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a, Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a "Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France 

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier. To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents. These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant. Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.


why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $ 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis. 

snip... 

R. BRADLEY 


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) *** 

In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 


SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online 



O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health. 

=============== 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases*** 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 


LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ 

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 


*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, ***

*** and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. 

*** These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. 


SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online




Tuesday, July 21, 2009 

Transmissible mink encephalopathy - review of the etiology 


Saturday, December 01, 2007 

Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model 


Sunday, December 10, 2006 

Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy TME 



Saturday, June 25, 2011 

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque 
"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades" 


Wednesday, April 25, 2012 

4th MAD COW DISEASE U.S.A. CALIFORNIA ATYPICAL L-TYPE BSE 2012 


Thursday, October 22, 2015 

Former Ag Secretary Ann Veneman talks women in agriculture and we talk mad cow disease USDA and what really happened 


Thursday, July 24, 2014 

Protocol for further laboratory investigations into the distribution of infectivity of Atypical BSE SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA 


Wednesday, May 25, 2016 

USDA APHIS National Scrapie TSE Prion Eradication Program April 2016 Monthly Report Prion 2016 Tokyo Update 


Wednesday, December 21, 2016 

TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2016 ANNUAL REPORT ARS RESEARCH 


Thursday, December 08, 2016 

USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie 



Tuesday, August 9, 2016 

Concurrence with OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy [Docket No. APHIS-2015-0055] 

BILLING CODE: 3410-34-P DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 


snip...see more ; 


TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION 



Saturday, July 23, 2016

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016


Sunday, September 27, 2015

TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES



MONDAY, OCTOBER 26, 2015 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE October 2015


Tuesday, December 23, 2014

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE DECEMBER 2014 BSE TSE PRION


Sunday, December 15, 2013

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE


Thursday, June 6, 2013

BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013


SUNDAY, MAY 14, 2017 

85th Legislative Session 2017 AND THE TEXAS TWO STEP Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion, and paying to play, WHILE ROME (TEXAS) BURNS


MONDAY, MAY 15, 2017 

TEXAS New CWD TSE PRION Case Discovered at Fifth Captive Deer Breeding Facility


MONDAY, MAY 15, 2017 

Pennsylvania 25 more deer test positive for CWD TSE PRION in the wild














Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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