Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion Atypical BSE Confirmed Florida Update USA August 28, 2018

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection USDA 08/29/2018 10:00 AM EDT

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection


Washington, D.C.—August 29, 2018. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is announcing an atypical case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), a neurologic disease of cattle, in a six year old mixed-breed beef cow in Florida.  This animal never entered slaughter channels and at no time presented a risk to the food supply, or to human health in the United States.
USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed that this cow was positive for atypical H-type BSE.  The animal was initially tested at the Colorado State University (CSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (a National Animal Health Laboratory Network laboratory) as part of routine surveillance of cattle that are deemed unsuitable for slaughter.  APHIS and Florida veterinary officials are gathering more information on the case.
BSE is not contagious and exists in two types - classical and atypical.  Classical BSE is the form that occurred primarily in the United Kingdom, beginning in the late 1980’s, and it has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people. The primary source of infection for classical BSE is feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent, such as meat-and-bone meal containing protein derived from rendered infected cattle.  Regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have prohibited the inclusion of mammalian protein in feed for cattle and other ruminants since 1997 and have also prohibited high risk tissue materials in all animal feed since 2009. Atypical BSE is different, and it generally occurs in older cattle, usually 8 years of age or greater. It seems to arise rarely and spontaneously in all cattle populations.
This is the nation’s 6th detection of BSE.  Of the five previous U.S. cases, the first, in 2003, was a case of classical BSE in a cow imported from Canada; the rest have been atypical (H- or L-type) BSE.
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognizes the United States as negligible risk for BSE.  As noted in the OIE guidelines for determining this status, atypical BSE cases do not impact official BSE risk status recognition as this form of the disease is believed to occur spontaneously in all cattle populations at a very low rate. Therefore, this finding of an atypical case will not change the negligible risk status of the United States, and should not lead to any trade issues. 
The United States has a longstanding system of interlocking safeguards against BSE that protects public and animal health in the United States, the most important of which is the removal of specified risk materials - or the parts of an animal that would contain BSE should an animal have the disease - from all animals presented for slaughter. The second safeguard is a strong feed ban that protects cattle from the disease. Another important component of our system - which led to this detection - is our ongoing BSE surveillance program that allows USDA to detect the disease if it exists at very low levels in the U.S. cattle population.
More information about this disease is available in the BSE factsheet.


USDA finds BSE infection in Florida cow 

Meat from animal never entered human food chain 

08/28/18 6:43 PM 

By Bill Tomson 

The USDA has discovered that a cow in Florida was infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), more commonly known as mad cow disease, according to government and industry officials.

It’s the first detection of the deadly disease in the U.S. since July of last year, when BSE was found in a 11-year-old cow in Alabama. As was the case in Alabama, the infected cow in Florida was not slaughtered for food and no meat from the animal entered the human food supply, according to a source.

A USDA spokesman confirmed that the Florida cow suffered the rare "atypical" type of BSE that is believed to develop randomly in cows. 

Officials at the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association were not available for immediate comment, but after the Alabama case NCBA assured the public of its safety. “BSE is not contagious …,” an NCBA official said at the time. “The bottom line: all U.S. beef is safe. USDA’s ongoing BSE surveillance program has tested more than 1 million cattle since the program began. The incidence of BSE in the United States is extremely low, and will remain so. The United States currently has a ‘Negligible BSE Risk’ status from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) – the lowest possible risk in the world.” 

While BSE is transmissible to humans if they consume contaminated material, USDA has taken extensive steps to insure those types of bovine materials like brain and spinal cord are excluded from all food. The same materials are banned from livestock feed to prevent animal-to-animal transmission.

USDA is scheduled to announce the BSE finding Wednesday.

It is normal procedure for the USDA to track down any offspring from an infected cow that may be carrying the disease and the department is doing that now, but have not yet found any, according to a source. The effort is complicated by the fact that the six-year-old Florida cow has been bought and sold several times in the past couple years.

In a 2012 BSE discovery in a dairy cow in California, APHIS tracked down two of the animal’s offspring, neither of which was found to be positive for the disease.

USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service now tests about 20,000 cows per year for BSE. That’s down from 40,000 cows from 2007 through 2015.

There are two types of BSE. The “classical” type is believed to be spread through feed that is contaminated with infected bovine material from rendered animals. The other form of the disease is “atypical” BSE and it is not associated with feed. Atypical BSE “seems to arise rarely and spontaneously,” according to APHIS. 

“Regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have prohibited the inclusion of mammalian protein in feed for cattle and other ruminants since 1997 and have also prohibited high risk tissue materials in all animal feed since 200F9,” according to the agency.

The infected cow is the sixth confirmed BSE case in the U.S. The first, in 2003, was in a cow born in Canada. 

For more news, go to: www.agri-pulse.com


TUESDAY, AUGUST 28, 2018 

USDA finds BSE infection in Florida cow 08/28/18 6:43 PM



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection USDA 08/29/2018 10:00 AM EDT



''Atypical BSE is different, and it generally occurs in older cattle, usually 8 years of age or greater. It seems to arise rarely and spontaneously in all cattle populations.''

FALSE!

''The primary source of infection for classical BSE is feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent, such as meat-and-bone meal containing protein derived from rendered infected cattle.  Regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have prohibited the inclusion of mammalian protein in feed for cattle and other ruminants since 1997 and have also prohibited high risk tissue materials in all animal feed since 2009.''

FALSE!

LET'S REVIEW RECENT AND PAST SCIENCE THAT SHOWS THE ABOVE TWO STATEMENTS ARE FAR FROM TRUE;

PRION 2018 CONFERENCE

P98 The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge 

Greenlee JJ (1), Moore SJ (1), and West Greenlee MH (2) 

(1) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Virus and Prion Research Unit, Ames, IA, United States (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA, United States. 

In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was reported in a cow with a previously unreported prion protein polymorphism (E211K). 

The E211K polymorphism is heritable and homologous to the E200K mutation in humans that is the most frequent PRNP mutation associated with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 

Although the prevalence of the E211K polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele develop H-type BSE with a rapid onset after experimental inoculation by the intracranial route. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the agents of H-type BSE or H-type BSE associated with the E211K polymorphism transmit to wild type cattle or cattle with the K211 allele after oronasal exposure. 

Wild type (EE211) or heterozygous (EK211) cattle were oronasally inoculated with either H-type BSE from the 2004 US Htype BSE case (n=3) or from the 2006 US H-type case associated with the E211K polymorphism (n=4) using 10% w/v brain homogenates. 

Cattle were observed daily throughout the course of the experiment for the development of clinical signs. 

At approximately 50 months post-inoculation, one steer (EK211 inoculated with E211K associated H-BSE) developed clinical signs including inattentiveness, loss of body condition, weakness, ataxia, and muscle fasciculations and was euthanized. 

Enzyme immunoassay confirmed that abundant misfolded protein was present in the brainstem, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated PrPSc throughout the brain. 

Western blot analysis of brain tissue from the clinically affected steer was consistent with the E211K H-type BSE inoculum. 

With the experiment currently at 55 months post-inoculation, no other cattle in this study have developed clinical signs suggestive of prion disease. 

This study demonstrates that the H-type BSE agent is transmissible by the oronasal route. 

These results reinforce the need for ongoing surveillance for classical and atypical BSE to minimize the risk of potentially infectious tissues entering the animal or human food chains. =====

O10 Zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions: a systematic evaluation 

Marín-Moreno A (1), Espinosa JC (1), Douet JY (2), Aguilar-Calvo P (1), Píquer J (1), Lorenzo P (1), Lacroux C (2), Huor A (2), Lugan S (2), Tillier C (2), Andreoletti O (2) and Juan María Torres (1) 

(1) Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, CISA-INIA, Carretera Algete-El Casar s/n, Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain.(2) UMR INRA ENVT 1225, Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, France. 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the only zoonotic prion recognized to date. The transmission of BSE to humans caused the emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). In 2004 two new atypical prion agents were identified in cattle: H- and L- BSE prion strains. 

The zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions was assessed by inoculating three different isolates of cattle H- and L-BSE in transgenic mouse lines that overexpress the human PrP covering the three different genotypes of the aminoacid 129 (TgMet129, TgMet/Val129 and TgVal129). This polymorphism is known to be a key element involved in human resistance/susceptibility to BSE. In addition, TgMet129 and TgVal129 were challenged with one H- and L-BSE isolates adapted to sheep PrP expressing hosts to assess if intermediate passage in sheep could modify the capacity of these prions to cross the human species barrier. 

Our results confirm that L-BSE transmits to TgMet129 even better than epidemic BSE. However, atypical L-BSE agent was unable to infect TgVal129 or TgMet/Val129 mice, even after passage in TgMet129. No transmission was observed with H-BSE in any mice model inoculated, irrespectively of the 129 polymorphism. After passage in sheep PrP expressing host, the properties of both H and LBSE including their capacity to cross the human species barrier were dramatically affected, emerging prion strains features that resemble those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). 

To date, this is the more extensive and complete analysis of the zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions. These results advise not to ignore the zoonotic potential of these agents.

=====

P77 In vitro approach to estimate the human transmission risk of prions 

Iwamaru Y (1) Imamura M (2) Matsuura Y (1) Kohtaro Miyazawa (1) Takashi Yokoyama (3) 

(1 ) National Institute of Animal Health, Prion Disease Unit, Ibaraki, Japan (2) University of Miyazaki, Division of Microbiology, Miyazaki, Japan (3) National Institute of Animal Health, Department of Planning and General Administration, Ibaraki, Japan. 

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. The key event in the pathogenesis of these disease is the conversion of host-encoded normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) and its accumulation in the central nervous system. One of the characteristics of prion is the species barrier that limits the transmission between different species. Currently, bioassays using transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing PrP of different species have become valuable tools for assessing cross species transmissibility of prions. 

The recent reports describing the emergence of novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from H-BSE and the transmission of chronic wasting disease to swine have generated concerns of human infections of newly identified prions. Although Tg expressing human PrP have been used to model human susceptibility to animal prions, these experiments are costly and time-consuming. In addition, the results of bioassays are influenced by the lines of transgenic mice used and the lifespan of the challenged animals. These factors are needed to be taken into account when assessing the human risk of prions. 

In attempt to develop the more time- and cost-saving method for assessment of the human transmission risk of prions, we performed experiments using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to investigate whether PMCA can be compatible with bioassay. Using brain homogenates of Tg expressing bovine PrP as the PrP substrate, we optimized the versatile PMCA condition that could amplify PrPSc from cattle affected with C-, H- or L-BSE. We measured the 50% PMCA seeding activity dose and the 50% lethal dose in 1 g equivalent of C-, H- or L-BSE cattle brain tissue by using PMCA or bioassay, respectively, and assessed the correlations between these doses. 

===== 

 P98 The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge 

Greenlee JJ (1), Moore SJ (1), and West Greenlee MH (2) (1) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Virus and Prion Research Unit, Ames, IA, United States (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA, United States. 

reading up on this study from Prion 2018 Conference, very important findings ;

***> This study demonstrates that the H-type BSE agent is transmissible by the oronasal route. 

***> These results reinforce the need for ongoing surveillance for classical and atypical BSE to minimize the risk of potentially infectious tissues entering the animal or human food chains.

PRION 2018 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT



Sunday, February 25, 2018

PRION ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE 2018 MAY, 22-25 A REVIEW



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

USDA DROPS MAD COW TESTING FROM 40K A YEAR TO JUST 20K A YEAR, IMPOSSIBLE TO FIND BSE, BUT THEY DID, IN FLORIDA!



MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 2017 

APHIS Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE): Ongoing Surveillance Program Last Modified: Jan 5, 2017 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE): Ongoing Surveillance Program



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15, 2018 

The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge



TUESDAY, AUGUST 28, 2018 

USDA finds BSE infection in Florida cow 08/28/18 6:43 PM



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection USDA 08/29/2018 10:00 AM EDT



**>2018<***

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7, 2018 

Unexpected prion phenotypes in experimentally transfused animals: predictive models for humans?



TUESDAY, AUGUST 07, 2018 

Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep



FRIDAY, APRIL 22, 2016 

Texas Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep where CWD was detected in a Mule Deer



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13, 2018 

National Scrapie Eradication Program April 2018 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2018



Sent: Wed, Aug 22, 2018 12:05 pm 

Subject: TEXAS CWD TSE PRION 16 MORE CASES DETECTED TOTAL TO DATE 117 CONFIRMED NEW 14 BREEDERS 2 FREE RANGE

TEXAS CWD TSE PRION 16 MORE CASES DETECTED TOTAL TO DATE 117 CONFIRMED NEW 14 BREEDERS 2 FREE RANGE 

2018 8/2/2018 Free Range El Paso Mule Deer M 3

2018 7/3/2018 Free Range Hartley white-tailed deer M 2.5

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer M 3

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer M 3

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer M 3

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer M 3

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 9

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 5

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 4

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 3

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 6

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 4

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 2

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F 4

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F <1 span="">

2018 6/13/2018 Breeder Deer Uvalde Facility #3 white-tailed deer F <1 span="">


THERE IS TWO PAGES, SEE TOTALS ;


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 22, 2018 

***> TEXAS CWD TSE PRION 16 MORE CASES DETECTED TOTAL TO DATE 117 CONFIRMED NEW 14 BREEDERS 2 FREE RANGE 



August 27, 2018

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE FDA LEGISLATIVE REPLY TO SINGELTARY and THE TEXAS TWO STEP



MONDAY, AUGUST 27, 2018 

Arkansas AGFC Many CWD testing options available for 2018-19 deer season with 369 positive as of January 8, 2018



TUESDAY, AUGUST 28, 2018 

Wyoming WGFD confirmed bull elk harvested hunter tested positive chronic wasting disease CWD Elk Hunt Area 66


 
MONDAY, MAY 21, 2018 

Colorado Chronic Wasting disease CWD TSE Prion hits 16 percent of male deer, elk, moose tested in some parts of state
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2018/05/colorado-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd.html

 
SATURDAY, MARCH 03, 2018 

WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE TSE Prion DNR Study Finds CWD-Infected Deer Die At 3 Times Rate Of Healthy Animals
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2018/03/wisconsin-chronic-wasting-disease-tse.html

 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 07, 2018 
 
Cervid Health Operational Plan Fiscal Year 2018 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services Veterinary Services
 

 
TUESDAY, JULY 03, 2018 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Global Report Update, USA, CANADA, KOREA, NORWAY, FINLAND, Game Farms and Fake news 
 

 
SUNDAY, APRIL 8, 2018 
 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion Disease Global Pandemic Urgent Update April 9, 2018
 


FLORIDA, ALABAMA, TEXAS, AND THE NATION, ALL HAD COPIOUS AMOUNTS OF BANNED SUSPECT MAD COW PROTEIN IN COMMERCE; SEE;


***> IMPORTS AND EXPORTS <***

SEE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF BANNED ANIMAL PROTEIN AKA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA DECADES AFTER POST BAN




WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 2018 

CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS FDA EMERGENCY REQUEST FOR RULE CHANGE USA Section 21 C.F.R. 589.2000


TUESDAY, JULY 10, 2018
 
CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS
 
*** ''but feeding of other ruminant protein, including scrapie-infected sheep, can continue to pigs.''
 
CONFIDENTIAL SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS
 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10, 2018 

From Gate to Plate, BSE aka mad cow disease, USDA, NAIS, AND TRACEABILITY



 O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). 

Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. 

We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health. 

=============== 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases*** 

=============== 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 

============== 
https://prion2015.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/prion2015abstracts.pdf 

***Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

***Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19336896.2016.1163048?journalCode=kprn20 


PRION 2016 TOKYO

Saturday, April 23, 2016

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

Taylor & Francis

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion.. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19336896.2016.1163048?journalCode=kprn20


why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...

R. BRADLEY
https://web.archive.org/web/20170126051158/http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102222950/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/23001001.pdf


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=313160


***> Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility. <***

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period 

Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 11573 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract 

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

SNIP...

Discussion We describe the transmission of spongiform encephalopathy in a non-human primate inoculated 10 years earlier with a strain of sheep c-scrapie. Because of this extended incubation period in a facility in which other prion diseases are under study, we are obliged to consider two alternative possibilities that might explain its occurrence. We first considered the possibility of a sporadic origin (like CJD in humans). Such an event is extremely improbable because the inoculated animal was 14 years old when the clinical signs appeared, i.e. about 40% through the expected natural lifetime of this species, compared to a peak age incidence of 60–65 years in human sporadic CJD, or about 80% through their expected lifetimes. Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.

The second possibility is a laboratory cross-contamination. Three facts make this possibility equally unlikely. First, handling of specimens in our laboratory is performed with fastidious attention to the avoidance of any such cross-contamination. Second, no laboratory cross-contamination has ever been documented in other primate laboratories, including the NIH, even between infected and uninfected animals housed in the same or adjacent cages with daily intimate contact (P. Brown, personal communication). Third, the cerebral lesion profile is different from all the other prion diseases we have studied in this model19, with a correlation between cerebellar lesions (massive spongiform change of Purkinje cells, intense PrPres staining and reactive gliosis26) and ataxia. The iron deposits present in the globus pallidus are a non specific finding that have been reported previously in neurodegenerative diseases and aging27. Conversely, the thalamic lesion was reminiscent of a metabolic disease due to thiamine deficiency28 but blood thiamine levels were within normal limits (data not shown). The preferential distribution of spongiform change in cortex associated with a limited distribution in the brainstem is reminiscent of the lesion profile in MM2c and VV1 sCJD patients29, but interspecies comparison of lesion profiles should be interpreted with caution. It is of note that the same classical scrapie isolate induced TSE in C57Bl/6 mice with similar incubation periods and lesional profiles as a sample derived from a MM1 sCJD patient30.

We are therefore confident that the illness in this cynomolgus macaque represents a true transmission of a sheep c-scrapie isolate directly to an old-world monkey, which taxonomically resides in the primate subdivision (parvorder of catarrhini) that includes humans. With an homology of its PrP protein with humans of 96.4%31, cynomolgus macaque constitutes a highly relevant model for assessing zoonotic risk of prion diseases. Since our initial aim was to show the absence of transmission of scrapie to macaques in the worst-case scenario, we obtained materials from a flock of naturally-infected sheep, affecting animals with different genotypes32. This c-scrapie isolate exhibited complete transmission in ARQ/ARQ sheep (332 ± 56 days) and Tg338 transgenic mice expressing ovine VRQ/VRQ prion protein (220 ± 5 days) (O. Andreoletti, personal communication). From the standpoint of zoonotic risk, it is important to note that sheep with c-scrapie (including the isolate used in our study) have demonstrable infectivity throughout their lymphoreticular system early in the incubation period of the disease (3 months-old for all the lymphoid organs, and as early as 2 months-old in gut-associated lymph nodes)33. In addition, scrapie infectivity has been identified in blood34, milk35 and skeletal muscle36 from asymptomatic but scrapie infected small ruminants which implies a potential dietary exposure for consumers.

Two earlier studies have reported the occurrence of clinical TSE in cynomolgus macaques after exposures to scrapie isolates. In the first study, the “Compton” scrapie isolate (derived from an English sheep) and serially propagated for 9 passages in goats did not transmit TSE in cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque or chimpanzee within 7 years following intracerebral challenge1; conversely, after 8 supplementary passages in conventional mice, this “Compton” isolate induced TSE in a cynomolgus macaque 5 years after intracerebral challenge, but rhesus macaques and chimpanzee remained asymptomatic 8.5 years post-exposure8. However, multiple successive passages that are classically used to select laboratory-adapted prion strains can significantly modify the initial properties of a scrapie isolate, thus questioning the relevance of zoonotic potential for the initial sheep-derived isolate. The same isolate had also induced disease into squirrel monkeys (new-world monkey)9. A second historical observation reported that a cynomolgus macaque developed TSE 6 years post-inoculation with brain homogenate from a scrapie-infected Suffolk ewe (derived from USA), whereas a rhesus macaque and a chimpanzee exposed to the same inoculum remained healthy 9 years post-exposure1. This inoculum also induced TSE in squirrel monkeys after 4 passages in mice. Other scrapie transmission attempts in macaque failed but had more shorter periods of observation in comparison to the current study. Further, it is possible that there are differences in the zoonotic potential of different scrapie strains.

The most striking observation in our study is the extended incubation period of scrapie in the macaque model, which has several implications. Firstly, our observations constitute experimental evidence in favor of the zoonotic potential of c-scrapie, at least for this isolate that has been extensively studied32,33,34,35,36. The cross-species zoonotic ability of this isolate should be confirmed by performing duplicate intracerebral exposures and assessing the transmissibility by the oral route (a successful transmission of prion strains through the intracerebral route may not necessarily indicate the potential for oral transmission37). However, such confirmatory experiments may require more than one decade, which is hardly compatible with current general management and support of scientific projects; thus this study should be rather considered as a case report.

Secondly, transmission of c-BSE to primates occurred within 8 years post exposure for the lowest doses able to transmit the disease (the survival period after inoculation is inversely proportional to the initial amount of infectious inoculum). The occurrence of scrapie 10 years after exposure to a high dose (25 mg) of scrapie-infected sheep brain suggests that the macaque has a higher species barrier for sheep c-scrapie than c-BSE, although it is notable that previous studies based on in vitro conversion of PrP suggested that BSE and scrapie prions would have a similar conversion potential for human PrP38.

Thirdly, prion diseases typically have longer incubation periods after oral exposure than after intracerebral inoculations: since humans can develop Kuru 47 years after oral exposure39, an incubation time of several decades after oral exposure to scrapie would therefore be expected, leading the disease to occur in older adults, i.e. the peak age for cases considered to be sporadic disease, and making a distinction between scrapie-associated and truly sporadic disease extremely difficult to appreciate.

Fourthly, epidemiologic evidence is necessary to confirm the zoonotic potential of an animal disease suggested by experimental studies. A relatively short incubation period and a peculiar epidemiological situation (e.g., all the first vCJD cases occurring in the country with the most important ongoing c-BSE epizootic) led to a high degree of suspicion that c-BSE was the cause of vCJD. Sporadic CJD are considered spontaneous diseases with an almost stable and constant worldwide prevalence (0.5–2 cases per million inhabitants per year), and previous epidemiological studies were unable to draw a link between sCJD and classical scrapie6,7,40,41, even though external causes were hypothesized to explain the occurrence of some sCJD clusters42,43,44. However, extended incubation periods exceeding several decades would impair the predictive values of epidemiological surveillance for prion diseases, already weakened by a limited prevalence of prion diseases and the multiplicity of isolates gathered under the phenotypes of “scrapie” and “sporadic CJD”.

Fifthly, considering this 10 year-long incubation period, together with both laboratory and epidemiological evidence of decade or longer intervals between infection and clinical onset of disease, no premature conclusions should be drawn from negative transmission studies in cynomolgus macaques with less than a decade of observation, as in the aforementioned historical transmission studies of scrapie to primates1,8,9. Our observations and those of others45,46 to date are unable to provide definitive evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of CWD, atypical/Nor98 scrapie or H-type BSE. The extended incubation period of the scrapie-affected macaque in the current study also underscores the limitations of rodent models expressing human PrP for assessing the zoonotic potential of some prion diseases since their lifespan remains limited to approximately two years21,47,48. This point is illustrated by the fact that the recently reported transmission of scrapie to humanized mice was not associated with clinical signs for up to 750 days and occurred in an extreme minority of mice with only a marginal increase in attack rate upon second passage13. The low attack rate in these studies is certainly linked to the limited lifespan of mice compared to the very long periods of observation necessary to demonstrate the development of scrapie. Alternatively, one could estimate that a successful second passage is the result of strain adaptation to the species barrier, thus poorly relevant of the real zoonotic potential of the original scrapie isolate of sheep origin49. The development of scrapie in this primate after an incubation period compatible with its lifespan complements the study conducted in transgenic (humanized) mice; taken together these studies suggest that some isolates of sheep scrapie can promote misfolding of the human prion protein and that scrapie can develop within the lifespan of some primate species.

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free.. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.



ZOONOTIC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE

 here is the latest;

 
PRION 2018 CONFERENCE
 
Oral transmission of CWD into Cynomolgus macaques: signs of atypical disease, prion conversion and infectivity in macaques and bio-assayed transgenic mice 
 
Hermann M. Schatzl, Samia Hannaoui, Yo-Ching Cheng, Sabine Gilch (Calgary Prion Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada) Michael Beekes (RKI Berlin), Walter Schulz-Schaeffer (University of Homburg/Saar, Germany), Christiane Stahl-Hennig (German Primate Center) & Stefanie Czub (CFIA Lethbridge). 
 
To date, BSE is the only example of interspecies transmission of an animal prion disease into humans. The potential zoonotic transmission of CWD is an alarming issue and was addressed by many groups using a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Evidence from these studies indicated a substantial, if not absolute, species barrier, aligning with the absence of epidemiological evidence suggesting transmission into humans. Studies in non-human primates were not conclusive so far, with oral transmission into new-world monkeys and no transmission into old-world monkeys. 
 
Our consortium has challenged 18 Cynomolgus macaques with characterized CWD material, focusing on oral transmission with muscle tissue. Some macaques have orally received a total of 5 kg of muscle material over a period of 2 years. After 5-7 years of incubation time some animals showed clinical symptoms indicative of prion disease, and prion neuropathology and PrPSc deposition were detected in spinal cord and brain of some euthanized animals. PrPSc in immunoblot was weakly detected in some spinal cord materials and various tissues tested positive in RT-QuIC, including lymph node and spleen homogenates. To prove prion infectivity in the macaque tissues, we have intracerebrally inoculated 2 lines of transgenic mice, expressing either elk or human PrP. At least 3 TgElk mice, receiving tissues from 2 different macaques, showed clinical signs of a progressive prion disease and brains were positive in immunoblot and RT-QuIC. Tissues (brain, spinal cord and spleen) from these and pre-clinical mice are currently tested using various read-outs and by second passage in mice. Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were so far negative for clear clinical prion disease (some mice >300 days p.i.). In parallel, the same macaque materials are inoculated into bank voles. 
 
Taken together, there is strong evidence of transmissibility of CWD orally into macaques and from macaque tissues into transgenic mouse models, although with an incomplete attack rate. The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology. Our ongoing studies will show whether the transmission of CWD into macaques and passage in transgenic mice represents a form of non-adaptive prion amplification, and whether macaque-adapted prions have the potential to infect mice expressing human PrP. The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD.
 
***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD. <***
 

 
READING OVER THE PRION 2018 ABSTRACT BOOK, LOOKS LIKE THEY FOUND THAT from this study ;
 
P190 Human prion disease mortality rates by occurrence of chronic wasting disease in freeranging cervids, United States 
 
Abrams JY (1), Maddox RA (1), Schonberger LB (1), Person MK (1), Appleby BS (2), Belay ED (1) (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA (2) Case Western Reserve University, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), Cleveland, OH, USA. 
 
SEEMS THAT THEY FOUND Highly endemic states had a higher rate of prion disease mortality compared to non-CWD states.
 
AND ANOTHER STUDY;
 
P172 Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Prion Disease 
 
Wang H(1), Cohen M(1), Appleby BS(1,2) (1) University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (2) National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
 
IN THIS STUDY, THERE WERE autopsy-proven prion cases from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center that were diagnosed between September 2016 to March 2017, AND included 104 patients.
 
SEEMS THEY FOUND THAT The most common sCJD subtype was MV1-2 (30%), followed by MM1-2 (20%), AND THAT The Majority of cases were male (60%), AND half of them had exposure to wild game.
 
snip...see more on Prion 2017 Macaque study from Prion 2017 Conference and other updated science on cwd tse prion zoonosis below...terry
 
 

 
Prion 2017 
 
Conference Abstracts CWD 2017 PRION CONFERENCE 
 
First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 
 
Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 
 
University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 
 
This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 
 
PRION 2017 
 
DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 
 
Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS VIDEO 
 
PRION 2017 
 
CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 
 
*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO 
 
 

 
TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017 
 
PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT 
 
First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 
 
 
 
SATURDAY, JULY 29, 2017 
 
Risk Advisory Opinion: Potential Human Health Risks from Chronic Wasting Disease CFIA, PHAC, HC (HPFB and FNIHB), INAC, Parks Canada, ECCC and AAFC 
 
 
just out CDC...see;

 
Research
 
Susceptibility of Human Prion Protein to Conversion by Chronic Wasting Disease Prions
 
Marcelo A. BarriaComments to Author , Adriana Libori, Gordon Mitchell, and Mark W. Head Author affiliations: National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (M.A. Barria, A. Libori, M.W. Head); National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (G. Mitchell)
 
M. A. Barria et al.
 
ABSTRACT
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal neurodegenerative disease and a serious animal health issue for deer and elk in North America. The identification of the first cases of CWD among free-ranging reindeer and moose in Europe brings back into focus the unresolved issue of whether CWD can be zoonotic like bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay to determine whether CWD prions from elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in North America can convert the human prion protein to the disease-associated form. We found that prions can convert, but the efficiency of conversion is affected by polymorphic variation in the cervid and human prion protein genes. In view of the similarity of reindeer, elk, and white-tailed deer in North America to reindeer, red deer, and roe deer, respectively, in Europe, a more comprehensive and thorough assessment of the zoonotic potential of CWD might be warranted. 
 

 
Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions 
 
Marcelo A. Barria, Aru Balachandran, Masanori Morita, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Rona Barron, Jean Manson, Richard Knight, James W. Ironside, and Mark W. Headcorresponding author 
 
snip... 
 
The conversion of human PrPC by CWD brain homogenate in PMCA reactions was less efficient when the amino acid at position 129 was valine rather than methionine. 
 
***Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype. 
 
snip... 
 
However, we can say with confidence that under the conditions used here, none of the animal isolates tested were as efficient as C-type BSE in converting human PrPC, which is reassuring. 
 
***Less reassuring is the finding that there is no absolute barrier to the conversion of human PrPC by CWD prions in a protocol using a single round of PMCA and an entirely human substrate prepared from the target organ of prion diseases, the brain. 
 
 

ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION 

10. ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION AKA MAD DEER ELK DISEASE IN HUMANS, has it already happened, that should be the question... 

''In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids.'' Scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (II)

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Antonia Ricci Ana Allende Declan Bolton Marianne Chemaly Robert Davies Pablo Salvador Fernández Escámez ... See all authors 

First published: 17 January 2018 
https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5132 ;

also, see; 

8. Even though human TSE
exposure risk through consumption of game from European cervids can be assumed to be minor, if at all existing, no final conclusion can be drawn due to the overall lack of scientific data. In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids. It might be prudent considering appropriate measures to reduce such a risk, e.g. excluding tissues such as CNS and lymphoid tissues from the human food chain, which would greatly reduce any potential risk for consumers. However, it is stressed that currently, no data regarding a risk of TSE infections from cervid products are available. 

snip... 

The tissue distribution of infectivity in CWD
infected cervids is now known to extend beyond CNS and lymphoid tissues. While the removal of these specific tissues from the food chain would reduce human dietary exposure to infectivity, exclusion from the food chain of the whole carcass of any infected animal would be required to eliminate human dietary exposure. 
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5132


zoonosis zoonotic cervid tse prion cwd to humans, preparing for the storm 

***An alternative to modeling the species barrier is the cell-free conversion assay which points to CWD as the animal prion disease with the greatest zoonotic potential, after (and very much less than) BSE.116*** 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.29237
 

To date there is no direct evidence that CWD has been or can be transmitted from animals to humans. 

However, initial findings from a laboratory research project funded by the Alberta Prion Research Institute (APRI) and Alberta Livestock Meat Agency (ALMA), and led by a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) scientist indicate that CWD has been transmitted to cynomolgus macaques (the non-human primate species most closely related to humans that may be used in research), through both the intracranial and oral routes of exposure. 

Both infected brain and muscle tissues were found to transmit disease. 

Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) was asked to consider the impact of these findings on the Branch’s current position on CWD in health products and foods. 

Summary and Recommendation: 

snip...

Health Portfolio partners were recently made aware of initial findings from a research project led by a CFIA scientist that have demonstrated that cynomolgus macaques can be infected via intracranial exposure and oral gavage with CWD infected muscle. 

These findings suggest that CWD, under specific experimental conditions, has the potential to cross the human species barrier, including by enteral feeding of CWD infected muscle. 
https://www.thetyee.ca/Documents/2017/06/24/Risk-Advisory-Opinion-CWD-2017.pdf


*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK *** 

We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. 

In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 

***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 

Student Presentations Session 2 

The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions 

Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. 

These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. 

The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. 

We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. 

We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 

***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders
http://www.wda2016.org/uploads/5/8/6/1/58613359/wda_2016_conference_proceedings_low_res.pdf


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2017 

CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat 
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/09/cdc-now-recommends-strongly-consider.html


SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 2018 

CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2018/01/cdc-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-tse.html


Subject: CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION IS THE USA AND NORTH AMERICA'S MAD COW DISEASE. 

THE USDA INC ET AL WORKED VERY HARD CONCEALING BSE TSE PRION IN CATTLE. they almost succeeded $$$

BUT CWD TSE PRION IN CERVIDS IS A DIFFERENT BEAST, THE COVER UP THERE, USDA INC COULD NOT CONTAIN.

SPORADIC CJD IS 85%+ OF ALL HUMAN TSE PRION DISEASE.

SPORADIC CJD HAS NOW BEEN LINKED TO TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL BSE, SCRAPIE, AND CWD.

SPORADIC/SPONTANEOUS TSE HAS NEVER BEEN PROVEN.

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep11573 


CDC CWD TSE PRION UPDATE USA JANUARY 2018

As of January 2018, CWD in free-ranging deer, elk and/or moose has been reported in at least 22 states in the continental United States, as well as two provinces in Canada. In addition, CWD has been reported in reindeer and moose in Norway, and a small number of imported cases have been reported in South Korea. The disease has also been found in farmed deer and elk. CWD was first identified in captive deer in the late 1960s in Colorado and in wild deer in 1981. By the 1990s, it had been reported in surrounding areas in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming. Since 2000, the area known to be affected by CWD in free-ranging animals has increased to at least 22 states, including states in the Midwest, Southwest, and limited areas on the East Coast.. It is possible that CWD may also occur in other states without strong animal surveillance systems, but that cases haven’t been detected yet. Once CWD is established in an area, the risk can remain for a long time in the environment. The affected areas are likely to continue to expand. Nationwide, the overall occurrence of CWD in free-ranging deer and elk is relatively low. However, in several locations where the disease is established, infection rates may exceed 10 percent (1 in 10), and localized infection rates of more than 25 percent (1 in 4) have been reported. The infection rates among some captive deer can be much higher, with a rate of 79% (nearly 4 in 5) reported from at least one captive herd. As of January 2018, there were 186 counties in 22 states with reported CWD in free-ranging cervids.. 

Chronic Wasting Disease Among Free-Ranging Cervids by County, United States, January 2018 

snip.... 
https://www.cdc.gov/prions/cwd/occurrence.html


*** 2017-2018 CWD TSE Prion UPDATE
https://www.cdc.gov/prions/cwd/occurrence.html


*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. 
http://cdmrp.army.mil/prevfunded/nprp/NPRP_Summit_Final_Report.pdf


Transmission Studies

Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and compared with natural cases {the following was written but with a single line marked through it ''first passage (by this route)}...TSS

resulted in a more rapidly progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through contamination of inoculum (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey. Transmission occurred in ALL of these species with the shortest incubation period in the ferret.

snip...
https://web.archive.org/web/20090506002237/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf


Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease
 

Brent Race#, Kimberly Meade-White#, Richard Race and Bruce Chesebro* + Author Affiliations

In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species.
http://jvi.asm.org/content/83/18/9608.full


Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease 

Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/311/5764/1117.long


*** now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago, and then the latest on the zoonotic potential from CWD to humans from the TOKYO PRION 2016 CONFERENCE.

see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Dear Sir/Madam,

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

-----Original Message-----

From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To: 
rr26k@nih.govrrace@niaid.nih.govebb8@CDC.GOV

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS

Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.

snip...

*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,

snip... full text ;
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html

> However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people. 

key word here is 'reported'. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can't, and it's as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it's being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. ...terry 

*** LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ ***

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/pri.28124?src=recsys
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.28124?needAccess=true
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/1/13-0858_article


SEE; Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Monday, May 23, 2011

CDC Assesses Potential Human Exposure to Prion Diseases Travel Warning

Public release date: 23-May-2011

Contact: Francesca Costanzo 
adajmedia@elsevier.com 215-239-3249 Elsevier Health Sciences

CDC assesses potential human exposure to prion diseases Study results reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association Philadelphia, PA, May 23, 2011 – Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have examined the potential for human exposure to prion diseases, looking at hunting, venison consumption, and travel to areas in which prion diseases have been reported in animals. Three prion diseases in particular – bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or “Mad Cow Disease”), variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) – were specified in the investigation. The results of this investigation are published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

“While prion diseases are rare, they are generally fatal for anyone who becomes infected. More than anything else, the results of this study support the need for continued surveillance of prion diseases,” commented lead investigator Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta.”But it’s also important that people know the facts about these diseases, especially since this study shows that a good number of people have participated in activities that may expose them to infection-causing agents.”

Although rare, human prion diseases such as CJD may be related to BSE. Prion (proteinaceous infectious particles) diseases are a group of rare brain diseases that affect humans and animals. When a person gets a prion disease, brain function is impaired. This causes memory and personality changes, dementia, and problems with movement. All of these worsen over time. These diseases are invariably fatal. Since these diseases may take years to manifest, knowing the extent of human exposure to possible prion diseases could become important in the event of an outbreak.

CDC investigators evaluated the results of the 2006-2007 population survey conducted by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). This survey collects information on food consumption practices, health outcomes, and demographic characteristics of residents of the participating Emerging Infections Program sites. The survey was conducted in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, as well as five counties in the San Francisco Bay area, seven counties in the Greater Denver area, and 34 counties in western and northeastern New York.

Survey participants were asked about behaviors that could be associated with exposure to the agents causing BSE and CWD, including travel to the nine countries considered to be BSE-endemic (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain) and the cumulative length of stay in each of those countries. Respondents were asked if they ever had hunted for deer or elk, and if that hunting had taken place in areas considered to be CWD-endemic (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming or southwestern Nebraska). They were also asked if they had ever consumed venison, the frequency of consumption, and whether the meat came from the wild.

The proportion of survey respondents who reported travel to at least one of the nine BSE endemic countries since 1980 was 29.5%. Travel to the United Kingdom was reported by 19.4% of respondents, higher than to any other BSE-endemic country. Among those who traveled, the median duration of travel to the United Kingdom (14 days) was longer than that of any other BSE-endemic country. Travelers to the UK were more likely to have spent at least 30 days in the country (24.9%) compared to travelers to any other BSE endemic country. The prevalence and extent of travel to the UK indicate that health concerns in the UK may also become issues for US residents.

The proportion of survey respondents reporting having hunted for deer or elk was 18.5% and 1.2% reported having hunted for deer or elk in CWD-endemic areas. Venison consumption was reported by 67.4% of FoodNet respondents, and 88.6% of those reporting venison consumption had obtained all of their meat from the wild. These findings reinforce the importance of CWD surveillance and control programs for wild deer and elk to reduce human exposure to the CWD agent. Hunters in CWD-endemic areas are advised to take simple precautions such as: avoiding consuming meat from sickly deer or elk, avoiding consuming brain or spinal cord tissues, minimizing the handling of brain and spinal cord tissues, and wearing gloves when field-dressing carcasses.

According to Abrams, “The 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey provides useful information should foodborne prion infection become an increasing public health concern in the future. The data presented describe the prevalence of important behaviors and their associations with demographic characteristics. Surveillance of BSE, CWD, and human prion diseases are critical aspects of addressing the burden of these diseases in animal populations and how that may relate to human health.”

###

The article is “Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey” by Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH; Ryan A. Maddox, MPH; Alexis R Harvey, MPH; Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD; and Ermias D. Belay, MD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 111, Issue 6 (June 2011) published by Elsevier.

In an accompanying podcast CDC’s Joseph Y. Abrams discusses travel, hunting, and eating venison in relation to prion diseases. It is available at 
http://adajournal.org/content/podcast.
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-05/ehs-cap051811.php


Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH , Alexis R. Harvey, MPH , Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD , Ermias D. Belay, MD

Accepted 15 November 2010. Abstract Full Text PDF References .

Abstract

The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5% reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD–endemic area. More than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison, 59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission.
http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(11)00278-1/abstract


PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ; 

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html


NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html

 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Spongiform Encephalopathy in Captive Wild ZOO BSE INQUIRY
https://web.archive.org/web/20090506001201/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09a/tab03.pdf


BSE INQUIRY

CJD9/10022

October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane 

BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended.. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.
http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf


*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).

The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).

snip...

It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).

snip...

In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...

snip...

In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)

snip...see full report ;
https://web.archive.org/web/20170126073306/http://collections..europarchive..org/tna/20090505194948/http://bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/08/00004001.pdf

 
TUESDAY, JULY 31, 2018 

USA CJD TSE Tables of Cases Examined National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined May 1, 2018

http://prionunitusaupdate.blogspot.com/2018/07/usa-cjd-tse-tables-of-cases-examined.html


HUMAN MAD COW DISEASE nvCJD TEXAS CASE NOT LINKED TO EUROPEAN TRAVEL CDC
Sunday, November 23, 2014

Confirmed Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (variant CJD) Case in Texas

Updated: October 7, 2014

CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) have completed the investigation of the recently reported fourth vCJD case in the United States. It confirmed that the case was in a US citizen born outside the Americas and indicated that the patient's exposure to the BSE/vCJD agent most likely occurred before he moved to the United States; the patient had resided in Kuwait, Russia and Lebanon. The completed investigation did not support the patient's having had extended travel to European countries, including the United Kingdom, or travel to Saudi Arabia. The specific overseas country where this patient’s infection occurred is less clear largely because the investigation did not definitely link him to a country where other known vCJD cases likely had been infected.

https://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/other/confirmed-case-in-texas.htm

https://vcjd.blogspot.com/2014/11/confirmed-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob.html

Friday, January 10, 2014 

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ??? 

Greetings Friends, Neighbors, and Colleagues, 

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2014/01/vpspr-sgss-sffi-tse-iatrogenic-by.html

Sunday, June 17, 2018 

Reviews Prion-like Propagation of α-synuclein, Parkinson, and tse prion

http://alpha-synuclein.blogspot.com/2018/06/reviews-prion-like-propagation-of.html

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined to December 14, 2017

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot..com/2017/12/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cjd-national.html

Tuesday, December 12, 2017 

Neuropathology of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and immunoassay of French cadaver-sourced growth hormone batches suggest possible transmission of tauopathy and long incubation periods for the transmission of Abeta pathology

http://tauopathies.blogspot.com/2017/12/neuropathology-of-iatrogenic.html

MONDAY, OCTOBER 02, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease United States of America USA and United Kingdom UK Increasing and Zoonotic Pontential From Different Species

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/10/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-united-states.html

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17, 2017 

*** Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States revisited 2017 Singeltary et al

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/08/monitoring-occurrence-of-emerging-forms.html

*** ALL iatrogenic cjd is, is sporadic cjd, until the iatrogenic event is discovered, traced back, documented in the Academic domain, and then put into the public domain and documented as an iatrogenic CJD event. that’s why 85%+ of all human TSE prion disease is still sporadic CJD. problem solved $$$

WEDNESDAY, JULY 04, 2018 

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS IN ENGLAND June 2018

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2018/07/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-guidelines.html

TUESDAY, JULY 03, 2018 

*** Threat of vCJD to be reconsidered for risk factor to humans IBTS MAC ???

http://vcjdblood.blogspot.com/2018/07/threat-of-vcjd-to-be-reconsidered-for..html

MONDAY, JUNE 18, 2018 

Ecuador Six Case series of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a third-level hospital in Quito

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2018/06/ecuador-six-case-series-of-creutzfeldt

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2016 

Maine Medical Center received confirmation patient treated at the hospital has Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/11/maine-medical-center-received.html

Wednesday, November 09, 2016

Maine Medical Center postpones elective surgeries over suspected case of prion disease

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/11/maine-medical-center-postpones-elective.html

Friday, November 11, 2016

Human prion diseases: surgical lessons learned from iatrogenic prion transmission

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/11/human-prion-diseases-surgical-lessons.html

SUNDAY, JUNE 24, 2018 

Validation and utilization of amended diagnostic criteria in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2018/06/validation-and-utilization-of-amended.html

SATURDAY, JUNE 23, 2018 

Diagnosis of Methionine/Valine Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification 

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018 Dispatch

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/7/17-2105_article

http://vcjd.blogspot.com/2018/06/diagnosis-of-methioninevaline-variant.html

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined to December 14, 2017

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot..com/2017/12/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cjd-national.html

Tuesday, December 12, 2017 

Neuropathology of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and immunoassay of French cadaver-sourced growth hormone batches suggest possible transmission of tauopathy and long incubation periods for the transmission of Abeta pathology

http://tauopathies.blogspot.com/2017/12/neuropathology-of-iatrogenic.html

MONDAY, OCTOBER 02, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease United States of America USA and United Kingdom UK Increasing and Zoonotic Pontential From Different Species

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/10/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-united-states.html

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17, 2017 

*** Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States revisited 2017 Singeltary et al

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/08/monitoring-occurrence-of-emerging-forms.html

Sunday, November 06, 2016

UK Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: investigating human prion transmission across genotypic barriers using human tissue-based and molecular approaches

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/11/uk-iatrogenic-creutzfeldtjakob-disease.html

Wednesday, September 07, 2016 

Michigan Launches an investigation into the Detroit Medical Center dirty, broken and missing surgical instruments, what about the CJD TSE PRION iatrogenic threat past and present therefrom? 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/09/michigan-launches-investigation-into.html

Thursday, March 17, 2016 

Preliminary Diagnosis Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Confirmed in Patient that had Lumbar Puncture at Washington Regional Medical Center

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/03/preliminary-diagnosis-creutzfeldt-jakob.html

Saturday, February 13, 2016 

The Risk of Prion Infection through Bovine Grafting Materials in dentistry 

http://bovineprp.blogspot.com/2016/02/the-risk-of-prion-infection-through.html

Saturday, January 16, 2016 

Revised Preventive Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Blood and Blood Products Guidance for Industry 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/01/revised-preventive-measures-to-reduce.html

Thursday, January 14, 2016 

*** Preventable Tragedies: Superbugs and How Ineffective Monitoring of Medical Device Safety Fails Patients REPORT ***

how can it be, HOW CAN IT BE $$$ not a word about CJD GSS FFI VPSPR TSE Prions that I saw...absolutely crazy, WE ARE MISSING THE BIGGER PICTURE! 

how many victims that will never be reported ??? 

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2016/01/preventable-tragedies-superbugs-and-how.html

Sunday, January 17, 2016 

*** Of Grave Concern Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease *** 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/01/of-grave-concern-heidenhain-variant.html

Wednesday, January 06, 2016 

CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE U.K. 23rd ANNUAL REPORT 2014 (published 18th November 2015) 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2016/01/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-surveillance.html

Friday, October 09, 2015 

*** An alarming presentation level II trauma center of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2015/10/an-alarming-presentation-level-ii.htm

Thursday, August 13, 2015 

Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/iatrogenic-cjd-due-to-pituitary-derived.html

Thursday, June 04, 2015 

Catholic Medical Center v. Civil No. 14-cv-180-JL Opinion No. 2015 DNH 110 Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease TSE Prion tainted medical instruments 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2015/06/catholic-medical-center-v-civil-no-14.html

Tuesday, May 26, 2015 

Minimise transmission risk of CJD and vCJD in healthcare settings Last updated 15 May 2015 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2015/05/minimise-transmission-risk-of-cjd-and.html

Tuesday, February 11, 2014 

Novant Health Forsyth Medical Center Information on potential CJD exposure 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/02/novant-health-forsyth-medical-center.html

Monday, February 10, 2014 

18 Forsyth Medical Center patients exposed to CJD; apology issued...OOOPS, SORRY, TOO BAD $$$ 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/02/18-forsyth-medical-center-patients.html

Thursday, January 16, 2014 

The Anspach Effort, Inc. RECALL FDA Blackmax motor had been used in a case where the patient was diagnosed with Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) MARYLAND HOSTPITAL 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-anspach-effort-inc-recall-fda.html

Wednesday, September 10, 2014 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update (August 2014), with updated guidance on decontamination of gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment 

Research and analysis

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/09/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cjd-biannual.html

Tuesday, August 26, 2014 

Blood reference materials from macaques infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent

http://vcjdtransfusion.blogspot.com/2014/08/blood-reference-materials-from-macaques.html

Thursday, April 17, 2014 

Novant: Three more may have been exposed to disease CJD 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/04/novant-three-more-may-have-been-exposed.html

Sunday, April 06, 2014 

SPORADIC CJD and the potential for zoonotic transmission there from, either directly or indirectly via friendly fire iatrogenic mode, evidence to date

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2014/04/sporadic-cjd-and-potential-for-zoonotic.html

Thursday, January 23, 2014 

Medical Devices Containing Materials Derived from Animal Sources (Except for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices) [Docket No. FDA–2013–D–1574] 

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2014/01/medical-devices-containing-materials.html

Friday, January 10, 2014 

*** vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ??? ***

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2014/01/vpspr-sgss-sffi-tse-iatrogenic-by.html

Wednesday, November 27, 2013 

NHS failed to sterilise surgical instruments contaminated with 'mad cow' disease

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot..com/2013/11/nhs-failed-to-sterilise-surgical.html

Saturday, November 16, 2013 

Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to creutzfeldt-jakob disease 2013 December 

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/11/management-of-neurosurgical-instruments.html

Tuesday, September 24, 2013 

NORDION (US), INC., AND BIOAXONE BIOSCIENCES, INC., Settles $90M Mad Cow TSE prion Contamination Suit Cethrin(R) 

Case 0:12-cv-60739-RNS Document 1 Entered on FLSD Docket 04/26/2012 Page 1 of 15 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/09/nordion-us-inc-and-bioaxone-biosciences.html

Thursday, September 05, 2013 

Possible Patient Exposure to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Announced New Hampshire DHHS 

Press Release 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/09/possible-patient-exposure-to.html

Friday, July 19, 2013 

Beaumont Hospital in Dublin assessing patients for CJD 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/07/beaumont-hospital-in-dublin-assessing.html

Monday, April 15, 2013 

Dr. Stephen B. Thacker Director Centers for Disease Control and Prevention′s Office of Science, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (OSELS) dies from Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2013/04/dr-stephen-b-thacker-director-centers.html

Thursday, August 02, 2012 

CJD case in Saint John prompts letter to patients Canada CJD case in Saint John prompts letter to patients 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2012/08/cjd-case-in-saint-john-prompts-letter.html

Tuesday, July 31, 2012 

11 patients may have been exposed to fatal disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD Greenville Memorial Hospital 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2012/07/11-patients-may-have-been-exposed-to.html

Research articles

Health professions and risk of sporadic Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease, 1965 to 2010

E Alcalde-Cabero1 , J Almazán-Isla1 , J P Brandel2, M Breithaupt3, J Catarino4, S Collins5 , J Haybäck6, R Höftberger7 , E Kahana8, G G Kovacs7 , 9, A Ladogana10, E Mitrova11, A Molesworth12, Y Nakamura13, M Pocchiari10, M Popovic14, M Ruiz-Tovar1 , A L Taratuto15, C van Duijn16, M Yamada17, R G Will12, I Zerr3, J de Pedro Cuesta (jpedro@isciii.es)1

15. Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Doctor Antonio Ruiz Villaespesa, pathologist and CJD researcher deceased because of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease SPAIN. 21 Apr 2009. [Accessed 11 Apr 2012]. In: Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD [blog]. Available from: http://cjdusa.blogspot.com. es/2009/04/doctor-antonio-ruiz-villaespesa.html

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V17N15/art20144.pdf

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Health professions and risk of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, 1965 to 2010 

Eurosurveillance, Volume 17, Issue 15, 12 April 2012 

Research articles

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2012/04/health-professions-and-risk-of-sporadic.html

Monday, December 12, 2011

Second iatrogenic CJD case confirmed Korea 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/12/second-iatrogenic-cjd-case-confirmed.html

Thursday, December 08, 2011

A case of Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (iCJD) in a patient who had received a German-manufactured human dura mater graft 23 years ago 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/12/case-of-iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob.html

Thursday, December 8, 2011

S. Korea confirms second case of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 48-year-old man 

2011/12/08 11:08 KST 

http://usdavskorea.blogspot.com/2011/12/s-korea-confirms-second-case-of.html

http://usdavskorea.blogspot.com/

Wednesday, November 30, 2011 

First iCJD Death Confirmed in Korea 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/first-icjd-death-confirmed-in-korea.html

Saturday, February 12, 2011 

Another Pathologists dies from CJD, another potential occupational death ? 

another happenstance of bad luck, a spontaneous event from nothing, or friendly fire ??? 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/02/another-pathologists-dies-from-cjd.html

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas

>>> Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. <<< 

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas. She left 6 Kids and a Husband.The Purpose of this web is to give information in Spanish to the Hispanic community, and to all the community who want's information about this terrible disease.- Physician Discharge Summary, Parkland Hospital, Dallas Texas Admit Date: 12/29/2009 Discharge Date: 1/20/2010 Attending Provider: Greenberg, Benjamin Morris; General Neurology Team: General Neurology Team Linda was a Hispanic female with no past medical history presents with 14 months of incresing/progressive altered mental status, generalized weakness, inability to walk, loss of appetite, inability to speak, tremor and bowel/blader incontinence.She was, in her usual state of health up until February, 2009, when her husbans notes that she began forgetting things like names and short term memories. He also noticed mild/vague personality changes such as increased aggression. In March, she was involved in a hit and run MVA,although she was not injured.. The police tracked her down and ticketed her. At that time, her son deployed to Iraq with the Army and her husband assumed her mentation changes were due to stress over these two events. Also in March, she began to have weakness in her legs, making it difficult to walk. Over the next few months, her mentation and personality changes worsened, getting to a point where she could no longer recognized her children. She was eating less and less. She was losing more weight. In the last 2-3 months, she reached the point where she could not walk without an assist, then 1 month ago, she stopped talking, only making grunting/aggressive sounds when anyone came near her. She also became both bowel and bladder incontinent, having to wear diapers. Her '"tremor'" and body jerks worsened and her hands assumed a sort of permanent grip position, leading her family to put tennis balls in her hands to protect her fingers. The husband says that they have lived in Nebraska for the past 21 years. They had seen a doctor there during the summer time who prescribed her Seroquel and Lexapro, Thinking these were sx of a mood disorder. However, the medications did not help and she continued to deteriorate clinically. Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. The husband says that he does not know any fellow workers with a similar illness. He also says that she did not have any preceeding illness or travel. 

http://www.recordandoalinda.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19:cjd-english-info&catid=9:cjd-ingles&Itemid=8 

>>> Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. <<< 

Irma Linda Andablo, victima de CJD

"...padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico, Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010" Irma Linda Martinez nació en el pueblo de Batesville Texas un 17 de mayo de 1971, padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico (mal de la vaca loca conocido en español) Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010. A continuación describiremos datos de su padecimiento: Se casó a la edad de 16 años con Everardo Andablo (Lalo) ella residió en Lexington Nebraska, desde ese entonces, trabajó aproximadamente 11 años en una compañia de matanza de vacas y procesadora de carne (Tyson) ella trabajaba en el rastro o el área de matanza, para el 2008 ella trabajaba como agente de seguridad para esta misma compañia, para ese entonces ella empezó a presentar cambios en su vida, su próximo trabajo fue en Subway dentro de una tienda comercial, donde los cambios de salud empezaron a ser muy notorios pues empezó a perder mucho peso, de 237 L de su peso normal empezó perdiendo 24 L en menos de un mes, esto era sorprendente!!! fué entonces cuando dejó el trabajo en febrero del 2009, de repente empezó a olvidar datos importantes. La siguiente información es una traducción pertenece al comunicado que el equipo de neurologia del hospital Parkland en la ciudad de Dallas Texas liberó a su salida, después de haber estado internada del 29 de diciembre del 2009 a enero 20 del 2010, en este comunicado se encuentra el historial tanto médico como de sintomas presentados en Linda: Physician Discharge Summary : (traducido y adaptado) "...Mujer de 38 años presento 10 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfínteres, ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos" "El 29 de Diciembre del 2009 Fué admitida en el Hospital Parkland de Dallas por demencia de acuerdo a los síntomas de presentaba, Mujer de 38 años presentó 14 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfinteres. Ella empezó a olvidar los nombres de las personas que la rodeaban, datos importantes personales, también presentó algunos cambios de personalidad como incremento de agresión.Para el mes de Marzo del 2008 ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos (6 hijos), ella cada vez comia menos, cada vez perdia más peso.Para el tiempo que ella arrivo a Dallas para la navidad del 2009 ella no caminaba en lo absoluto, no hablaba solo hacia sonidos agresivos cuando alguien se acercaba a ella, el temblor en sus manos empezó a ser más fuerte, sus manos solo tenian posición de sostener algo fuerte, ella siempre... Read more... 

http://www.recordandoalinda.com/ 

"...padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico, Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010"

Irma Linda Martinez nació en el pueblo de Batesville Texas un 17 de mayo de 1971, padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico (mal de la vaca loca conocido en español) Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010.

A continuación describiremos datos de su padecimiento:

Se casó a la edad de 16 años con Everardo Andablo (Lalo) ella residió en Lexington Nebraska, desde ese entonces, trabajó aproximadamente 11 años en una compañia de matanza de vacas y procesadora de carne (Tyson) ella trabajaba en el rastro o el área de matanza, para el 2008 ella trabajaba como agente de seguridad para esta misma compañia, para ese entonces ella empezó a presentar cambios en su vida, su próximo trabajo fue en Subway dentro de una tienda comercial, donde los cambios de salud empezaron a ser muy notorios pues empezó a perder mucho peso, de 237 L de su peso normal empezó perdiendo 24 L en menos de un mes, esto era sorprendente!!! fué entonces cuando dejó el trabajo en febrero del 2009, de repente empezó a olvidar datos importantes.

La siguiente información es una traducción pertenece al comunicado que el equipo de neurologia del hospital Parkland en la ciudad de Dallas Texas liberó a su salida, después de haber estado internada del 29 de diciembre del 2009 a enero 20 del 2010, en este comunicado se encuentra el historial tanto médico como de sintomas presentados en Linda:

Physician Discharge Summary : (traducido y adaptado)

"...Mujer de 38 años presento 10 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfínteres, ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos"

"El 29 de Diciembre del 2009 Fué admitida en el Hospital Parkland de Dallas por demencia de acuerdo a los síntomas de presentaba, Mujer de 38 años presentó 14 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfinteres. Ella empezó a olvidar los nombres de las personas que la rodeaban, datos importantes personales, también presentó algunos cambios de personalidad como incremento de agresión.Para el mes de Marzo del 2008 ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos (6 hijos), ella cada vez comia menos, cada vez perdia más peso.Para el tiempo que ella arrivo a Dallas para la navidad del 2009 ella no caminaba en lo absoluto, no hablaba solo hacia sonidos agresivos cuando alguien se acercaba a ella, el temblor en sus manos empezó a ser más fuerte, sus manos solo tenian posición de sostener algo fuerte, ella siempre portaba pelotas pequeñas para que no se lastimara con sus propias uñas"

En terminos Médicos ella prensento un desorden mental con ansiedad y pérdida del habla y contracciones en los musculos que la inmobilizaba. Esto llevo a los médicos a predecir el diagnostico de CJD esporádico o variante, después de reuniones familiares se llego al acuerdo de no proseguir con los exámenes indicados como una biopsia cerebral debido al estado de debilidad y gravedad de ella, pues peligraba su vida y por consiguiente peligraban los médicos que le aplicarian el exámen ya que es demasiado contagioso.

Ella fué dada de alta con el diagnostico de CJD Esporádico, sin medicamento y con pocas esperanzas y semanas de vida. 

http://www.recordandoalinda.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2:frontpage&catid=1:frontpage 

please see full text ; 

Monday, March 29, 2010 

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas 

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/03/irma-linda-andablo-cjd-victim-she-died.html

MONDAY, APRIL 5, 2010 

UPDATE - CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER

http://prionunitusaupdate.blogspot.com/2010/04/update-cjd-texas-38-year-old-female.html

Sunday, July 11, 2010

CJD or prion disease 2 CASES McLennan County Texas population 230,213 both cases in their 40s

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/07/cjd-2-cases-mclennan-county-texas.html

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 23, 2009 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Texas Data for Reporting Years 2000-2008

http://cjdtexas.blogspot.com/2009/10/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-surveillance..html

http://cjdtexas.blogspot.com/2010/03/cjd-texas-38-year-old-female-worked.html

http://cjdtexas.blogspot.com/2017/07/texas-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cjd-tse.html

http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20100405.1091

Thursday, July 23, 2009

UW Hospital warning 53 patients about possible exposure to rare brain disease

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/uw-hospital-warning-53-patients-about.html

Friday, July 17, 2009

Revision to pre-surgical assessment of risk for vCJD in neurosurgery and eye surgery units Volume 3 No 28; 17 July 2009

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/revision-to-pre-surgical-assessment-of.html

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Doctor Antonio Ruiz Villaespesa, pathologist and CJD researcher deceased because of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease SPAIN

http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/2009/04/doctor-antonio-ruiz-villaespesa.html

Tuesday, August 12, 2008

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories Fifth Edition 2007 (occupational exposure to prion diseases)

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot..com/2008/08/biosafety-in-microbiological-and.html

http://blogs.nature.com/news/2009/08/consent_conundrum_cripples_cor.html

PLEASE REMEMBER, IN 55 YEARS AND OLDER, THE RATE OF DOCUMENTED CJD JUMPS TO ONE IN 9,000. 

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 

To the Editor: 

In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally. 

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex 

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. 

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1031186

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

Published: August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1

Summary;

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.”

49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD) the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.

Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable.. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). "I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source."

Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.

To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.

Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD. Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.

Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the UK and Europe regarding BSE.

"Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth", Singeltary argues. "You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have."

Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that "current surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings"; adding that, "the cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion disease cases we will not know for sure". The USA should develop a system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently reported the cases of three hunters "two of whom were friends" who died from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that "at present there are insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans"; adding that "[only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the plausibility of transmission further". Samii argues that by making both doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients will know to ask whether they ate venison.

CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC "will not be investigating the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate CWD-infected meat". He notes that although "the likelihood of CWD jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100%" and that "[we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans& the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very limited". 

http://infection.thelancet.com/

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(03)00715-1.pdf

26 March 2003 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH 

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc? 

http://www.neurology.org/content/60/2/176/reply#neurology_el_535

***> 2001 FDA CJD TSE Prion Singeltary Submission 

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/01/slides/3681s2_09.pdf

Sent: Monday, January 08,2001 3:03 PM

WOW, my submission held up on the www for 17 years, and was proven to be true, and now, it has been removed from the www, the same url does not work anymore and it was just working this year. nothing like the FDA et al cleaning up any evidence of truth with their mad cow debacle and sporadic cjd cover up contineus...so sad$$$

let's review the truth about sporadic cjd shall we;

http://tseac.blogspot.com/2018/06/prion-scientific-advisors-and.html

***> U.S.A. 50 STATE BSE MAD COW CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001 

[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.

[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?

[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]

[host Richard] could you repeat the question?

[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?

[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?

[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.

[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary

[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?

[not sure whom speaking] NO

http://tseac.blogspot.com/2011/02/usa-50-state-bse-mad-cow-conference.html

2 January 2000 British Medical Journal U.S. 

Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well 

http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/28/us-scientist-should-be-concerned-cjd-epidemic-us-well

15 November 1999 British Medical Journal hvCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S. 

http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/28/re-vcjd-usa-bse-us

Singeltary on CWD TSE Prion video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zf3lfz9NrT4

Re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

>>> The only tenable public line will be that "more research is required’’ <<< 

>>> possibility on a transmissible prion remains open<<< 

O.K., so it’s about 23 years later, so somebody please tell me, when is "more research is required’’ enough time for evaluation ? 

Re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015) 

snip...see full Singeltary Nature comment here; 

Alzheimer's disease

let's not forget the elephant in the room. curing Alzheimer's would be a great and wonderful thing, but for starters, why not start with the obvious, lets prove the cause or causes, and then start to stop that. think iatrogenic, friendly fire, or the pass it forward mode of transmission. think medical, surgical, dental, tissue, blood, related transmission. think transmissible spongiform encephalopathy aka tse prion disease aka mad cow type disease... 

Commentary: Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/comment?id=info:doi/10.1371/annotation/933cc83a-a384-45c3-b3b2-336882c30f9d

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/comments?id=10.1371/journal.pone..0111492

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/comment?id=10.1371/annotation/933cc83a-a384-45c3-b3b2-336882c30f9d

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00005/full

Self-Propagative Replication of Ab Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease 

*** Singeltary comment PLoS *** 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ? 

Posted by flounder on 05 Nov 2014 at 21:27 GMT 

http://www.plosone.org/annotation/listThread.action?root=82860

IN CONFIDENCE

5 NOVEMBER 1992

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

[9. Whilst this matter is not at the moment directly concerned with the iatrogenic CJD cases from hgH, there remains a possibility of litigation here, and this presents an added complication. 

There are also results to be made available shortly 

(1) concerning a farmer with CJD who had BSE animals, 

(2) on the possible transmissibility of Alzheimer’s and 

(3) a CMO letter on prevention of iatrogenic CJD transmission in neurosurgery, all of which will serve to increase media interest.]

https://web.archive.org/web/20170126060344/http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102232842/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1992/11/04001001.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20040315075058/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1992/12/16005001.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20040315075058/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1992/12/16005001.pdf

snip...see full Singeltary Nature comment here; 

re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-? pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015)

http://www.nature.com/

I would kindly like to comment on the Nature Paper, the Lancet reply, and the newspaper articles.

First, I applaud Nature, the Scientist and Authors of the Nature paper, for bringing this important finding to the attention of the public domain, and the media for printing said findings.

Secondly, it seems once again, politics is getting in the way possibly of more important Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion scientific findings. findings that could have great implications for human health, and great implications for the medical surgical arena. but apparently, the government peer review process, of the peer review science, tries to intervene again to water down said disturbing findings.

where have we all heard this before? it's been well documented via the BSE Inquiry. have they not learned a lesson from the last time?

we have seen this time and time again in England (and other Country's) with the BSE mad cow TSE Prion debacle.

That 'anonymous' Lancet editorial was disgraceful. The editor, Dick Horton is not a scientist.

The pituitary cadavers were very likely elderly and among them some were on their way to CJD or Alzheimer's. Not a bit unusual. Then the recipients, who got pooled extracts injected from thousands of cadavers, were 100% certain to have been injected with both seeds. No surprise that they got both diseases going after thirty year incubations.

That the UK has a "system in place to assist science journalists" to squash embargoed science reports they find 'alarming' is pathetic.

Sounds like the journalists had it right in the first place: 'Alzheimer's may be a transmissible infection' in The Independent to 'You can catch Alzheimer's' in The Daily Mirror or 'Alzheimer's bombshell' in The Daily Express

if not for the journalist, the layperson would not know about these important findings.

where would we be today with sound science, from where we were 30 years ago, if not for the cloak of secrecy and save the industry at all cost mentality?

when you have a peer review system for science, from which a government constantly circumvents, then you have a problem with science, and humans die.

to date, as far as documented body bag count, with all TSE prion named to date, that count is still relatively low (one was too many in my case, Mom hvCJD), however that changes drastically once the TSE Prion link is made with Alzheimer's, the price of poker goes up drastically.

so, who makes that final decision, and how many more decades do we have to wait?

the iatrogenic mode of transmission of TSE prion, the many routes there from, load factor, threshold from said load factor to sub-clinical disease, to clinical disease, to death, much time is there to spread a TSE Prion to anywhere, but whom, by whom, and when, do we make that final decision to do something about it globally? how many documented body bags does it take? how many more decades do we wait? how many names can we make up for one disease, TSE prion?

Professor Collinge et al, and others, have had troubles in the past with the Government meddling in scientific findings, that might in some way involve industry, never mind human and or animal health.

FOR any government to continue to circumvent science for monetary gain, fear factor, or any reason, shame, shame on you.

in my opinion, it's one of the reasons we are at where we are at to date, with regards to the TSE Prion disease science i.e. money, industry, politics, then comes science, in that order.

greed, corporate, lobbyist there from, and government, must be removed from the peer review process of sound science, it's bad enough having them in the pharmaceutical aspect of healthcare policy making, in my opinion.

my mother died from confirmed hvCJD, and her brother (my uncle) Alzheimer's of some type (no autopsy?). just made a promise, never forget, and never let them forget, before I do.

I kindly wish to remind the public of the past, and a possible future we all hopes never happens again. ...

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature15369#/comments

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v525/n7568/full/nature15369.html#/comments

2012

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?

Background

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy disease have both been around a long time, and was discovered in or around the same time frame, early 1900’s. Both diseases are incurable and debilitating brain disease, that are in the end, 100% fatal, with the incubation/clinical period of the Alzheimer’s disease being longer (most of the time) than the TSE prion disease. Symptoms are very similar, and pathology is very similar.

Methods

Through years of research, as a layperson, of peer review journals, transmission studies, and observations of loved ones and friends that have died from both Alzheimer’s and the TSE prion disease i.e. Heidenhain Variant Creutzfelt Jakob Disease CJD.

Results

I propose that Alzheimer’s is a TSE disease of low dose, slow, and long incubation disease, and that Alzheimer’s is Transmissible, and is a threat to the public via the many Iatrogenic routes and sources. It was said long ago that the only thing that disputes this, is Alzheimer’s disease transmissibility, or the lack of. The likelihood of many victims of Alzheimer’s disease from the many different Iatrogenic routes and modes of transmission as with the TSE prion disease.

Conclusions

There should be a Global Congressional Science round table event set up immediately to address these concerns from the many potential routes and sources of the TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s disease, and a emergency global doctrine put into effect to help combat the spread of Alzheimer’s disease via the medical, surgical, dental, tissue, and blood arena’s. All human and animal TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s should be made reportable in every state, and Internationally, WITH NO age restrictions. Until a proven method of decontamination and autoclaving is proven, and put forth in use universally, in all hospitals and medical, surgical arena’s, or the TSE prion agent will continue to spread. IF we wait until science and corporate politicians wait until politics lets science _prove_ this once and for all, and set forth regulations there from, we will all be exposed to the TSE Prion agents, if that has not happened already.

end...tss

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?

source references ...end...tss 

Hello Nicole,

by all means, please do use my poster. but I thought this was already taken care of, and I could not attend for my poster presentation, therefore, it was not going to be presented. I have some health issues and could not make the trip.

please see old correspondence below...

From: Nicole Sanders Sent: Tuesday, April 10, 2012 5:37 PM To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Subject: RE: re-submission

Dear Terry,

The decline of proposal number 30756 is registered in the system.. Thank you for your consideration.

Best Regards,

Nicole

Nicole Sanders

Senior Specialist, Membership & Conference Programming

______________________________________

From: xxxx 

To: Terry Singeltary 

Sent: Saturday, December 05, 2009 9:09 AM 

Subject: 14th ICID - abstract accepted for 'International Scientific Exchange'

Your preliminary abstract number: 670

Dear Mr. Singeltary,

On behalf of the Scientific Committee, I am pleased to inform you that your abstract

'Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009'

WAS accepted for inclusion in the INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE (ISE) section of the 14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases. Accordingly, your abstract will be included in the "Intl. Scientific Exchange abstract CD-rom" of the Congress which will be distributed to all participants.

Abstracts accepted for INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE are NOT PRESENTED in the oral OR poster sessions.

Your abstract below was accepted for: INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE

#0670: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Author: T. Singeltary; Bacliff, TX/US

Topic: Emerging Infectious Diseases Preferred type of presentation: International Scientific Exchange

This abstract has been ACCEPTED.

#0670: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Authors: T. Singeltary; Bacliff, TX/US

Title: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Body: Background

An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.

Methods

12 years independent research of available data

Results

I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i..e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.

Conclusion

I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries.

I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

Keywords: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Prion

page 114 ;

http://ww2.isid.org/Downloads/14th_ICID_ISE_Abstracts.pdf

http://www.isid.org/14th_icid/

http://www.isid.org/publications/ICID_Archive.shtml

http://ww2.isid.org/Downloads/IMED2009_AbstrAuth.pdf

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00005/full

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zf3lfz9NrT4

WEDNESDAY, JULY 04, 2018 

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS IN ENGLAND June 2018

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2018/07/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-guidelines.html

SUNDAY, JUNE 24, 2018 

Validation and utilization of amended diagnostic criteria in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2018/06/validation-and-utilization-of-amended.html

SATURDAY, JUNE 23, 2018 

Diagnosis of Methionine/Valine Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification 

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018 Dispatch

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/7/17-2105_article

http://vcjd.blogspot.com/2018/06/diagnosis-of-methioninevaline-variant.html

TUESDAY, JULY 31, 2018 

USA CJD TSE Tables of Cases Examined National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined May 1, 2018

http://prionunitusaupdate.blogspot.com/2018/07/usa-cjd-tse-tables-of-cases-examined.html

wasted days and wasted nights...Freddy Fender

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
<flounder9@verizon.net>
Galveston Bay...on the bottom

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