Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 4 October 2011; doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.120
De novo induction of amyloid-β deposition in vivo
R Morales1,2, C Duran-Aniotz1,3, J Castilla2,4, L D Estrada2,5 and C Soto1,2
1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, USA
2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
3Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Medicina. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
4CIC bioGUNE, Parque Tecnologico de Biskaia, Ed 800, 48160 Derio and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
Correspondence: Dr C Soto, Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA. E-mail: Claudio.Soto@uth.tmc.edu
5Current address: Laboratorio de Señalización Celular, Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración. P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Received 8 March 2011; Revised 15 August 2011; Accepted 25 August 2011; Published online 4 October 2011.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of senile dementia, is associated to the build-up of misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Although compelling evidences indicate that the misfolding and oligomerization of Aβ is the triggering event in AD, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of Aβ accumulation are unknown. In this study, we show that Aβ deposition can be induced by injection of AD brain extracts into animals, which, without exposure to this material, will never develop these alterations. The accumulation of Aβ deposits increased progressively with the time after inoculation, and the Aβ lesions were observed in brain areas far from the injection site. Our results suggest that some of the typical brain abnormalities associated with AD can be induced by a prion-like mechanism of disease transmission through propagation of protein misfolding. These findings may have broad implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of AD, and may contribute to the development of new strategies for disease prevention and intervention.
Recent studies have proposed that other proteinmisfolding disorders besides prion diseases could be transmissible in vivo, following the principles posited by the heretical prion mechanism.8,16–20 If this hypothesis proves to be correct, it will open a novel view on the biology of misfolded protein aggregates and the origin of protein-misfolding disorders, which will have broad-ranging implications for understanding the disease mechanisms and development of new strategies for disease prevention and intervention. In this scenario, our results demonstrate that the administration of brain homogenates containing Ab aggregates can induce some of the neuropathological characteristics of AD in animals, which, without inoculation, will not develop these alterations during their natural lifespan. This experimental paradigm mimic, at least with respect to Ab aggregation, a situation in which a normal person will live his entire life without developing AD abnormalities, unless the process is induced by exposure to material containing seeds of preformed Ab aggregates.
Our findings suggest that in an experimental setting, misfolded Ab aggregates can behave in a similar way as infectious prions. Indeed, as in prion diseases, our data shows that the quantity and degree of maturation of the protein deposits increases with age and that the seeding activity can spread to areas other than the site of injection...
snip... see here ;
amyloid; prion; protein misfolding; disease transmission
IN STRICT CONFIDENCE
Dr McGovern From: Dr A Wight
Date: 5 January 1993
Copies: Dr Metters
TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER-TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES
1. CMO will wish to be aware that a meeting was held at DH yesterday, 4 January, to discuss the above findings. It was chaired by Professor Murray (Chairman of the MRC Co-ordinating Committee on Research in the Spongiform Encephalopathies in Man), and attended by relevant experts in the fields of Neurology, Neuropathology, molecular biology, amyloid biochemistry, and the spongiform encephalopathies, and by representatives of the MRC and AFRC.
2. Briefly, the meeting agreed that:
i) Dr Ridley et als findings of experimental induction of p amyloid in primates were valid, interesting and a significant advance in the understanding of neurodegenerative disorders;
ii) there were no immediate implications for the public health, and no further safeguards were thought to be necessary at present; and
iii) additional research was desirable, both epidemiological and at the molecular level. Possible avenues are being followed up by DH and the MRC, but the details will require further discussion.
5 NOV 1992
CMO From: Dr J S Metters DCMO 4 November 1992
TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES
1. Thank you for showing me Diana Dunstan's letter. I am glad that MRC have recognized the public sensitivity of these findings and intend to report them in their proper context. This hopefully will avoid misunderstanding and possible distortion by the media to portray the results as having more greater significance than the findings so far justify.
2. Using a highly unusual route of transmission (intra-cerebral injection) the researchers have demonstrated the transmission of a pathological process from two cases one of severe Alzheimer's disease the other of Gerstmann-Straussler disease to marmosets. However they have not demonstrated the transmission of either clinical condition as the "animals were behaving normally when killed'. As the report emphasizes the unanswered question is whether the disease condition would have revealed itself if the marmosets had lived longer. They are planning further research to see if the conditions, as opposed to the partial pathological process, is transmissible.
What are the implications for public health?
3. . The route of transmission is very specific and in the natural state of things highly unusual. However it could be argued that the results reveal a potential risk, in that brain tissue from these two patients has been shown to transmit a pathological process. Should therefore brain tissue from such cases be regarded as potentially infective? Pathologists, morticians, neuro surgeons and those assisting at neuro surgical procedures and others coming into contact with "raw" human brain tissue could in theory be at risk. However, on a priori grounds given the highly specific route of transmission in these experiments that risk must be negligible if the usual precautions for handling brain tissue are observed.
4. The other dimension to consider is the public reaction. To some extent the GSS case demonstrates little more than the transmission of BSE to a pig by intra-cerebral injection. If other prion diseases can be transmitted in this way it is little surprise that some pathological findings observed in GSS were also transmissible to a marmoset. But the transmission of features of Alzheimer's pathology is a different matter, given the much greater frequency of this disease and raises the unanswered question whether some cases are the result of a transmissible prion. The only tenable public line will be that "more research is required" before that hypothesis could be evaluated. The possibility on a transmissible prion remains open. In the meantime MRC needs carefully to consider the range and sequence of studies needed to follow through from the preliminary observations in these two cases. Not a particularly comfortable message, but until we know more about the causation of Alzheimer's disease the total reassurance is not practical.
JS METTERS Room 509 Richmond House Pager No: 081-884 3344 Callsign: DOH 832
POLITICAL BSe and CJD and THE WOW FACTOR $$$
Monday, September 26, 2011
Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, FFI, GSS, gCJD, hvCJD, sCJD, TSE, PRION, update 2011
Sunday, September 25, 2011
Mad Cow Scaremongers by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. a review of the TSE prion agent 2003-2011
thought some of you might be interested in this. the thing that concerns me the most is the potential here for iatrogenic transmission of Alzheimer's disease. if true, it would explain a lot...
Friday, August 13, 2010
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update 13 August 2010 UK Iatrogenic CJD Incidents Report
Tuesday, March 29, 2011
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY EXPOSURE SPREADING VIA HOSPITALS AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES AROUND THE GLOBE
kind regards, terry
Wednesday, September 21, 2011
PrioNet Canada researchers in Vancouver confirm prion-like properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Does A “Prion-Like” Mechanism Contribute to the Spreading of Neuropathology in Parkinson’s Disease?
Patrik Brundin Neuronal Survival Unit; Wallenberg Neuroscience Center; Dept of Experimental Medical Science; Lund University; Lund, Sweden
Key words: Parkinson’s disease, prion mechanism, alpha-synuclein
Neuropathological aggregates of alpha-synuclein in neuronal cytoplasm and neurites are typical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies are prominent in substantia nigra, where dopaminergic neurons degenerate. With advancing disease they are also found in several other widespread brain areas, and it has been suggested that they appear in anterior olfactory structures and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve even before the substantia nigra is affected. Recent studies demonstrated that Lewy bodies and neurites appear in grafted embryonic neurons.1-3 They stain for Thioflavin S, are immunoreactive for alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at serine residue 129 and exhibit a fibrillar structure in the electron microscope.4 From 2 to 5% (frequency increases over time) of the grafted dopaminergic neurons display Lewy bodies, starting around one decade after surgery. Despite these changes, some of the PD grafted patients still exhibit signs of functional recovery beyond a decade after surgery. We, and others, are currently exploring possible mechanisms underlying the transfer of alpha-synuclein between cells and their relevance to how neuropathology normally spreads in the PD brain.5,6 We have observed that alpha-synuclein indeed can transfer between cells in culture. The process is clearly time-dependent and once inside the new cell the imported alpha-synuclein can seed aggregation of endogenous alpha-synuclein. Furthermore, we have observed transfer of host-derived alpha-synuclein into embryonic dopamine neurons grafted into the striatum of transgenic mice expressing human alpha-synuclein. We propose that a “prion-like” disease mechanism might contribute to the pathogenesis of PD and other chronic neurodegenerative disorders.6
1. Li, et al. Nat Med 2008; 14:501-3. 2. Kordower, et al. Nat Med 2008; 14:504-6. 3. Kordower, et al. Mov Disord 2008; 23:2303-6. 4. Li, et al. Mov Disord 2010; [Epub ahead of print]. 5. Brundin, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9:741-5. 6. Brundin, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2010; 11:301-7. PP: Plenary Lectures Previously published online: www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/article/12765
WP8-4: Prion-like Induction of Alzheimer-type Proteopathy in Transgenic Mice
Lary C. Walker
Yerkes Center; Emory University; Atlanta, GA USA
Key words: abeta, Alzheimer, amyloid, prion, seeding, strains, transgenic, transmission
Alzheimer’s disease and prion disease both involve the accumulation of disease-specific proteins in the brain, suggesting pathogenic commonalities. In Alzheimer’s disease, the aggregation of the protein fragment Aßis a seminal event. Similar to the templated corruption of prion protein, cerebral Aßdeposition can be induced in ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mice and rats by the intracerebral injection of Aß-rich brain extracts from patients with Alzheimer’s disease or APP-transgenic mice. Our studies indicate that the characteristics of the seeded deposits depend on the source of the seeding extract, the type of host, and the seeded brain region. We are using the amyloid-binding agent Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) as a marker of a potential AD-specific form of multimeric Aß, and are attempting to induce alternative conformations in the transgenic mouse Aß-seeding model. In addition, we are investigating non-intracerebral routes of administration and the ability of heterologous agents to induce Aßdeposition. Analysis of Aß-seeding in vivo could yield fresh insights into the origins of idiopathic Alzheimer’s disease.
Key collaborators on these studies are Mathias Jucker (U. Tübingen), Rebecca Rosen (Emory U.) and Harry LeVine III (U. Kentucky). Supported by NIH RR-00165 and the CART Foundation.
PPo9-1: Prion-like Propagation of SOD1 Misfolding in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Neil R. Cashman
University of British Columbia; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
Key words: protein misfolding, mechanisms of neurodegeneration, transmission
Prion-like propagation of protein misfolding has been implicated in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, and the tauopathies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common and incurable adult motor neuron disease, in which mutation of the free-radical defense enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is responsible for a subtype of familial ALS (fALS). We demonstrate that transfection of fALS SOD1 mutants G127X and G85R, as well as overexpression of non-mutant wild-type (wt) SOD1, can induce misfolding of natively-structured wild-type SOD1 in human mesenchymal and neural cell lines, as determined by molecular surface immunoreactivity with misfolding-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), acquisition of protease sensitivity (suggesting structural loosening), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and formation of non-native intermolecular disulfide bonds. Serial transmission of SOD1 misfolding was established by incubation in conditioned media from mtSOD1- or wtSOD1-transfected HEK cells, and knockdown of endogenous SOD1 expression in HEK cells by siRNA abrogated the transmission of SOD1 misfolding, consistent with endogenously expressed SOD1 being the substrate for conformational conversion. Pre-incubation of SOD1-transfected conditioned media with poly-specific SOD1 antibodies or misfolding-specific mAbs also blocked intercellular transducing activity, and passive administration of misfolding-specific mAbs extends survival in the G37R transgenic mouse model of ALS. We conclude that misfolded SOD1 participates in a template-directed misfolding cascade which provides a plausable molecular mechanism for progression of familial and sporadic ALS. Antibody-mediated neutralization of SOD1 misfolding propagation could prove beneficial in human ALS.
Alimentary prion infections: Touch-down in the intestine
Volume 5, Issue 1 January/February/March 2011 Bianca Da Costa Dias, Katarina Jovanovic and Stefan F.T. Weiss View affiliations Hide affiliations Bianca Da Costa DiasSchool of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Katarina JovanovicSchool of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Stefan F.T. WeissCorresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org School of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
Neurodegenerative diseases are caused by proteinaceous aggregates, usually consisting of misfolded proteins which are often typified by a high proportion of ß-sheets, which accumulate in the Central Nervous System. These diseases, including Morbus Alzheimer, Parkinson disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) also termed prion disorders, afflict a substantial proportion of the human population and as such the etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases has been the focus of mounting research. Although many of these diseases arise from genetic mutations or are sporadic in nature, the possible horizontal transmissibility of neurodegenerative diseases poses a great threat to population health. In this article we discuss recent studies which suggest that the “non-transmissible” status bestowed upon Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases may need to be revised as these diseases have been successfully induced through tissue transplants. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of investigating the “natural” mechanism of prion transmission including peroral and perenteral transmission, proposed routes of gastrointestinal uptake and neuroinvasion of ingested infectious prion proteins. We examine the multitude of factors which may influence oral transmissibility and discuss the zoonotic threats which Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Scrapie may pose resulting in vCJD or related disorders. In addition, we suggest that the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor on the cell surface of enterocytes, a major cell population in the intestine, may play an important role in the intestinal pathophysiology of alimentary prion infections.
Commentary ß-amyloid oligomers and prion protein: Fatal attraction?
Volume 5, Issue 1 January/February/March 2011 Gianluigi Forloni and Claudia Balducci
Gianluigi Forloni Corresponding author: email@example.com
Claudia Balducci Biology of Neurodegenerative Diseases Lab; Department of Neuroscience; “Mario Negri” Institute for Pharmacological Research; Milano, Italy
The relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) and prion-related encephalopathies (TSE) has been proposed by different points of view. Recently, the scientific attention has been attracted by the results proposing the possibility that PrPc, the protein whose pathologic form is responsible of TSE, can mediated the toxic effect of ß amyloid (Aß) oligomers. The oligomers are considered the culprit of the neurodegenerative process associated to AD, although the pathogenic mechanism activated by these small aggregates remain to be elucidated. In the initial study based on the binding screening PrPc was identified as ligand /receptor of Aß oligomers, while long term potentiation (LTP) analysis in vitro and behavioural studies in vivo, demonstrated that the absence of PrPc abolished the damage induced by Aß oligomers. The high affinity binding Aß oligomers-PrPc has been confirmed, whereas a functional role of this association has been excluded by three different studies. We approached this issue by the direct application of Aß oligomers in the brain followed by the behavioural examination of memory deficits. Our data using PrP knock-out mice suggest that Aß 1-42 oligomers are responsible for cognitive impairment in AD but PrPc is not required for their effect. Similarly, in two other studies the LTP alterations induced by Aß 1-42 oligomers was not influenced by the absence of PrP. Possible explanations of these contradictory results are discussed.
Friday, October 22, 2010
Peripherally Applied Aß-Containing Inoculates Induce Cerebral ß-Amyloidosis
Friday, September 3, 2010
Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE
Wednesday, January 5, 2011
ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions
David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2
Wednesday, March 31, 2010
Atypical BSE in Cattle
To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE.
When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.
This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.
Thursday, August 12, 2010
Seven main threats for the future linked to prions
The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.
***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.
Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee
The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government's decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010
2.65 At its hearing on 14 May 2010, the committee heard evidence from Dr Alan Fahey who has recently submitted a thesis on the clinical neuropsychiatric, epidemiological and diagnostic features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.48 Dr Fahey told the committee of his concerns regarding the lengthy incubation period for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the inadequacy of current tests and the limited nature of our current understanding of this group of diseases.49
2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo-has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50
14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -
Final Abstract Number: ISE.114
Session: International Scientific Exchange
Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009
Bacliff, TX, USA
An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.
12 years independent research of available data
I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.
I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.
Monday, May 23, 2011
Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals 2011
Top Curr Chem (2011)
# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
Michael A. Tranulis, Sylvie L. Benestad, Thierry Baron, and Hans Kretzschmar
Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrPSc), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans.
M.A. Tranulis (*)
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway
Agence Nationale de Se´curite´ Sanitaire, ANSES, Lyon, France
Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Keywords Animal Atypical Atypical/Nor98 scrapie BSE-H BSE-L Human Prion disease Prion strain Prion type
snip...SEE MORE HERE ;
Saturday, June 25, 2011
Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque
"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.
The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...
Thursday, August 4, 2011
Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011
Monday, September 26, 2011
Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, FFI, GSS, gCJD, hvCJD, sCJD, TSE, PRION, update 2011
kindest regards, terry
Tuesday, October 4, 2011
De novo induction of amyloid-β deposition in vivo
Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 4 October 2011; doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.120