Sunday, September 25, 2011

Mad Cow Scaremongers

Mad Cow Scaremongers by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. a review of the TSE prion agent 2003-2011

Posted On December 20, 2003


Mad Cow Scaremongers

Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman says that "beef is absolutely safe to eat." Harvard University experts note that the risk of Americans contracting mad cow disease is "as close to zero as you can get." Every reputable expert tells us that the American meat supply is still safe. And yet a cabal of animal-rights activists and radical opponents of modern farming are already hitting the airwaves for one purpose: to spread fear and needless alarm. These people are activists, not knowledgeable scientists. Their expertise is in scare mongering, not livestock agriculture. Their goal is to promote animal rights and organic-only, 1800s-style agriculture. And their track record is full of doom-and-gloom predictions that never came true.

Who are these masters of disaster? A rogues gallery follows:

John Stauber -- director of the anti-corporate Center for Media & Democracy, and co-author of the 1997 book Mad Cow USA, which was supported financially by the eco-religious Foundation for Deep Ecology. Stauber sits on the national advisory board of the Organic Consumers Association, as reliable a scaremonger as any about the American food supply. Stauber has become a near-ubiquitous media presence in mad-cow-related stories. Just minutes after Secretary Veneman finished her press conference announcing the discovery of a single sick cow, Stauber told CNN -- without any evidence whatsoever -- that it was just "the tip of an invisible iceberg" and that "mad cow disease is spread throughout North America."

Ronnie Cummins -- head of the Organic Consumers Association, a group founded by radical anti-technology guru Jeremy Rifkin. Cummins has openly expressed his hope that a U.S. mad-cow epidemic would fuel a "crisis of confidence" in American food, similar to the one that he claims drove British consumers to "organic" and other high-priced options. In 1998 Cummins told the Minneapolis City Pages that "consumers and farmers would both be better off if people paid twice as much for their meat and ate half as much." This June he confidently told a Canadian Press reporter that "no case of mad cow has ever been found in a cow raised on an organic farm." This, actually, is not true. The British Central Veterinary Laboratory reports that in 1995 (at the height of the UK outbreak), there were 215 confirmed cases of mad cow disease from 36 different organic farms. And Germany's very first case of mad cow disease was diagnosed in a slaughterhouse that only processed organically-raised cattle.

Michael Greger -- a vegetarian activist doctor who maintains a brisk animal-rights speaking schedule and edits the mad-cow-scare web page of the Organic Consumers Association. He recently provided PETA with a laughable treatise suggesting that the SARS outbreak came from livestock farming. Greger titled his mad-cow stump speech "Mad Cow Disease: Plague of the 21st Century?." He argues: "although no pigs or chickens have been found with the disease ... any animal with a brain has the potential to become infected." Greger has yet to produce any evidence to support this claim, largely because there isn't any. Neither hogs nor hens (nor fish, for that matter) suffer from mad-cow-like illnesses. Greger is planning to hit the lecture circuit in an effort to "keep hammering" the meat industry and " keep this momentum going."

Michael Hansen -- the Consumers Union of the United States' self-proclaimed "expert" on genetically enhanced food, bovine growth hormone, mad cow disease, and any other food issue he deems ripe for scaremongering. When the Canadian mad-cow story broke earlier this year, Hansen blithely suggested that American consumers should eat only grass-fed, "organic," and other specialty beef. Hansen's statements on mad cow have appeared in hundreds of media outlets, and his boss, Jean Halloran, has weighed in as well.

Howard Lyman -- one part animal-rights scold, one part revival tent preacher [click here for video]. Lyman trades on the fact that he was brought up in a cattle-ranching family to imply that his strict vegetarianism is somehow more informed than everyone else's dietary choices. Lyman famously (and incorrectly) predicted on the "Oprah" show that mad cow disease among Americans would "make AIDS look like the common cold." Just 14 hours after the U.S. mad-cow announcement, animal-rights terroristand Sierra Club board member Paul Watson published an op-ed asserting that "Howard Lyman predicted this outbreak years ago. Perhaps now the public might pay more attention to this Montana rancher turned vegan. He knows that of which he speaks." It's no coincidence that Lyman is on the advisory board of Watson's violent Sea Shepard Conservation Society. The front page of The Washington Post's "Style" section seconded Watson's misleading praise of Lyman with an article titled "Ex-Cattleman's Warning Was No Bum Steer."

Dave Louthan -- a disgruntled former employee of the Washington state meat processing plant where the first U.S. mad-cow case was detected. After losing the job he loved (slaughtering cows), Louthan launched a crusade against beef producers and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a personal jihad supported by animal rights activists who must otherwise recoil at his admitted passion for bloodying beef cattle. This is a man who clearly enjoyed his work -- using a bolt gun to kill cows, buffalo, ostrich, emu and alpaca for Vern’s Moses Lake Meats. He told the New York Times that killing is “really fun,” and beats deboning, which he calls “girls’ work.” In the Seattle Times, Louthan added: “I liked to kill cows. I don’t care if I’m hauling them, feeding them or killing them.”

Like many in the meat business, Louthan lost his source of income because of the mad cow scare recklessly promoted by activist groups. But he’s mad, and he’s fighting back. Despite copious evidence to the contrary, he continues to claim that the famous cow he killed (the one that later tested positive) and many others like it were ground into hamburger and entered the human food chain. “The hamburger surprise in your kids’ school lunch,” Dave claims, “has come from mad cows … Your kids will get mad cow from it.” A man of many contradictions, Louthan warns that the U.S. government “is trying to kill you.” He’s calling on anti-beef and animal-rights groups to send him money so he can “keep up the fight.” Yet he admits continuing to eat beef on a daily basis. The verdict is still out on whether or not this former trucker from Texas can successfully change careers from killing cows to assassinating the character of cattlemen.

Terry Singletary -- A retired machinist and high school dropout, Terry Singletary suffered the tragic loss of his mother to “sporadic” Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in 1997. Desperate to find an explanation for his mother’s death, he has devoted himself to the sad and fruitless task of connecting her death to her diet. Various reports confirm that Mrs. Singletary’s life was claimed by the most common sub-type of CJD (one that accounts for 70 percent of “sporadic” cases). Sporadic CJD, unlike its newer “variant,” is not linked to meat.

As the self-appointed international coordinator of CJD Watch, an organization he co-founded with social worker Deborah Oney, Singletary is cited in media reports as an apparent expert on tracking mad cow disease. This despite his lack of formal education and the absence for support from any credible academic, medical or scientific authority. His sensationalist allegations about the safety of U.S. beef have found their way into hundreds of newspapers and broadcasts. Singletary moderates a mad-cow discussion forum run by a vegetarian activist group; his contributions account for more than half the traffic on the “BSE-L” mailing list, which is generally read by real scientists. Animal rights activists and other food-scare artists frequently refer to him as “Dr. Terry Singletary,” apparently an honorary degree as he has yet to finish high school.

Like many activists, Singletary ignores overwhelming epidemiological and laboratory evidence that rules out a connection between sporadic CJD and beef. Relying entirely on shallow circumstantial evidence and frequent repetition of claims which have been publicly refuted as false, he also blindly insists upon a mad-cow with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Lou Gehrig’s disease. His specific allegations have been clearly refuted by Centers for Disease Countrol and Prevention scientists in the journal Neurology.

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

26 March 2003

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

Marion Nestle -- New York University's food scold extraordinaire. Although Nestle concedes that the risk of getting mad cow disease is extremely low, she has nonetheless exploited mad cow fears to promote an anti-corporate, pro-organic creed. She has complained: "Until we have a little consumer protection going on in government, consumers have to take care of themselves." How do consumers do that? By purchasing organic food, of course. Nestle told Fox News: "This is a very good time to buy organic."

Bruce Friedrich -- PETA's director of vegan outreach. Friedrich revealed his true agenda when he argued: "I think it would be a great thing if all of these fast-food outlets, and these slaughterhouses, and these laboratories, and the banks that fund them exploded tomorrow. I think it's perfectly appropriate for people to take bricks and toss them through the windows, and everything else along the line. Hallelujah to the people who are willing to do it" [click here for audio]. There is seemingly nothing Bruce won't do to scare people away from meat, including raising fears about mad cow disease. Under Friedrich's leadership, PETA representatives have been handing out "emergency vegetarian starter kits," and holding anti-meat posters outside restaurants and grocery stores all over the country. PETA has also started an aggressive and misleading (what's new?) advertising campaign to frighten the public into vegetarianism.

Neal Barnard -- the animal-rights movement's not-so-secret weapon against meat. Sure he's a doctor (a non-practicing psychiatrist, actually), but his tirades against dairy foods, beef, chicken, and Atkins-style diets are all informed by his connections to PETA. Barnard sits on the board of The PETA Foundation along with PETA co-founder Ingrid Newkirk. And PETA has funneled nearly $1 million to Barnard's misnamed "Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine." His virulent opposition to animal-based foods was clear in a recent speech at a Food and Drug Administration hearing, where he referred to cheese as "morphine on a cracker" and "dairy crack." PCRM wasted no time after the mad cow news broke, sending out a press release attacking meat and offering a "vegetarian starter kit" for suddenly fearful carnivores.

Caroline Smith DeWaal -- director of the food safety program at the quintessential food cop, the Center for Science in the Public Interest. Smith DeWaal, who has been advising consumers to grind their own beef, told The Washington Post: "Taco filling, pizza toppings, hot dogs, processed meats, these are all likely products that can expose consumers to mad cow disease."

Wayne Pacelle -- senior vice president of the Humane Society of the United States, a radical animal rights group masquerading as an animal-welfare organization. Pacelle immediately began to lobby the federal government on mad cow, petitioning the U.S. Department of Agriculture the morning after Veneman's announcement. Pacelle's goal is to create "a National Rifle Association of the animal rights movement." His opposition to eating meat is so strong that he has "no problems with the extinction of domestic animals."

Gene Bauston -- co-founder of the animal rights group Farm Sanctuary. This group was recently convicted of 210 counts of election fraud, in connection with the $465,000 it illegally trucked into a Florida ballot initiative that gave constitutional rights to pigs. Farm Sanctuary even paid a $50,000 fine. The group issued an e-mail alert to its approximately 18,000 members, requesting that they write to the USDA about mad cow. It also e-mailed a boilerplate "letter to the editor" to over 1,900 activists, asking them to send it to their local newspapers under their own individual signatures. In a gushing article, The New York Times praised the group for its crusade against the processing of "downer" cows. But the paper of record manages to overlook Farm Sanctuary's early association with the domestic-terrorist Animal Liberation Front, as well as its electioneering mischief.

Mark Ritchie -- scaremonger-in-chief at the anti-corporate, anti-modern-agriculture, anti-free-trade Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP). He blames "industrialized beef production and liberalized trade" for mad cow disease. IATP has started distributing sound-bites for radio broadcast via a 1-800 number.

Eric Schlosser -- anti-fast food activist and author of Fast Food Nation, which was essentially a screed against the consumption of hamburgers. It's no surprise that Schlosser is using mad-cow fears to buttress his case. He flatly told CNN: "I don't think anyone should eat ground beef." Schlosser's op-ed in The New York Times was similarly full of doom and gloom.

Andrew Knight -- a Seattle veterinarian who recently took over the day-to-day operations of the radical Northwest Animal Rights Network. Knight is raising mad-cow panic levels without disclosing his animal-rights agenda. His letter in The Washington Times (Excerpt: "I, for one, will be stocking up on veggie burgers") identified him only as "Dr. Andrew Knight, Seattle." The San Diego Union-Tribune printed an expanded version of his Times letter as an op-ed. There he wrote: "it is not improbable that for the one mad cow detected thus far, some 1,700 have passed undetected into the food chain, and that the human form of this lethal disease is silently incubating in numerous unsuspecting beef eaters at present." A subsequent op-ed in the Toronto Star used the exact same line.

Karen Hudson -- a consultant for GRACE Factory Farm Project, which can't stand the idea of efficient, large-scale agriculture. The group even compares animal husbandry to the post-apocalyptic movie, The Matrix. Hudson insists -- without providing any evidence -- that "mad cow disease is the product of an increasingly industrialized food system."

Katherine DiMatteo -- executive director of the Organic Trade Association, which represents the $11 billion organic industry in North America. The group issued a media release arguing: "while the retail price of organic meat is generally greater than conventional, to many consumers, the greater peace of mind is priceless."

Larry Bohlen and Brent Blackwelder -- from the radical green group Friends of the Earth. The organization issued a "fact sheet" on mad cow that includes such topics as "mad cow on the rampage." Blackwelder peddles the familiar and false story that the "best way for people to avoid the risk of mad cow disease is to eat organic, grass fed beef or beef alternatives." Bohlen's mad cow comments have found their way into the Los Angeles Times, The Chicago Tribune, and The Seattle Times.

Peter Lurie and Wenonah Hauter -- food safety "experts" at Ralph Nader's Public Citizen. Their public comments are designed to raise unfounded fears about eating conventionally-raised beef.

Felicia Nestor -- chief food-safety worrier at the "whistleblowers' rights" Government Accountability Project. Nestor worked with Public Citizen to author reports called "The Jungle 2000: Is America's Meat Fit to Eat?" and "Hamburger Hell: The Flip Side of USDA's Salmonella Testing Program." She co-founded the Global Safe Food Alliance, which includes mad cow scaremongers like Public Citizen, the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, and the Organic Consumers Association, along with animal-rights groups like Farm Sanctuary, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, United Poultry Concerns, and the Humane Society of the United States. Nestor's hysterical complaints about mad cow have turned up in The New York Times.

Andrew Kimbrell and Joseph Mendelson -- executive director and legal director of the Center for Food Safety. The Center for Food Safety (not to be confused with the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition) gets most of its money from the organic food industry and the lunatic Foundation for Deep Ecology.

Robert Cohen -- an animal-rights radical who is convinced that cow's milk is the root of all evil. Cohen warned cattlemen and dairy farmers that mad cow disease would be "a sign" that Americans should "reject your poisons."

Posted On December 20, 2003


" Like many activists, Singletary ignores overwhelming epidemiological and laboratory evidence that rules out a connection between sporadic CJD and beef. Relying entirely on shallow circumstantial evidence and frequent repetition of claims which have been publicly refuted as false, he also blindly insists upon a mad-cow with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Lou Gehrig’s disease. "

SO, just who are The Center for Consumer Freedom ;

let's take a closer look shall we ;

The Center for Consumer Freedom (CCF) (formerly called the "Guest Choice Network (GCN)") is a front group for the restaurant, alcohol and tobacco industries. It runs media campaigns which oppose the efforts of scientists, doctors, health advocates, environmentalists and groups like Mothers Against Drunk Driving, calling them "the Nanny Culture -- the growing fraternity of food cops, health care enforcers, anti-meat activists, and meddling bureaucrats who 'know what's best for you.'"

CCF is registered as a tax-exempt, non-profit organization under the IRS code 501(c)(3). Its advisory board is comprised mainly of representatives from the restaurant, meat and alcoholic beverage industries.


Wednesday, September 21, 2011

PrioNet Canada researchers in Vancouver confirm prion-like properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)


Does A “Prion-Like” Mechanism Contribute to the Spreading of Neuropathology in Parkinson’s Disease?

Patrik Brundin Neuronal Survival Unit; Wallenberg Neuroscience Center; Dept of Experimental Medical Science; Lund University; Lund, Sweden

Key words: Parkinson’s disease, prion mechanism, alpha-synuclein

Neuropathological aggregates of alpha-synuclein in neuronal cytoplasm and neurites are typical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies are prominent in substantia nigra, where dopaminergic neurons degenerate. With advancing disease they are also found in several other widespread brain areas, and it has been suggested that they appear in anterior olfactory structures and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve even before the substantia nigra is affected. Recent studies demonstrated that Lewy bodies and neurites appear in grafted embryonic neurons.1-3 They stain for Thioflavin S, are immunoreactive for alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at serine residue 129 and exhibit a fibrillar structure in the electron microscope.4 From 2 to 5% (frequency increases over time) of the grafted dopaminergic neurons display Lewy bodies, starting around one decade after surgery. Despite these changes, some of the PD grafted patients still exhibit signs of functional recovery beyond a decade after surgery. We, and others, are currently exploring possible mechanisms underlying the transfer of alpha-synuclein between cells and their relevance to how neuropathology normally spreads in the PD brain.5,6 We have observed that alpha-synuclein indeed can transfer between cells in culture. The process is clearly time-dependent and once inside the new cell the imported alpha-synuclein can seed aggregation of endogenous alpha-synuclein. Furthermore, we have observed transfer of host-derived alpha-synuclein into embryonic dopamine neurons grafted into the striatum of transgenic mice expressing human alpha-synuclein. We propose that a “prion-like” disease mechanism might contribute to the pathogenesis of PD and other chronic neurodegenerative disorders.6


1. Li, et al. Nat Med 2008; 14:501-3. 2. Kordower, et al. Nat Med 2008; 14:504-6. 3. Kordower, et al. Mov Disord 2008; 23:2303-6. 4. Li, et al. Mov Disord 2010; [Epub ahead of print]. 5. Brundin, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9:741-5. 6. Brundin, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2010; 11:301-7. PP: Plenary Lectures Previously published online:

DOI: 10.4161/pri.4.3.12765


WP8-4: Prion-like Induction of Alzheimer-type Proteopathy in Transgenic Mice

Lary C. Walker

Yerkes Center; Emory University; Atlanta, GA USA

Key words: abeta, Alzheimer, amyloid, prion, seeding, strains, transgenic, transmission

Alzheimer’s disease and prion disease both involve the accumulation of disease-specific proteins in the brain, suggesting pathogenic commonalities. In Alzheimer’s disease, the aggregation of the protein fragment Aßis a seminal event. Similar to the templated corruption of prion protein, cerebral Aßdeposition can be induced in ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mice and rats by the intracerebral injection of Aß-rich brain extracts from patients with Alzheimer’s disease or APP-transgenic mice. Our studies indicate that the characteristics of the seeded deposits depend on the source of the seeding extract, the type of host, and the seeded brain region. We are using the amyloid-binding agent Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) as a marker of a potential AD-specific form of multimeric Aß, and are attempting to induce alternative conformations in the transgenic mouse Aß-seeding model. In addition, we are investigating non-intracerebral routes of administration and the ability of heterologous agents to induce Aßdeposition. Analysis of Aß-seeding in vivo could yield fresh insights into the origins of idiopathic Alzheimer’s disease.


Key collaborators on these studies are Mathias Jucker (U. Tübingen), Rebecca Rosen (Emory U.) and Harry LeVine III (U. Kentucky). Supported by NIH RR-00165 and the CART Foundation.


PPo9-1: Prion-like Propagation of SOD1 Misfolding in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Neil R. Cashman

University of British Columbia; Vancouver, British Columbia Canada

Key words: protein misfolding, mechanisms of neurodegeneration, transmission

Prion-like propagation of protein misfolding has been implicated in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, and the tauopathies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common and incurable adult motor neuron disease, in which mutation of the free-radical defense enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is responsible for a subtype of familial ALS (fALS). We demonstrate that transfection of fALS SOD1 mutants G127X and G85R, as well as overexpression of non-mutant wild-type (wt) SOD1, can induce misfolding of natively-structured wild-type SOD1 in human mesenchymal and neural cell lines, as determined by molecular surface immunoreactivity with misfolding-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), acquisition of protease sensitivity (suggesting structural loosening), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and formation of non-native intermolecular disulfide bonds. Serial transmission of SOD1 misfolding was established by incubation in conditioned media from mtSOD1- or wtSOD1-transfected HEK cells, and knockdown of endogenous SOD1 expression in HEK cells by siRNA abrogated the transmission of SOD1 misfolding, consistent with endogenously expressed SOD1 being the substrate for conformational conversion. Pre-incubation of SOD1-transfected conditioned media with poly-specific SOD1 antibodies or misfolding-specific mAbs also blocked intercellular transducing activity, and passive administration of misfolding-specific mAbs extends survival in the G37R transgenic mouse model of ALS. We conclude that misfolded SOD1 participates in a template-directed misfolding cascade which provides a plausable molecular mechanism for progression of familial and sporadic ALS. Antibody-mediated neutralization of SOD1 misfolding propagation could prove beneficial in human ALS.


Alimentary prion infections: Touch-down in the intestine

Volume 5, Issue 1 January/February/March 2011 Bianca Da Costa Dias, Katarina Jovanovic and Stefan F.T. Weiss View affiliations Hide affiliations Bianca Da Costa DiasSchool of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Katarina JovanovicSchool of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Stefan F.T. WeissCorresponding author: School of Molecular and Cell Biology; University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa

Neurodegenerative diseases are caused by proteinaceous aggregates, usually consisting of misfolded proteins which are often typified by a high proportion of ß-sheets, which accumulate in the Central Nervous System. These diseases, including Morbus Alzheimer, Parkinson disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) also termed prion disorders, afflict a substantial proportion of the human population and as such the etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases has been the focus of mounting research. Although many of these diseases arise from genetic mutations or are sporadic in nature, the possible horizontal transmissibility of neurodegenerative diseases poses a great threat to population health. In this article we discuss recent studies which suggest that the “non-transmissible” status bestowed upon Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases may need to be revised as these diseases have been successfully induced through tissue transplants. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of investigating the “natural” mechanism of prion transmission including peroral and perenteral transmission, proposed routes of gastrointestinal uptake and neuroinvasion of ingested infectious prion proteins. We examine the multitude of factors which may influence oral transmissibility and discuss the zoonotic threats which Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Scrapie may pose resulting in vCJD or related disorders. In addition, we suggest that the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor on the cell surface of enterocytes, a major cell population in the intestine, may play an important role in the intestinal pathophysiology of alimentary prion infections.

Commentary ß-amyloid oligomers and prion protein: Fatal attraction?

Volume 5, Issue 1 January/February/March 2011 Gianluigi Forloni and Claudia Balducci

Gianluigi Forloni Corresponding author:

Claudia Balducci Biology of Neurodegenerative Diseases Lab; Department of Neuroscience; “Mario Negri” Institute for Pharmacological Research; Milano, Italy

The relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) and prion-related encephalopathies (TSE) has been proposed by different points of view. Recently, the scientific attention has been attracted by the results proposing the possibility that PrPc, the protein whose pathologic form is responsible of TSE, can mediated the toxic effect of ß amyloid (Aß) oligomers. The oligomers are considered the culprit of the neurodegenerative process associated to AD, although the pathogenic mechanism activated by these small aggregates remain to be elucidated. In the initial study based on the binding screening PrPc was identified as ligand /receptor of Aß oligomers, while long term potentiation (LTP) analysis in vitro and behavioural studies in vivo, demonstrated that the absence of PrPc abolished the damage induced by Aß oligomers. The high affinity binding Aß oligomers-PrPc has been confirmed, whereas a functional role of this association has been excluded by three different studies. We approached this issue by the direct application of Aß oligomers in the brain followed by the behavioural examination of memory deficits. Our data using PrP knock-out mice suggest that Aß 1-42 oligomers are responsible for cognitive impairment in AD but PrPc is not required for their effect. Similarly, in two other studies the LTP alterations induced by Aß 1-42 oligomers was not influenced by the absence of PrP. Possible explanations of these contradictory results are discussed.

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE.

When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

PrioNet Canada researchers in Vancouver confirm prion-like properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.

***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

Second threat


Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee

The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government's decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010

2.65 At its hearing on 14 May 2010, the committee heard evidence from Dr Alan Fahey who has recently submitted a thesis on the clinical neuropsychiatric, epidemiological and diagnostic features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.48 Dr Fahey told the committee of his concerns regarding the lengthy incubation period for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the inadequacy of current tests and the limited nature of our current understanding of this group of diseases.49

2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo-has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50

14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -

Final Abstract Number: ISE.114

Session: International Scientific Exchange

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

T. Singeltary

Bacliff, TX, USA


An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.


12 years independent research of available data


I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.


I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

Monday, May 23, 2011

Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals 2011

Top Curr Chem (2011)

DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_161

# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Michael A. Tranulis, Sylvie L. Benestad, Thierry Baron, and Hans Kretzschmar


Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrPSc), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans.

M.A. Tranulis (*)

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway


S.L. Benestad

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway

T. Baron

Agence Nationale de Se´curite´ Sanitaire, ANSES, Lyon, France

H. Kretzschmar

Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Keywords Animal Atypical Atypical/Nor98 scrapie BSE-H BSE-L Human Prion disease Prion strain Prion type

snip...SEE MORE HERE ;

Friday, October 22, 2010

Peripherally Applied Aß-Containing Inoculates Induce Cerebral ß-Amyloidosis

Friday, September 3, 2010

Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE

BSE101/1 0136



From: Dr J S Metters DCMO

4 November 1992


CJD1/9 0185

Ref: 1M51A


From: Dr. A Wight

Date: 5 January 1993


Dr Metters

Dr Skinner

Dr Pickles

Dr Morris

Mr Murray


Wednesday, January 5, 2011


David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque

"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"

Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.


The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...

Sunday, June 26, 2011

Risk Analysis of Low-Dose Prion Exposures in Cynomolgus Macaque

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits

Thursday, July 21, 2011

A Second Case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease Linked to the G131V Mutation in the Prion Protein Gene in a Dutch Patient Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:

August 2011 - Volume 70 - Issue 8 - pp 698-702

Saturday, August 14, 2010

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

Saturday, July 23, 2011


Saturday, November 6, 2010

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS


Archive Number 20101206.4364 Published Date 06-DEC-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 2010 (11)

PRION DISEASE UPDATE 2010 (11),F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,86129

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Galveston, Texas - Isle port moves through thousands of heifers headed to Russia, none from Texas, Alabama, or Washington, due to BSE risk factor


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?",F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,82101

Sunday, April 18, 2010


Wednesday, January 19, 2011

EFSA and ECDC review scientific evidence on possible links between TSEs in animals and humans Webnachricht 19 Januar 2011

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Agent strain variation in human prion disease: insights from a molecular and pathological review of the National Institutes of Health series of experimentally transmitted disease


This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........


Marion Simmons communicated surprising evidence for oral transmissibility of Nor98/atypical scrapie in neonatal sheep and although bioassay is ongoing, infectivity of the distal ileum of 12 and 24 month infected sheep is positive in Tg338 mice.







A. The experimental transmission of BSE to sheep.

Studies have shown that the ''negative'' line NPU flock of Cheviots can be experimentally infected with BSE by intracerebral (ic) or oral challenge (the latter being equivalent to 0.5 gram of a pool of four cow brains from animals confirmed to have BSE).



1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.


The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

PMID: 6997404



A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie A] The Problem Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries. The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep. It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible. Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates.

One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias" Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.



Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

Epidemiology of Scrapie in the United States 1977

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Histopathological Studies of "CH1641-Like" Scrapie Sources Versus Classical Scrapie and BSE Transmitted to Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)


Monday, June 27, 2011

Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates


Wednesday, September 08, 2010


Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

Sigurdson CJ.


*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,


full text ;



Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA

Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or about that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. Whether they were scrapie infected sheep or not is unclear.


October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,


Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.


Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II


[ProMED-mail thanks Terry S Singeltary Sr for drawing attention to this comprehensive document which provides a current evaluation of experimental work designed to explore the zoonotic potential of the various recently recognised TSEs of domestic and other animals. It is concluded that at present the only TSE agent demonstrated to be zoonotic is the classical BSE agent. Nor can it be entirely excluded at the present time that a small proportion of cases of sporadic CJD may be environmentally acquired. - Mod.CP]


CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20112 As of January 31, 2011

3. Final classification of 49 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 is pending.


USA 2011


National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

Cases Examined1

(November 1, 2010)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 ; earlier 51 33 28 5 0 0

1997 114 68 59 9 0 0

1998 87 51 43 7 1 0

1999 121 73 65 8 0 0

2000 146 103 89 14 0 0

2001 209 119 109 10 0 0

2002 248 149 125 22 2 0

2003 274 176 137 39 0 0

2004 325 186 164 21 0 13

2005 344 194 157 36 1 0

2006 383 197 166 29 0 24

2007 377 214 187 27 0 0

2008 394 231 205 25 0 0

2009 425 258 215 43 0 0

2010 333 213 158 33 0 0

TOTAL 38315 22656 1907 328 4 3

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;

2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;

3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;

4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

Please notice where sporadic CJD cases in 1996 went from 28 cases, to 215 cases in 2009, the highest recorded year to date. sporadic CJD is on a steady rise, and has been since 1996.

I also urge you to again notice these disturbing factors in lines 5 and 6 ;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.



case; 5 Includes 13 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases; 6 Includes 18 (15 from 2011) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

Saturday, March 5, 2011


Sunday, August 21, 2011

The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease

Thursday, August 4, 2011

Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011

see video here ;

Saturday, January 2, 2010

Human Prion Diseases in the United States January 1, 2010 ***FINAL***

Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory Article Type: Personal View Corresponding Author: Mr. Terry S. Singeltary, Corresponding Author's Institution: na First Author: Terry S Singeltary, none Order of Authors: Terry S Singeltary, none; Terry S. Singeltary Abstract: TSEs have been rampant in the USA for decades in many species, and they all have been rendered and fed back to animals for human/animal consumption. I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2007.

my comments to PLosone here ;

Sunday, August 09, 2009

CJD...Straight talk with...James Ironside...and...Terry Singeltary... 2009

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

BSE-The Untold Story - joe gibbs and singeltary 1999 - 2009

Friday, February 11, 2011

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update (2010/1) Emerging infections/CJD

Friday, April 15, 2011




"which includes the ___elimination___ of Prion activities ($5,473,000),"

All Other Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases CDC‘s FY 2012 request of $52,658,000 for all other emerging and zoonotic infectious disease activities is a decrease of $13,607,000 below the FY 2010 level, which includes the elimination of Prion activities ($5,473,000), a reduction for other cross-cutting infectious disease activities, and administrative savings. These funds support a range of critical emerging and zoonotic infectious disease programs such Lyme Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Special Pathogens, as well as other activities described below.


BY Philip Yam

Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American

Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.


Laying Odds

Are prion diseases more prevalent than we thought?

Researchers and government officials badly underestimated the threat that mad cow disease posed when it first appeared in Britain. They didn't think bovine spongiform encephalopathy was a zoonosis-an animal disease that can sicken people. The 1996 news that BSE could infect humans with a new form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease stunned the world. It also got some biomedical researchers wondering whether sporadic CJD may really be a manifestation of a zoonotic sickness. Might it be caused by the ingestion of prions, as variant CJD is?

Revisiting Sporadic CJD

It's not hard to get Terry Singeltary going. "I have my conspiracy theories," admitted the 49-year-old Texan.1 Singeltary is probably the nation's most relentless consumer advocate when it comes to issues in prion diseases. He has helped families learn about the sickness and coordinated efforts with support groups such as CJD Voice and the CJD Foundation. He has also connected with others who are critical of the American way of handling the threat of prion diseases. Such critics include Consumers Union's Michael Hansen, journalist John Stauber, and Thomas Pringle, who used to run the voluminous www.madcow. org Web site. These three lend their expertise to newspaper and magazine stories about prion diseases, and they usually argue that prions represent more of a threat than people realize, and that the government has responded poorly to the dangers because it is more concerned about protecting the beef industry than people's health.

Singeltary has similar inclinations. ...



Hardcover, 304 pages plus photos and illustrations. ISBN 0-387-95508-9

June 2003

BY Philip Yam


Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.


The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue 8, Page 463, August 2003 doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1Cite or Link Using DOI

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

"My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem." 49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)-the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish.

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. FREE FULL TEXT

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

26 March 2003

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

DER SPIEGEL (9/2001) - 24.02.2001 (9397 Zeichen) USA: Loch in der Mauer Die BSE-Angst erreicht Amerika: Trotz strikter Auflagen gelangte in Texas verbotenes Tiermehl ins Rinderfutter - die Kontrollen der Aufsichtsbehördensind lax.Link auf diesen Artikel im Archiv:

"Löcher wie in einem Schweizer Käse" hat auch Terry Singeltary im Regelwerk der FDA ausgemacht. Der Texaner kam auf einem tragischen Umweg zu dem Thema: Nachdem seine Mutter 1997 binnen weniger Wochen an der Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit gestorben war, versuchte er, die Ursachen der Infektion aufzuspüren. Er klagte auf die Herausgabe von Regierungsdokumenten und arbeitete sich durch Fachliteratur; heute ist er überzeugt, dass seine Mutter durch die stetige Einnahme von angeblich kräftigenden Mitteln erkrankte, in denen - völlig legal - Anteile aus Rinderprodukten enthalten sind.

Von der Fachwelt wurde Singeltary lange als versponnener Außenseiter belächelt. Doch mittlerweile sorgen sich auch Experten, dass ausgerechnet diese verschreibungsfreien Wundercocktails zur Stärkung von Intelligenz, Immunsystem oder Libido von den Importbeschränkungen ausgenommen sind. Dabei enthalten die Pillen und Ampullen, die in Supermärkten verkauft werden, exotische Mixturen aus Rinderaugen; dazu Extrakte von Hypophyse oder Kälberföten, Prostata, Lymphknoten und gefriergetrocknetem Schweinemagen. In die USA hereingelassen werden auch Blut, Fett, Gelatine und Samen. Diese Stoffe tauchen noch immer in US-Produkten auf, inklusive Medizin und Kosmetika. Selbst in Impfstoffen waren möglicherweise gefährliche Rinderprodukte enthalten. Zwar fordert die FDA schon seit acht Jahren die US-Pharmaindustrie auf, keine Stoffe aus Ländern zu benutzen, in denen die Gefahr einer BSE-Infizierung besteht. Aber erst kürzlich verpflichteten sich fünf Unternehmen, darunter Branchenführer wie GlaxoSmithKline, Aventis und American Home Products, ihre Seren nur noch aus unverdächtigem Material herzustellen.

"Its as full of holes as Swiss Cheese" says Terry Singeltary of the FDA regulations. ...

Suspect symptoms

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected with scrapie?

28 Mar 01

Like lambs to the slaughter 31 March 2001 by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284. Subscribe and get 4 free issues. FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in mice as sCJD.

"This means we cannot rule out that at least some sCJD may be caused by some strains of scrapie," says team member Jean-Philippe Deslys of the French Atomic Energy Commission's medical research laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses, south-west of Paris. Hans Kretschmar of the University of Göttingen, who coordinates CJD surveillance in Germany, is so concerned by the findings that he now wants to trawl back through past sCJD cases to see if any might have been caused by eating infected mutton or lamb.

Scrapie has been around for centuries and until now there has been no evidence that it poses a risk to human health. But if the French finding means that scrapie can cause sCJD in people, countries around the world may have overlooked a CJD crisis to rival that caused by BSE.

Deslys and colleagues were originally studying vCJD, not sCJD. They injected the brains of macaque monkeys with brain from BSE cattle, and from French and British vCJD patients. The brain damage and clinical symptoms in the monkeys were the same for all three. Mice injected with the original sets of brain tissue or with infected monkey brain also developed the same symptoms.

As a control experiment, the team also injected mice with brain tissue from people and animals with other prion diseases: a French case of sCJD; a French patient who caught sCJD from human-derived growth hormone; sheep with a French strain of scrapie; and mice carrying a prion derived from an American scrapie strain. As expected, they all affected the brain in a different way from BSE and vCJD. But while the American strain of scrapie caused different damage from sCJD, the French strain produced exactly the same pathology.

"The main evidence that scrapie does not affect humans has been epidemiology," says Moira Bruce of the neuropathogenesis unit of the Institute for Animal Health in Edinburgh, who was a member of the same team as Deslys. "You see about the same incidence of the disease everywhere, whether or not there are many sheep, and in countries such as New Zealand with no scrapie." In the only previous comparisons of sCJD and scrapie in mice, Bruce found they were dissimilar.

But there are more than 20 strains of scrapie, and six of sCJD. "You would not necessarily see a relationship between the two with epidemiology if only some strains affect only some people," says Deslys. Bruce is cautious about the mouse results, but agrees they require further investigation. Other trials of scrapie and sCJD in mice, she says, are in progress.

People can have three different genetic variations of the human prion protein, and each type of protein can fold up two different ways. Kretschmar has found that these six combinations correspond to six clinical types of sCJD: each type of normal prion produces a particular pathology when it spontaneously deforms to produce sCJD.

But if these proteins deform because of infection with a disease-causing prion, the relationship between pathology and prion type should be different, as it is in vCJD. "If we look at brain samples from sporadic CJD cases and find some that do not fit the pattern," says Kretschmar, "that could mean they were caused by infection."

There are 250 deaths per year from sCJD in the US, and a similar incidence elsewhere. Singeltary and other US activists think that some of these people died after eating contaminated meat or "nutritional" pills containing dried animal brain. Governments will have a hard time facing activists like Singeltary if it turns out that some sCJD isn't as spontaneous as doctors have insisted.

Deslys's work on macaques also provides further proof that the human disease vCJD is caused by BSE. And the experiments showed that vCJD is much more virulent to primates than BSE, even when injected into the bloodstream rather than the brain. This, says Deslys, means that there is an even bigger risk than we thought that vCJD can be passed from one patient to another through contaminated blood transfusions and surgical instruments.

2 January 2000

British Medical Journal

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well

15 November 1999

British Medical Journal

vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.



New research shows Alzheimer's disease may originate from the infectious prion disease.

Alzheimer's disease may originate in a similar form to the infectious prion disease, according to new research.
The University of Texas Health Science Centre has published a study showing a potentially infectious spreading of Alzheimer's in animal models.

"Our findings open the possibility that some of the sporadic Alzheimer's cases may arise from an infectious process, which occurs with other neurological diseases such as mad cow and its human form, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease," stated Claudio Soto, Ph.D., professor of neurology at the University of Texas....'s-disease-may-be-transmissible/376/4827

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

De novo induction of amyloid-β deposition in vivo

Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 4 October 2011; doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.120

Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 4 October 2011; doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.120

De novo induction of amyloid-ß deposition in vivo

R Morales1,2, C Duran-Aniotz1,3, J Castilla2,4, L D Estrada2,5 and C Soto1,2

1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, USA 2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA 3Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Medicina. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile 4CIC bioGUNE, Parque Tecnologico de Biskaia, Ed 800, 48160 Derio and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain

Correspondence: Dr C Soto, Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA. E-mail:

5Current address: Laboratorio de Señalización Celular, Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración. P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Received 8 March 2011; Revised 15 August 2011; Accepted 25 August 2011; Published online 4 October 2011.


Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of senile dementia, is associated to the build-up of misfolded amyloid-ß (Aß) in the brain. Although compelling evidences indicate that the misfolding and oligomerization of Aß is the triggering event in AD, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of Aß accumulation are unknown. In this study, we show that Aß deposition can be induced by injection of AD brain extracts into animals, which, without exposure to this material, will never develop these alterations. The accumulation of Aß deposits increased progressively with the time after inoculation, and the Aß lesions were observed in brain areas far from the injection site. Our results suggest that some of the typical brain abnormalities associated with AD can be induced by a prion-like mechanism of disease transmission through propagation of protein misfolding. These findings may have broad implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of AD, and may contribute to the development of new strategies for disease prevention and intervention.


amyloid; prion; protein misfolding; disease transmission

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