Friday, November 30, 2018

The European Union summary report on surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2017

The European Union summary report on surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2017

The European Union summary report on surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2017

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

First published: 28 November 2018 


Correspondence: zoonoses@efsa.europa.eu

Requestor: European Commission

Question number: EFSA‐Q‐2017‐00753

Abstract

This report presents the results of surveillance on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in bovine animals, sheep, goats, cervids and other animal species, as well as genotyping in sheep, carried out in 2017 in the European Union (EU) according to Regulation (EC) 999/2001, and in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In total, 1,312,714 cattle were tested by the 28 EU Member States (MSs) which is a decrease of 3% compared with 2016; 18,526 were tested by the three non‐MSs. For the first time since bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been reported, no cases of classical BSE were reported in 2017. Six atypical BSE cases were reported by three different MSs: Spain 1 H‐BSE/2 L‐BSE; France 1 H‐BSE/1 L‐BSE; and Ireland 1 L‐BSE. Over the year, 314,547 sheep and 117,268 goats were tested in the EU. In sheep, 933 cases of scrapie were reported: 839 classical and unknown (145 index cases) by eight MSs and 94 atypical (89 index cases) by 13 MSs. Fourteen ovine scrapie cases were reported by Iceland and Norway. Of all classical scrapie cases, 98.2% occurred in sheep with genotypes of susceptible groups. The genotyping of a random sample in 21 MSs showed that 26.5% of the genotyped sheep carried genotypes of the susceptible groups. In goats 567 cases of scrapie were reported: 558 classical (42 index cases) by seven MSs and nine atypical (seven index cases) by five MSs. In total, 3,585 cervids were tested for TSE by ten MSs, mostly by Romania. All results were negative. Eleven cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) cases were reported in cervids by Norway: nine wild reindeer, one moose and, for the first time ever, one red deer. In total, 185 animals from five species other than cattle, small ruminants and cervids were tested by three MSs, with negative results.

Summary

This report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) presents the detailed results of surveillance activities on animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) carried out during 2017 in the European Union (EU) and in three non‐Member States (non‐MSs) as well as genotyping data in sheep.

TSE monitoring data for bovine animals, small ruminants and species other than domestic ruminants are reported by country according to Regulation (EC) 999/2001 (the TSE regulation) and consist of testing data (reported monthly) as well as case data. Data on the genotyping of the ovine scrapie cases and of randomly selected sheep were retrieved from the annual reports submitted by the Member States (MSs) and non‐MSs in accordance with Article 6.4, and as specified in Chapter B.I of Annex III of the TSE regulation.

A descriptive summary of the reported data is provided at MS level. When possible, descriptions and calculations were stratified according to the available variables, such as surveillance target group (healthy slaughtered animals, animals culled under bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/TSE control and eradication measures, etc.) or surveillance type (passive vs active), country, sampling year (since 2001 for bovine animals and 2002 for small ruminants), case type (i.e. classical BSE (C‐BSE), atypical BSE (H‐BSE or L‐BSE), classical scrapie (CS) or atypical scrapie (AS)), flock/herd status (infected/non‐infected) and age class.

In total, 1,312,714 cattle were tested in 2017 in the EU. BSE testing was concentrated in the group of risk animals (animals with clinical signs at ante mortem inspection (AM), emergency slaughtered animals (ES) and fallen stock (FS)) with almost 75% of all cattle tested, FS being the largest contributor with 882,533 cattle tested in 2017. An additional 18,526 cattle were tested by the three non‐MS reporting countries, i.e. Switzerland, Iceland and Norway, with no cases reported.

Six atypical cases of BSE were confirmed in three MSs: Spain (1 H‐BSE and 2 L‐BSE), France (1 H‐BSE and 1 L‐BSE) and Ireland (1 L‐BSE). All of these were from animals born between 1998 and 2004. Since the first reporting of BSE cases, 2017 was the first year in which no cases of classical BSE have been reported world‐wide.

In total, 431,815 small ruminants were tested in 2017 in the EU: 314,547 sheep and 117,268 goats.

In sheep, 933 scrapie cases were reported in the EU in 2017, which is an increase of 36.2% compared with 2016. An additional 14 cases of scrapie in sheep were reported by two non‐MSs. CS was reported by eight MSs and one non‐MS, whereas AS was reported by 13 MSs and one non‐MS. Most of the ovine cases (96.5%) were reported by four countries, namely Greece, Spain, Italy and Romania, as it was the case in 2016. In total, 832 ovine cases in the EU were CS cases (89.2%), 94 were AS cases (10.1%) and seven unknown. Among the non‐EU reporting countries, 1 CS case was reported by Iceland and 13 AS cases by Norway. In sheep, 25% (234) of all cases in the EU reported in 2017 were index cases, with a much higher proportion in AS cases (89/94: 94.7%) compared to CS cases (145/832: 17.4%).

In goats, 567 scrapie cases were reported in the EU in 2017, which is a reduction of 10% compared with 2016 when 634 cases were reported. This reduction is due mainly to the further decrease in the number of cases reported by Cyprus (from 570 in 2016 to 485 in 2017). CS was reported by seven MSs whereas AS was reported by five MSs. Of the caprine scrapie cases, 558 were CS cases (98%, with Cyprus accounting for 86.7% of these) and nine were AS cases. In goats, only 8.6% of all cases reported in the EU in 2017 were index cases, slightly higher than in 2016 (6.8%), with a higher proportion in AS (7/9: 78%) than in CS (42/558: 7.5%).

Currently, CS is still the most frequently reported type of scrapie in the EU in both species. Focusing on the last ten years (2008–2017), the proportion of cases per 10,000 tested animals ranged for both CS and AS between one and six in either sheep or goats; however, while no trend is detectable for both ovine and caprine AS. For CS, there was a significant decreasing trend in sheep and a significant increasing trend in goats, albeit small in both cases.

In total, 98.2% of the CS cases in sheep reported in 2017 belonged to animals holding genotypes of the susceptible groups (NSP3, NSP3O, NSP4 or NSP5). In 2017, the genotyping activity from random samples of the national EU sheep populations was carried out by 21 MSs. After excluding Cyprus which carried out a huge systematic sampling, the collected data showed that 26.5% of the European genotyped sheep still carried genotypes of the susceptible groups and that percentage rose to 41.2% in the four MSs showing the largest caseloads.

European TSE testing in cervids showed a 30% increase during the reporting year compared with 2016 with ten MSs testing 3,585 cervids, 98.5% of these from wild cervids. Romania accounted for nearly 74% of all cervids tested in the EU. All animals tested negative.

Norway further intensified its monitoring for chronic wasting disease (CWD) and tested 25,736 deer leading to the detection of the first case of CWD in a red deer, nine cases in wild reindeer and one in a wild moose.

In total, 185 animals from five different species other than cattle, small ruminants and cervids were tested by three MSs, all with negative results. 

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4 Conclusions

As part of the BSE surveillance system in cattle in the EU, more than 1.3 million cattle were tested in 2017. Despite a minimum decrease of 3% in the sampling efforts compared with 2016, the testing throughput combined with a risk‐based strategy (about 75% of all tests were targeting risk animals) contributed to maintain the sensitivity of the BSE surveillance system considering the EU as a single epidemiological unit. That allowed the consolidation of the current situation in which few cases of atypical BSE are detectable, whereas C‐BSE continues declining: 2017 was the first year in which no cases of classical BSE have been reported world‐wide (and the second year in the UK). From an epidemiological point of view, no statistical departure from known temporal or geographical trends has been detected in 2017 with atypical cases similar to those recently reported both in number and in characteristics. Six atypical cases of BSE (4 H‐BSE and 2 L‐BSE cases) were confirmed in 2017 in three MSs: Spain (three), France (two) and Ireland (one). All of these were from animals born between 1998 and 2004. An additional L‐BSE case was reported by the USA. Despite the age limit of over 48 months applied to tested animals in the risk groups in most of the MSs, all the cases were detected in animals older than 14 years and reported by the three MSs that account for 33.6% of all the testing activity.

Circa 430,000 small ruminants were tested in 2017 in the EU, as part of the TSE surveillance system, leading to an overall testing of more than 9 million tests since 2002. Nineteen MSs complied with the EU monitoring requirements in sheep and 18 MSs in goats. Compared with 2016, there was a general increase in the detection of the disease in non‐infected flocks/herds (+6.1% and +6.9% in sheep and goats, respectively) and, following disease detection, a relevant increased testing in infected ovine flocks, particularly in Greece, Spain, Italy and Romania.

For CS in sheep, compared with 2016 the described testing activity resulted in an increase in the EU caseload, the proportion of cases per tested animals and the number of index cases. The reasons for this increase may include the increase in the incidence in the general ovine population and the detection of additional cases during the management of existing outbreaks in already affected countries. From a geographical point of view, the disease is reported by a minority of the MSs (eight in 2017, compared with nine in 2016) and only a small proportion (3.5%) of the CS caseload is from MSs other than Greece, Spain, Italy and Romania. In goats, compared with 2016, the EU caseload showed a 10% decrease mainly due to the development of the situation in Cyprus whose caseload accounted for 87% of the total.

When looking at the long‐term trends of CS in terms of cases per 10,000 tests in both species, the situation in 2017 confirmed the ten‐year statistically significant decreasing trend in sheep and increasing trend in goats respectively, as estimated through modelling of the available epidemiological data.

For AS, compared with 2016 the above described testing activity resulted in both species in a decrease of the caseload, the proportion of cases per tested animals, the number of index cases and the number of involved MSs. It remains to be seen if this tendency will revert or consolidate in the next few years as the last ten‐year data do not allow the detection of any statistical trend.

As in previous years, the genotyping data collected in 2017 from ovine CS cases consistently confirms the association between the occurrence of the disease and the susceptible genotypes, with 98.2% of the cases carrying genotypes of the susceptible groups (NSP3, NSP3O, NSP4 or NSP5). However, the 2017 genotyping data from random samples of the EU sheep population (after excluding Cyprus) did not show any relevant improvement compared with the previous years as there is still an average 26.5% of the genotyped EU sheep carrying genotypes of the susceptible group. This proportion was much higher in the group of four MSs that showed the highest caseloads. The application of the mentioned amendment of the TSE regulation will better allow the monitoring of these temporal changes, potentially affecting the population susceptibility to CS at country level.

After the discovery of CWD in Norway in 2016, TSE testing in cervids has shown some increase in the EU with ten MSs testing in total 3,585 cervids in 2017, 98.5% of them from wild cervids. All animals tested negative. However, the epidemiological relevance is still limited as most of the testing is accounted by Romania that, like in 2016, carried out nearly three quarters of all cervids monitored in the EU. Norway further intensified its monitoring for CWD and tested 25,736 deer leading to the detection of the first case of CWD in a red deer, nine cases in wild reindeer and one in a wild moose.

Whereas the passage from a voluntary to a mandatory surveillance scheme in cervids in a number of MS as per the TSE regulation, as last amended, has not remarkably affected the 2017 EU testing efforts yet, the number of cervids tested in 2018 will increase substantially.

Notes 

Acknowledgements: EFSA wishes to thank for the support provided to this scientific output to the EFSA staff members: Yves Van der Stede, Angel Ortiz Pelaez, Valentina Rizzi, Pietro Stella and Frank Boelaert, and to the EFSA contractor: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta (Unit BEAR – Biostatistica Epidemiologia e Analisi del Rischio and staff: Giuseppe Ru, Francesco Ingravalle, Cristina Bona, Rosanna Desiato, Cristiana Maurella and Eleonora Aiassa). Approved: 6 November 2018

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P98 The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge 

Greenlee JJ (1), Moore SJ (1), and West Greenlee MH (2) 

(1) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Virus and Prion Research Unit, Ames, IA, United States (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA, United States. 

In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was reported in a cow with a previously unreported prion protein polymorphism (E211K). The E211K polymorphism is heritable and homologous to the E200K mutation in humans that is the most frequent PRNP mutation associated with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Although the prevalence of the E211K polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele develop H-type BSE with a rapid onset after experimental inoculation by the intracranial route. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the agents of H-type BSE or H-type BSE associated with the E211K polymorphism transmit to wild type cattle or cattle with the K211 allele after oronasal exposure. 

Wild type (EE211) or heterozygous (EK211) cattle were oronasally inoculated with either H-type BSE from the 2004 US Htype BSE case (n=3) or from the 2006 US H-type case associated with the E211K polymorphism (n=4) using 10% w/v brain homogenates. 

Cattle were observed daily throughout the course of the experiment for the development of clinical signs. At approximately 50 months post-inoculation, one steer (EK211 inoculated with E211K associated H-BSE) developed clinical signs including inattentiveness, loss of body condition, weakness, ataxia, and muscle fasciculations and was euthanized. 

Enzyme immunoassay confirmed that abundant misfolded protein was present in the brainstem, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated PrPSc throughout the brain. Western blot analysis of brain tissue from the clinically affected steer was consistent with the E211K H-type BSE inoculum. 

With the experiment currently at 55 months post-inoculation, no other cattle in this study have developed clinical signs suggestive of prion disease. 

***> This study demonstrates that the H-type BSE agent is transmissible by the oronasal route. 

***> These results reinforce the need for ongoing surveillance for classical and atypical BSE to minimize the risk of potentially infectious tissues entering the animal or human food chains. 


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15, 2018 

The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge


 O3 Experimental studies on prion transmission barrier and TSE pathogenesis in large animals 

Rosa Bolea(1), Acín C(1)Marín B(1), Hedman C(1), Raksa H(1), Barrio T(1), Otero A(1), LópezPérez O(1), Monleón E(1),Martín-Burriel(1), Monzón M(1), Garza MC(1), Filali H(1),Pitarch JL(1), Garcés M(1), Betancor M(1), GuijarroIM(1), GarcíaM(1), Moreno B(1),Vargas A(1), Vidal E(2), Pumarola M(2), Castilla J(3), Andréoletti O(4), Espinosa JC(5), Torres JM(5), Badiola JJ(1). 

1Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, VeterinaryFaculty, Universidad de Zaragoza; Zaragoza,Spain.2 RTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB) 3 4 INRA, ÉcoleVétérinaire, Toulouse, France.5CIC bioGUNE, Prion researchlab, Derio, Spain CISA- INIA, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain. 

Experimental transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) has been understood and related with several factors that could modify the natural development of these diseases. In fact, the behaviour of the natural disease does not match exactly in each animal, being modified by parameters such as the age at infection, the genotype, the breed or the causative strain. Moreover, different TSE strains can target different animal species or tissues, what complicate the prediction of its transmissibility when is tested in a different species of the origin source. The aim of the experimental studies in large animals is to homogenize all those factors, trying to minimize as much as possible variations between individuals. These effects can be flattened by experimental transmission in mice, in which a specific strain can be selected after several passages. With this objective, several experimental studies in large animals have been developed by the presenter research team. 

Classical scrapie agent has been inoculated in cow, with the aim of demonstrate the resistance or susceptibility of this species to the first well known TSE; Atypical scrapie has been inoculated in sheep (using several routes of infection), cow and pig, with the objective of evaluating the potential pathogenicity of this strain; Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) has been inoculated in goats aiming to demonstrate if the genetic background of this species could protect against this strain; goat BSE and sheep BSE have been inoculated in goats and pigs respectively to evaluate the effect of species barrier; and finally atypical BSE has been inoculated in cattle to assess the transmissibility properties of this newly introduced strain. 

Once the experiments have been carried out on large animal species, a collection of samples from animals studied were inoculated in different types of tg mice overexpressing PrPcin order to study the infectivity of the tissues, and also were studied using PMCA. 

In summary, the parameters that have been controlled are the species, the strain, the route of inoculation, the time at infection, the genotype, the age, and the environmental conditions. 

To date, 

***> eleven of the atypical scrapie intracerebrally inoculated sheep have succumbed to atypical scrapie disease; 

***> six pigs to sheep BSE; 

***> one cow to classical scrapie; 

***> nine goats to goat BSE and 

***> five goats to classical BSE. 

***> PrPSC has been demonstrated in all cases by immunohistochemistry and western blot. 

===========END========

O10 Zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions: a systematic evaluation 

Marín-Moreno A (1), Espinosa JC (1), Douet JY (2), Aguilar-Calvo P (1), Píquer J (1), Lorenzo P (1), Lacroux C (2), Huor A (2), Lugan S (2), Tillier C (2), Andreoletti O (2) and Juan María Torres (1) 

(1) Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, CISA-INIA, Carretera Algete-El Casar s/n, Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain.(2) UMR INRA ENVT 1225, Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, France. 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the only zoonotic prion recognized to date. The transmission of BSE to humans caused the emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). In 2004 two new atypical prion agents were identified in cattle: H- and L- BSE prion strains. 

The zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions was assessed by inoculating three different isolates of cattle H- and L-BSE in transgenic mouse lines that overexpress the human PrP covering the three different genotypes of the aminoacid 129 (TgMet129, TgMet/Val129 and TgVal129). This polymorphism is known to be a key element involved in human resistance/susceptibility to BSE. In addition, TgMet129 and TgVal129 were challenged with one H- and L-BSE isolates adapted to sheep PrP expressing hosts to assess if intermediate passage in sheep could modify the capacity of these prions to cross the human species barrier. 

***> Our results confirm that L-BSE transmits to TgMet129 even better than epidemic BSE. However, atypical L-BSE agent was unable to infect TgVal129 or TgMet/Val129 mice, even after passage in TgMet129. No transmission was observed with H-BSE in any mice model inoculated, irrespectively of the 129 polymorphism. 

***> After passage in sheep PrP expressing host, the properties of both H and LBSE including their capacity to cross the human species barrier were dramatically affected, emerging prion strains features that resemble those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). 

To date, this is the more extensive and complete analysis of the zoonotic potential of atypical BSE prions. These results advise not to ignore the zoonotic potential of these agents.

=====

P77 In vitro approach to estimate the human transmission risk of prions 

Iwamaru Y (1) Imamura M (2) Matsuura Y (1) Kohtaro Miyazawa (1) Takashi Yokoyama (3) 

(1 ) National Institute of Animal Health, Prion Disease Unit, Ibaraki, Japan (2) University of Miyazaki, Division of Microbiology, Miyazaki, Japan (3) National Institute of Animal Health, Department of Planning and General Administration, Ibaraki, Japan. 

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. The key event in the pathogenesis of these disease is the conversion of host-encoded normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) and its accumulation in the central nervous system. One of the characteristics of prion is the species barrier that limits the transmission between different species. Currently, bioassays using transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing PrP of different species have become valuable tools for assessing cross species transmissibility of prions. 

The recent reports describing the emergence of novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from H-BSE and the transmission of chronic wasting disease to swine have generated concerns of human infections of newly identified prions. Although Tg expressing human PrP have been used to model human susceptibility to animal prions, these experiments are costly and time-consuming. In addition, the results of bioassays are influenced by the lines of transgenic mice used and the lifespan of the challenged animals. These factors are needed to be taken into account when assessing the human risk of prions. 

In attempt to develop the more time- and cost-saving method for assessment of the human transmission risk of prions, we performed experiments using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to investigate whether PMCA can be compatible with bioassay. Using brain homogenates of Tg expressing bovine PrP as the PrP substrate, we optimized the versatile PMCA condition that could amplify PrPSc from cattle affected with C-, H- or L-BSE. We measured the 50% PMCA seeding activity dose and the 50% lethal dose in 1 g equivalent of C-, H- or L-BSE cattle brain tissue by using PMCA or bioassay, respectively, and assessed the correlations between these doses. 

=====> PRION CONFERENCE 2018 



USA MAD COW CASE 2018 FLORIDA

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 

JAVMA In Short Update USDA announces detection of atypical BSE


 WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018

JAVMA In Short Update USDA announces detection of atypical BSE

-----Original Message----- 
From: Terry Singeltary 
To: bse-l 
Cc: vlc ; medialibrary ; DBanasiak ; rvalentine ; llien ; jhorvath ; kbrandt ; agonda ; DBanasiak ; AVMAinfo 
Sent: Wed, Sep 26, 2018 11:10 am 
Subject: JAVMA In Short Update USDA announces detection of atypical BSE

USDA announces detection of atypical BSE

On Aug. 29, the Department of Agriculture announced an atypical case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a 6-year-old mixed-breed beef cow in Florida. The animal was never brought to slaughter. The National Veterinary Services Laboratories of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service confirmed that the cow tested positive for atypical H-type BSE. The animal was initially tested at the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory as part of routine surveillance of cattle that are deemed unsuitable for slaughter. Of the five previous U.S. cases of BSE, the first was a case of classical BSE in a cow imported from Canada. The primary source of infection for classical BSE is feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent. The rest of the cases were atypical BSE, which seems to arise rarely and spontaneously in all cattle populations.


''Atypical BSE is different, and it generally occurs in older cattle, usually 8 years of age or greater. It seems to arise rarely and spontaneously in all cattle populations.''

FALSE!

''The primary source of infection for classical BSE is feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent, such as meat-and-bone meal containing protein derived from rendered infected cattle. Regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have prohibited the inclusion of mammalian protein in feed for cattle and other ruminants since 1997 and have also prohibited high risk tissue materials in all animal feed since 2009.''

FALSE!

oh what webs of deceit we weave, when all we do is practice to deceive $$$

LET'S REVIEW RECENT AND PAST SCIENCE THAT SHOWS THE ABOVE TWO STATEMENTS ARE FAR FROM TRUE;

PRION 2018 CONFERENCE

P98 The agent of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism transmits after oronasal challenge 

Greenlee JJ (1), Moore SJ (1), and West Greenlee MH (2) (1) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Virus and Prion Research Unit, Ames, IA, United States (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA, United States. 

reading up on this study from Prion 2018 Conference, very important findings ;

***> This study demonstrates that the H-type BSE agent is transmissible by the oronasal route. 

***> These results reinforce the need for ongoing surveillance for classical and atypical BSE to minimize the risk of potentially infectious tissues entering the animal or human food chains.

PRION 2018 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT


MONDAY, JANUARY 09, 2017 

Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle 

CDC Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017 

*** Consumption of L-BSE–contaminated feed may pose a risk for oral transmission of the disease agent to cattle.

*** Consumption of L-BSE–contaminated feed may pose a risk for oral transmission of the disease agent to cattle.


TUESDAY, AUGUST 28, 2018 

USDA finds BSE infection in Florida cow 08/28/18 6:43 PM


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection USDA 08/29/2018 10:00 AM EDT


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion Atypical BSE Confirmed Florida Update USA August 28, 2018


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

OIE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, United States of America Information received on 29/08/2018 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, APHIS USDA

''The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.''

well, so much for those herd mates exposed to this atypical BSE cow, and all those trace in and trace outs.

The OIE, USDA, and the BSE MRR policy is a joke, a sad, very sad joke...


THURSDAY, AUGUST 30, 2018 

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services announced it is working closely with U.S. Department of Agriculture regarding an atypical case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE


THURSDAY, AUGUST 30, 2018 

TRACKING HERD MATES USDA MAD COW DISEASE, TRACE FORWARD, TRACE BACK RECORDS, WHO CARES, NOT THE OIE


USDA ONLY TESTING 20k HEAD OF CATTLE A YEAR FOR MAD COW DISEASE ...LOL!

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

USDA Announces Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detection USDA 08/29/2018 10:00 AM EDT





WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 29, 2018 

***> USDA DROPS MAD COW TESTING FROM 40K A YEAR TO JUST 20K A YEAR, IMPOSSIBLE TO FIND BSE, BUT THEY DID, IN FLORIDA!


THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 01, 2018 

***> National Scrapie Eradication Program September 2018 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2018 October 15, 2018


P.108: Successful oral challenge of adult cattle with classical BSE

Sandor Dudas1,*, Kristina Santiago-Mateo1, Tammy Pickles1, Catherine Graham2, and Stefanie Czub1 1Canadian Food Inspection Agency; NCAD Lethbridge; Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; 2Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture; Pathology Laboratory; Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada

Classical Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-type BSE) is a feed- and food-borne fatal neurological disease which can be orally transmitted to cattle and humans. Due to the presence of contaminated milk replacer, it is generally assumed that cattle become infected early in life as calves and then succumb to disease as adults. Here we challenged three 14 months old cattle per-orally with 100 grams of C-type BSE brain to investigate age-related susceptibility or resistance. During incubation, the animals were sampled monthly for blood and feces and subjected to standardized testing to identify changes related to neurological disease. At 53 months post exposure, progressive signs of central nervous system disease were observed in these 3 animals, and they were euthanized. Two of the C-BSE animals tested strongly positive using standard BSE rapid tests, however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE. Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only. 

***Our study demonstrates susceptibility of adult cattle to oral transmission of classical BSE. 

We are further examining explanations for the unusual disease presentation in the third challenged animal.


***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

P.86: Estimating the risk of transmission of BSE and scrapie to ruminants and humans by protein misfolding cyclic amplification

Morikazu Imamura, Naoko Tabeta, Yoshifumi Iwamaru, and Yuichi Murayama

National Institute of Animal Health; Tsukuba, Japan

To assess the risk of the transmission of ruminant prions to ruminants and humans at the molecular level, we investigated the ability of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) of typical and atypical BSEs (L-type and H-type) and typical scrapie to convert normal prion protein (PrPC) from bovine, ovine, and human to proteinase K-resistant PrPSc-like form (PrPres) using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA).

Six rounds of serial PMCA was performed using 10% brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing bovine, ovine or human PrPC in combination with PrPSc seed from typical and atypical BSE- or typical scrapie-infected brain homogenates from native host species. In the conventional PMCA, the conversion of PrPC to PrPres was observed only when the species of PrPC source and PrPSc seed matched. However, in the PMCA with supplements (digitonin, synthetic polyA and heparin), both bovine and ovine PrPC were converted by PrPSc from all tested prion strains. On the other hand, human PrPC was converted by PrPSc from typical and H-type BSE in this PMCA condition.

Although these results were not compatible with the previous reports describing the lack of transmissibility of H-type BSE to ovine and human transgenic mice, our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.


P.170: Potential detection of oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle using in vitro conversion

***P.170: Potential detection of oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle using in vitro conversion

Sandor Dudas, John G Gray, Renee Clark, and Stefanie Czub Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Lethbridge, AB Canada

Keywords: Atypical BSE, oral transmission, RT-QuIC

The detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has had a significant negative impact on the cattle industry worldwide. In response, governments took actions to prevent transmission and additional threats to animal health and food safety. While these measures seem to be effective for controlling classical BSE, the more recently discovered atypical BSE has presented a new challenge. To generate data for risk assessment and control measures, we have challenged cattle orally with atypical BSE to determine transmissibility and mis-folded prion (PrPSc) tissue distribution. Upon presentation of clinical symptoms, animals were euthanized and tested for characteristic histopathological changes as well as PrPSc deposition.

The H-type challenged animal displayed vacuolation exclusively in rostral brain areas but the L-type challenged animal showed no evidence thereof. To our surprise, neither of the animals euthanized, which were displaying clinical signs indicative of BSE, showed conclusive mis-folded prion accumulation in the brain or gut using standard molecular or immunohistochemical assays. To confirm presence or absence of prion infectivity, we employed an optimized real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay developed at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, USA.

Detection of PrPSc was unsuccessful for brain samples tests from the orally inoculated L type animal using the RT-QuIC. It is possible that these negative results were related to the tissue sampling locations or that type specific optimization is needed to detect PrPSc in this animal. We were however able to consistently detect the presence of mis-folded prions in the brain of the H-type inoculated animal. Considering the negative and inconclusive results with other PrPSc detection methods, positive results using the optimized RT-QuIC suggests the method is extremely sensitive for H-type BSE detection. This may be evidence of the first successful oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle and additional investigation of samples from these animals are ongoing.





Detection of PrPBSE and prion infectivity in the ileal Peyer’s patch of young calves as early as 2 months after oral challenge with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy 

Ivett Ackermann1 , Anne Balkema‑Buschmann1 , Reiner Ulrich2 , Kerstin Tauscher2 , James C. Shawulu1 , Markus Keller1 , Olanrewaju I. Fatola1 , Paul Brown3 and Martin H. Groschup1* 

Abstract 

In classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), an orally acquired prion disease of cattle, the ileal Peyer’s patch (IPP) represents the main entry port for the BSE agent. In earlier C-BSE pathogenesis studies, cattle at 4–6 months of age were orally challenged, while there are strong indications that the risk of infection is highest in young animals. In the present study, unweaned calves aged 4–6 weeks were orally challenged to determine the earli‑ est time point at which newly formed PrPBSE and BSE infectivity are detectable in the IPP. For this purpose, calves were culled 1 week as well as 2, 4, 6 and 8 months post-infection (mpi) and IPPs were examined for BSE infectivity using a bovine PrP transgenic mouse bioassay, and for PrPBSE by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and protein misfolding cyclic amplifcation (PMCA) assays. For the frst time, BSE prions were detected in the IPP as early as 2 mpi by transgenic mouse bioassay and PMCA and 4 mpi by IHC in the follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) of the IPP follicles. These data indi‑ cate that BSE prions propagate in the IPP of unweaned calves within 2 months of oral uptake of the agent.

In summary, our study demonstrates for the frst time PrPBSE (by PMCA) and prion infectivity (by mouse bioassay) in the ileal Peyer’s patch (IPP) of young calves as early as 2 months after infection. From 4 mpi nearly all calves showed PrPBSE positive IPP follicles (by IHC), even with PrPBSE accumulation detectable in FDCs in some animals. Finally, our results confrm the IPP as the early port of entry for the BSE agent and a site of initial propagation of PrPBSE and infectivity during the early pathogenesis of the disease. Terefore, our study supports the recommendation to remove the last four metres of the small intestine (distal ileum) at slaughter, as designated by current legal requirements for countries with a controlled BSE risk status, as an essential measure for consumer and public health protection.


A study comparing preclinical cattle infected naturally with BSE to clinically affected cattle either naturally or experimentally infected with BSE by the oral route found the most abundant PrPSc in the brainstem area (39), which is consistent with ascension to the brain from the gut by sympathetic and parasympathetic projections (40). In our experiment, abundant prions were observed in the brainstem of cattle with clinical signs of BSE, which is similar to the amount in their thalamus or midbrain regions. Interestingly, prions in the brainstem of cattle with clinical evidence of BSE seeded the RT-QuIC reactions faster than any other brain region despite the brainstem area having lower EIA OD values (Table 2) in comparison to other brain regions. This suggests that higher concentrations of prions do not necessarily seed the reaction faster. Perhaps prions of the brainstem exist in a preferred conformation for better conversion despite being present in lower concentrations.

snip... 


TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 02, 2010 

BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992


Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?


***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts 

S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT


Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss


*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply;



NORWAY Skrantesjuke CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION

(the following page is electronically google language translated, may be errors...terry) 

Scratch Disease (CWD) - Changes in CWD Zone Regulations Published 30.11.2018 Last changed 30.11.2018 Print The Ministry of Agriculture and Food has established changes to the CWD zone regulation

The background for the changes in the CWD zone regulation is that there is a need to change the rules in line with known knowledge, the disease picture and the occurrence of the disease, in order to combat and prevent the spread of scarcity as best as possible.

The changes are as follows:

Changing the zone limit for the Nordfjella zone in Ulvik municipality. The ox peninsula is excluded because the zone boundary should be defined by natural geographical boundaries. The rest of Ulvik municipality will still be covered by the zone regulations and is therefore not affected by the changes. The introduction of a ban in the Nordfjella zone against catching deer animals from the zone to deer facilities in captivity in the zone. This is because we want to prevent infectious spread in and from the zones, and therefore it is already a ban on the removal of live and dead deer from the zones. However, it is currently permitted to move live and dead deer inside the zones of the regulation. When breeding facilities for deer and zoos collect wild deer to their plant, this can also be a risk of infection. Prescription of injunctions to indicate location or GPS coordinates for licking places for the Food Safety Authority for those who have or during the past five years have had the licking stall standing in the Nordfjella zone. This because the lung areas in Nordfjella constitute a risk of infection. It is necessary to classify how infectious the various licking sites are to provide a basis for proper management of these. For this reason, it is essential and necessary that the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has knowledge of the location of the licking sites, both active and previously used licking places. The introduction of a rule that the Norwegian Food Safety Authority may, without the consent of the landowner, take the necessary measures to reduce contagion risk from areas in the Nordfjella zone. This may include infestation and fencing of licking sites to make them inaccessible to beasts and deer. This applies to areas where it has stood or has been licking over the last five years. The regulatory changes were sent for consultation and the consultation deadline expired on 13.09.2018.

Link to the regulatory process: Proposed change in regulation on zones in detecting Chronic Wasting Disease

The regulatory changes came into force 28.11.2018.





Regulations for change in sonication regulation when detecting Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD zone) 

Date FOR-2018-11-23-1768 

Ministry Ministry of Agriculture and Food Commencement 

23/11/2018 

Changing FOR-2017-06-12-734 

Applies to Norway Legal LOV-2003-12-19-124-§14 , LOV-2003-12-19-124-§19 , FOR-2003-12-19-1790 promulgated 28.11.2018 kl. 15.00 Corrected 29.11.2018 (Section 4, paragraph 1, letter a) Journalnr 2018-1060 

short Title Change in CWD zone regulation Legal basis: Established by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food on November 23, 2018, pursuant to Act No. 19 of 19 December 2003 on food production and food safety, etc. (matloven) § 14 and section 19, cf. Delegation Decree December 19, 2003 No. 1790.

IN In Regulation 12 June 2017 No. 734 on zones for detection of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD zone), the following changes are made: 

Section 4 shall read:

§ 4. Zones This regulation applies to measures in the following zones:

1. Northern Mountains Zone:

a) the municipalities of Lærdal, Aurland and Hemsedal.

b) the municipalities of Eidfjord, Hol and Ål north of the national road 7.

c) municipality Ulvik northeast of the river Tysso to Stokkvatnet and to Espelandsvatnet.

2. Selbu zone:

a) the municipalities of Selbu, Klæbu, Trondheim, Tydal and Malvik

b) the municipalities Stjørdal and Meråker south of the river Tevla and Stjørdalselva

c) the municipality of Melhus east of the river Gaula

d) the municipality of central Gauldal north of the river Gaula

e) the municipality of Holtålen north and east of Gaula river from the municipal border to the center of Gauldal to the center of Ålen, further east of the national road 30 to the municipal border to Røros

f) Røros municipality east of national road 30 from municipal boundary towards Holtålen to Glåmos, further north of county road 561 to Brekken, further north of national road 31 to the national border in the east. § 5 third paragraph new fourth sentence shall read:

It is also prohibited to collect live deer from the zone of a deer in captivity facility in the Nordfjella zone. 

Section 6, new fifth paragraph shall read:

Anyone who has an active luncheon placement in the Nordfjella zone or who has had the lick in the Nordfjella zone within the last five years must report GPS coordinates or information about the location of these licking spots to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. 

Section 7, new third paragraph, shall read:

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority may, without the consent of the landowner, take the necessary measures to reduce the risk of infection from areas in the Nordfjella zone. This may include infestation and fencing of licking sites to make them inaccessible to beasts and deer. The second sentence applies to both areas where there are lick stones and areas where lick sticks have been in the last five years.

II

Regulations come into force immediately.


Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018

Research

Novel Type of Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Moose (Alces alces), Norway

Laura Pirisinu, Linh Tran, Barbara Chiappini, Ilaria Vanni, Michele A. Di Bari, Gabriele Vaccari, Turid Vikøren, Knut Ivar Madslien, Jørn Våge, Terry Spraker, Gordon Mitchell, Aru Balachandran, Thierry Baron, Cristina Casalone, Christer M. Rolandsen, Knut H. Røed, Umberto Agrimi, Romolo Nonno, and Sylvie L. BenestadComments to Author 

Author affiliations: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy (L. Pirisinu, B. Chiappini, I. Vanni, M.A. Di Bari, G. Vaccari, U. Agrimi, R. Nonno); Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway (L. Tran, T. Vikøren, K. Madslien, J. Våge, S.L. Benestad); Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (T. Spraker); Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (G. Mitchell, A. Balachandran); Anses Lyon Unité “Maladies Neuro-Dégénératives”, Lyon, France (T. Baron); Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Torino, Italy (C. Casalone); Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway (C.M. Rolandsen); Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Oslo (K.H. Røed) Suggested citation for this article

Abstract

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) persists in cervid populations of North America and in 2016 was detected for the first time in Europe in a wild reindeer in Norway. We report the detection of CWD in 3 moose (Alces alces) in Norway, identified through a largescale surveillance program. The cases occurred in 13–14-year-old female moose, and we detected an abnormal form of prion protein (PrPSc) in the brain but not in lymphoid tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the moose shared the same neuropathologic phenotype, characterized by mostly intraneuronal deposition of PrPSc. This pattern differed from that observed in reindeer and has not been previously reported in CWD-infected cervids. Moreover, Western blot revealed a PrPSc type distinguishable from previous CWD cases and from known ruminant prion diseases in Europe, with the possible exception of sheep CH1641. These findings suggest that these cases in moose represent a novel type of CWD.

snip...

Results 

CWD was diagnosed in 2 moose in May 2016 in Norway’s Selbu municipality and in 1 moose in October 2017 in Lierne municipality. Selbu and Lierne are respectively located ≈300 and ≈450 km northeast of Nordfjella, where CWD in reindeer was detected in 2016. Norway is populated by several species of wild cervids with varying degrees of overlapping range. Seasonal migrations are common and distances might exceed 150 km (13–15). However, studies tracking global positioning satellite–collared moose have not documented regular seasonal migrations between Selbu and Lierne municipalities, suggesting that these can be considered different moose subpopulations.

We initially detected PrPSc in brain samples by using a rapid test and then confirmed by WB (data not shown) and IHC. Sequencing analysis of the entire PrP coding sequence revealed that the 3 moose had the wild type PrP genotype, homozygous for lysine at codon 109 and for methionine at codon 209 (KK109MM209) (GenBank accession no. MH230115).

Discriminatory PrPSc Immunohistochemistry Show Differences between Reindeer and Moose Thumbnail of Immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in brain sections at the level of the obex in cervids with chronic wasting disease, Norway. A–E) Reindeer; F–J) moose. mAbs used were 12B2 (A, F), 9A2 (B, G), L42 (C, H), SAF 84 (D, I), and F99/97.6 (E, J). Staining obtained in the reindeer tissues are similar regardless of mAbs used (A–E). Conversely, for moose tissues, the staining was primarily observed intraneuronally with L42, SAF84, and F99/97.6 (H–J) but was no Figure 1. Immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in brain sections at the level of the obex in cervids with chronic wasting disease, Norway. A–E) Reindeer; F–J) moose. mAbs used were 12B2 (A,...

The distribution of PrPSc staining was examined by IHC and compared in the tissues of the 3 moose and the reindeer by using 5 different antibodies (Figure 1). No staining was observed in CWD-negative reindeer and moose independently of the antibody used. The distribution of PrPSc in the reindeer was identical for each of the 5 antibodies and did not differ from the description of PrPSc distribution in North America cervids (16–18). The labeling was most consistent within the gray matter of the medulla oblongata, particularly in the dorsal motor of the vagus nerve (7). The thalamic and brain stem regions of the brain were most affected, with a minimal amount of PrPSc identified dorsal to the corpus callosum.

PrPSc labeling in the moose brains (Figure 1, panels F–J) was clearly different from that of the reindeer (Figure 1, panels A–E). In the moose, after staining with F99/97.6 and L42, PrPSc was almost exclusively observed as intraneuronal aggregates, although intraastrocytic type (multiple small granules scattered in the cytoplasm of astrocyte-resembling cells) and intramicroglial type (1 as single or a few large granules in close proximity to microglia-like nuclei) were also observed in the cerebral cortices and olfactory bulb (Technical Appendix Figure 1). The degree of PrPSc staining was more intensive and appeared more widespread in the neuropil using SAF84.

At the level of the obex, we found stained neurons in all nuclei, whereas the dorsal motor of the vagus nerve was not remarkably stained, as observed in reindeer. The intensity of labeling varied between the 3 moose; no. 2 displayed sparse labeling, no. 3 widespread and abundant labeling, and no. 1 intermediate labeling intensity. We observed PrPSc in all parts of the brain investigated except the cerebellums of moose nos. 1 and 2. A diffuse or discrete punctate staining was observed in the granular layer of the cerebellum of moose no. 3, with stronger staining in some Golgi neurons (Technical Appendix Figure 1, panel B). In all 3 moose, the cortical regions showed laminar staining of neurons in all the cell layers, especially in fusiform-shaped neurons. The neurons of the olfactory tubercle from all 3 also stained strongly, and some glia-associated staining could be observed.

In contrast to the reindeer, the downstream flexible tail mAbs 12B2 and 9A2 did not stain in the moose (Figure 1, panels F and G), suggesting that the moose PrPSc was truncated by endogenous proteases further upstream in the N terminus than was reindeer PrPSc. Contrary to previous findings in reindeer, PrPSc was not detected in the Ln from moose no. 1 or in the Ln and tonsils from moose no. 3 (lymphoid tissues were not available in moose no. 2) by either IHC or ELISA.

PrPSc from Norway Moose Compared with Other CWD Isolates from Canada and Norway Thumbnail of Western blot analysis of PrPres in brains of chronic wasting disease-affected cervids from Norway and Canada. A) Western blot analysis PrPres in brains of moose and reindeer from Norway. Membrane was probed with L42 monoclonal antibodies. Molecular weights (kDa) are indicated on the right. Tissue equivalent loaded per lane was 1 mg. B) Western blot analysis of PrPres from moose isolates from Norway (lanes 6–7) compared with PrPres from chronic wasting disease–affected elk or wapiti Figure 2. Western blot analysis of PrPres in brains of chronic wasting disease-affected cervids from Norway and Canada. A) Western blot analysis PrPres in brains of moose and reindeer from Norway. Membrane was...

We compared the PrPSc features in moose from Norway with those of other CWD isolates from Norway and Canada by discriminatory WB, which enabled comparison of PrPres by epitope mapping with different antibodies. Norway moose PrPres had a lower apparent molecular weight (MW) than PrPres from Norway reindeer (Figure 2, panel A) or from Canada isolates (Figure 2, panel B). This lower MW was explained by the occurrence of more C-terminal cleavage of PrPSc by protease K, as confirmed by the partial loss of the 12B2 epitope (Figure 2, panel B).

Thumbnail of Characterization of PrPres fragments from moose (Alces alces) in Europe by epitope mapping. Mapping with mAbs spanning the whole prion protein enabled the analysis of PrPres in moose samples before (PNGase F–) and after deglycosylation (PNGase F+), based on presence or absence of the epitopes and apparent molecular weight. Solid arrowheads indicate C-terminal fragment of ≈13 kDa fragment (present in both samples and detected with SAF84 mAbs). Open arrowheads indicate C-terminal frag Figure 3. Characterization of PrPres fragments from moose (Alces alces) in Europe by epitope mapping. Mapping with mAbs spanning the whole prion protein enabled the analysis of PrPres in moose samples before (PNGase...

Given the unusual pattern observed in moose isolates from Norway, we further investigated their biochemical characteristics with additional mAbs and by enzymatic deglycosylation (Figure 3). Moose samples showed a main C-terminal fragment of ≈17 kDa, detected with SAF84, L42, and 9A2, and an additional glycosylated C-terminal fragment of ≈13 kDa (CTF13) detected only with SAF84. The N terminal 12B2 epitope was mainly lost, although a small amount of PrPres was still detectable in moose no. 1 (Figure 3) and no. 3 (Technical Appendix Figure 2) with this antibody.

In moose nos. 2 and 3, an additional glycosylated C-terminal fragment of ≈16 kDa (CTF16) was detected by SAF84 and L42 mAbs (Figure 3; Technical Appendix Figure 2). We cannot exclude that a small amount of CTF16 was also present in moose no. 1, given that a weak PrPres fragment of ≈16 kDa was detectable upon deglycosylation and long exposure of blots (Figure 3; Technical Appendix Figure 3). Moose nos. 1 and 3 also had a nonglycosylated internal fragment of ≈10 kDa, cleaved at both N and C termini of PrPSc, which was recognized by using mAbs 9A2 (Figure 3). Moreover, the analysis of PrPres from different neuroanatomic regions showed that the slight differences observed among the 3 moose were not dependent on the area analyzed (Technical Appendix Figure 2).

Comparison of the PrPSc Features of the Norway Moose with Sheep and Cattle Prion Strains from Europe Thumbnail of Bar graph of antibody-signal ratios (y-axis) showing discrimination of the ovine, bovine, moose and reindeer samples (x-axis) analyzed in a study characterizing chronic wasting disease in moose (Alces alces), Norway. The antibody ratio is the L42/12B2 ratio of the chemiluminescence signal relative to the L42/12B2 ratio of the control scrapie loaded in each blot. Bars represent median values of >3 independent determinations; error bars represent the range of observed values. Bars Figure 4. Bar graph of antibody-signal ratios (y-axis) showing discrimination of the ovine, bovine, moose and reindeer samples (x-axis) analyzed in a study characterizing chronic wasting disease in moose (Alces alces), Norway. The...

Thumbnail of Comparison of protease-resistant PrPres from moose (Alces alces) with chronic wasting disease and from sheep with scrapie, Europe. Representative blots show epitope mapping analysis ofPrPres (lane 4, CH1641; lane 5, moose no. 1; lane 6, moose no. 2) in comparison with different ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolates (lane 1, atypical/Nor98; lane 2, classical scrapie; and lane 3, CH1641). A chronic wasting disease isolate from Canada was loaded as control (lane 7). Th Figure 5. Comparison of protease-resistant PrPres from moose (Alces alces) with chronic wasting disease and from sheep with scrapie, Europe. Representative blots show epitope mapping analysis ofPrPres (lane 4, CH1641; lane 5, moose...

Comparison with ovine and bovine prions was performed to determine the N terminal cleavage of the main PrPres fragment by analyzing the different PrPres fragments in each sample, the MW of these fragments, and the L42/12B2 antibody ratio (Figure 4; Technical Appendix Table). Among ovine prions, classical scrapie and atypical/Nor98 were easily discriminated from moose isolates (Figure 5). Classical scrapie PrPres had a higher MW than moose PrPres, as confirmed by the preservation of 12B2 epitope. As previously observed (19), Nor98 PrPres was cleaved at both the N and C termini, and the characteristic 11–12 kDa band was detected by L42, 9A2, and 12B2 mAbs (Figure 5). In contrast, CH1641 samples showed molecular features partially overlapping with the moose (Figure 5). CH1641 samples showed a PrPres of ≈17 kDa and were accompanied by an additional C-terminal fragment of 13–14 kDa detected by using SAF84 mAbs (20). However, CTF16 and the internal PrPres fragment of 10 kDa could not be detected in CH1641 samples.

Thumbnail of Comparison of protease-resistant core of abnormal form of prion protein from moose (Alces alces) in Europe with chronic wasting disease and from cattle with BSE. Representative blots show epitope mapping analysis of protease-resistant core of abnormal form of prion protein in moose (lane 5, moose no. 1; lane 6, moose no. 2) in comparison with different BSE isolates (lane 2, classical BSE; lane 3, H-type BSE; and lane 4, L-type BSE). A sheep scrapie isolate was loaded as control (lan Figure 6. Comparison of protease-resistant core of abnormal form of prion protein from moose (Alces alces) in Europe with chronic wasting disease and from cattle with BSE. Representative blots show epitope mapping analysis...

Moose PrPSc did not overlap with any type of bovine PrPSc. The lack of the 12B2 epitope in moose PrPres was similar to C-type and L-type atypical BSE, but the 2 bovine prions had neither CTF13, CTF16, nor the internal fragment (Figure 6). H-type atypical BSE showed the CTF13 and the internal fragment similar to moose PrPres, but the main PrPres fragment showed a higher MW and preserved the 12B2 epitope (Figure 6).

The ratio of reactivity obtained with L42 and 12B2 antibodies reflected the N terminal cleavage of the main fragment of PrPSc, enabling confirmation that the differences observed in MW of PrPres actually depend on different N terminal proteinase K cleavage, irrespective of the host species (Figure 4). Values >2 are indicative of BSE-like cleavage, whereas values <1 12b2="" a="" behavior="" better="" bse-like="" compared="" epitope="" in="" indicate="" moose="" of="" preservation="" prpres="" ratio="" respect="" scrapie.="" the="" this="" was="" with="">2). However, moose no. 1 had a ratio lower than moose nos. 2 and 3. The CH1641-like field sample was similar to moose no. 1 in this respect, whereas CH1641 was similar to moose nos. 2 and 3. Finally, the value <1 and="" appendix="" atypical="" bse="" canada="" classical="" compared="" cwd="" div="" for="" from="" h-type="" higher="" in="" isolates="" mw="" observed="" online="" prpres="" reflected="" reindeer="" scrapie="" table="" technical="" their="" with="">

Discussion 

Although CWD has been detected in several captive and free-ranging cervid species from a large geographic area in North America, <10 3="" a="" although="" america="" and="" as="" associated="" atypical="" be="" been="" bovines="" bse="" can="" cases="" classical="" cwd="" described="" differing="" directly="" disease="" diseases="" div="" existence="" far.="" for="" from="" h-type="" has="" have="" hosts="" identification="" ihc="" in="" inferred="" is="" known="" l-type="" molecular="" moose="" natural="" naturally="" new="" north="" norway.="" norway="" not="" observed="" occurring="" of="" often="" or98="" or="" phenomenon="" phenotype="" phenotypes="" phenotypic="" previously="" prion="" reindeer="" report="" reported="" scrapie.="" sheep="" showed="" so="" strain.="" strain="" studies="" suggestive="" that="" the="" this="" those="" transmission="" variation="" variations="" we="" well="" with="">

The phenotype variant found in moose from Norway could be hypothetically attributed to host species factors. To address this issue, we directly compared PrPSc characteristics in the Norway moose with those in a Canada moose with CWD. In agreement with the available evidence, we found that the Canada moose PrPSc had features different from Norway moose PrPSc and were indistinguishable from other cervids with classical CWD. This finding suggests that the variant PrPSc type observed in Norway moose could not simply reflect a host species factor. Notably, in both natural and experimental conditions, CWD-affected moose in North America have been reported to display disease features indistinguishable from CWD in other cervids and had detectable PrPSc in lymphoid tissues (21,27).

Species-specific amino acid polymorphisms in the cervid PrP are associated with CWD susceptibility, incubation time, and pathology (28–30). In transmission experiments, atypical features were reported in elk or wapiti and mule deer with genotypes associated with a relative resistance to disease, extension of the incubation period, or both (31,32). Moose PrP is polymorphic at codon 109 (K/Q) and 209 (M/I), combined in 3 alleles: K109M209 (observed in Europe and North America), Q109M209 (observed in Europe), and K109I209 (observed in North America) (33,34). The 3 moose with CWD from Norway had the KK109MM209 genotype, whereas the moose case from Canada used for comparison had KK109II209 genotype. Thus, we cannot exclude that the differences observed between Norway and Canada moose in our study are dependent on differences in PrP genotype. However, a classical CWD phenotype has been reported in naturally (21) and experimentally infected (27) moose with the KK109MM209 genotype, suggesting that a difference at PrP codon 209 is probably not the cause of the variant phenotype observed in moose in Norway. All of these findings suggest that neither the species nor the individual PrP genotypes are likely to have caused the variant phenotypes observed and imply that this variant phenotype could represent a novel CWD strain.

CWD is known to be a highly contagious disease in North America; however, data relating to the disease in moose is sparse and insufficient to understand the epidemiology and the implications of CWD in this species. The apparent low CWD prevalence reported for moose in North America compared with other cervid species might be attributable to the individual social behavior of moose and the minimal habitat overlap between moose and other cervids in areas with CWD. Additionally, surveillance program design, disease variability, and host genetics might influence the prevalence of the disease. Based on the epizootic dynamics in North America, CWD plausibly could have become established in reindeer in Norway more than a decade ago (35). In this scenario, the disease in moose could possibly be linked to the disease observed in reindeer, with strain mutation or phenotype shift putatively caused by interspecific transmission. However, a main cause of strain mutation after interspecies transmission (i.e., PrP amino acid differences between the donor and host species) is not relevant in this case because reindeer and moose share the same PrP primary sequence. An alternative hypothesis could be that moose have a prion disease which is independent of the reindeer epidemic, being either specific to the Norwegian moose or acquired by species other than the reindeer.

The 3 moose were 13, 14, and 13 years of age. Although moose can reach ages beyond 20 years, we consider these moose as old because female moose >10–12 years of age start to show signs of senescence and declining survival and reproduction rates (36,37). The old age of the moose, the absence of lymphoid tissue involvement, and the low disease prevalence observed so far (3 of 10,531 moose tested) could suggest that CWD in moose is less contagious than classical CWD or could represent a spontaneous TSE. The finding that the affected moose were from the same geographic area does not seem to support a spontaneous origin of the disease; however, the actual evidence for geographic clustering could have been biased by oversampling in Trøndelag County, where the first positive moose was detected. Lack of detailed data on the ages of the moose tested so far in different geographic areas prevents any definitive conclusion. Still, the recent detection of a positive moose in Finland, several hundred kilometers from Trøndelag County, might indicate that the disease is not restricted to Norway (38). The ongoing intensive surveillance in Norway and several European Union countries with large moose populations will help to better clarify the actual geographic distribution and prevalence and will be critical for understanding the contagious or spontaneous nature of the disease.

The 3 moose analyzed shared a distinctive IHC pattern, mainly characterized by intraneuronal accumulation of PrPSc, and common PrPSc features, such as the proteinase K N-terminal cleavage and the presence of an additional CTF13 fragment. However, we also observed unexpected differences among the 3 moose. By WB, the CTF16 fragment was observed in moose nos. 2 and 3 but not in moose no. 1, whereas the nonglycosylated internal fragment of 10 kDa was evident in moose nos. 1 and 3 but could not be detected in moose no. 2. Furthermore, we also showed that these differences did not depend on the brain area investigated. We cannot rule out that these slight differences might depend on technical issues rather than represent actual PrPSc variations. The outcome of the ongoing bioassay experiments will help to clarify the meaning of the observed variations.

By comparing the moose PrPSc features with other animal TSEs circulating in Europe, we found no evidence of similarities with bovine and ovine prions. Minimal similarities were observed with CH1641 samples; however, CH1641 cases have not yet been detected in Norway. Bioassay in a large spectrum of rodent models will assist in determining whether these molecular similarities imply biologic association between the atypical CWD in moose and small ruminant CH1641. Transmission studies in several rodent models are underway and will help to clarify whether the different phenotype observed (designated Nor16CWD) could reflect the presence of a new cervid prion strain in moose from Norway.

Dr. Pirisinu is a researcher at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, Italy. Her primary research interests include the prion strain characterization and zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases.

Acknowledgments


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 25, 2018 

***> Norway New additional requirements for imports of hay and straw for animal feed from countries outside the EEA due to CWD TSE Prion


TUESDAY, JULY 03, 2018 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Global Report Update, USA, CANADA, KOREA, NORWAY, FINLAND, Game Farms and Fake news


MONDAY, AUGUST 14, 2017 

NORWAY CWD, SHEEP GRAZING, and Scrapie, What If? Scrapie/reindeer investigation


TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017 

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE 

ABSTRACT 

Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD 

P178 Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

Dr Laura Pirisinu1, Dr Linh Tran2, Dr Gordon Mitchell3, Dr Aru Balachandran3, Dr Thierry Baron4, Dr Cristina Casalone5, Dr Michele Di Bari1, Dr Umberto Agrimi1. Dr Romolo Nonno1, Dr Sylvie Benestad2 

1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy, 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway, 3Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Ottawa, Canada, 4Neurodeqenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Lyon, France, 5Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Pietnonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Turin, Italy 

Aims: In 2016, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was detected for the first time in Europe in three wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and in two moose (Alces alces). The biochemical analysis and the immunohistochemical distribution of PrPSc from Norwegian reindeer revealed a pattern similar to North American (NA) isolates1. In this study, we studied the biochemical features of PrPSc from the two CWD cases in Norwegian moose. 

Methods: Western blot (WB) analysis of PK-treated PrPSc (PrPres) from Norwegian moose and reindeer isolates was performed according to the ISS discriminatory WB protocol (used in BSE and scrapie Italian surveillance). PrPres fragments were determined by epitope mapping (SAF84, L42, 9A2, 12B2 mAbs), before and after deglycosylation. CWD isolates from Canadian cervids (wapiti, moose and white tailed deer) and a panel of small ruminant and bovine prion strains circulating in Europe were also analysed. 

Results: WB analysis with different mAbs showed that PrPres from both Norwegian moose samples was different from that usually associated with CWD in cervids. Indeed, their main C-terminal fragment had a MW lower than the other CWD isolates, and could be discriminated by the absence of the 12B2 epitope. Furthermore, while NA CWD PrPSc is composed of a single PrPres fragment, Norwegian moose samples had an additional C-terminal PrPres fragment of ~13 kDa (CTF13). Among ovine TSEs, classical scrapie and Nor98 were discriminated from both Norwegian moose isolates, while CH1641 samples had molecular features partially overlapping with the moose, i.e. a low MW PrPres and the presence of CTF13. In contrast, moose PrPSc did not overlap with any bovine PrPSc. Indeed, the MW of moose PrPres was lower than H-BSE and similar to C-BSE and L-BSE PrPres, but the two bovine prions lacked additional PrPres fragments. 

Conclusions: Unexpectedly, PrPSc from Norwegian moose revealed features substantially different from all other CWD isolates. The PrPSc pattern of Norwegian moose was also different from Canadian moose, suggesting that the variant PrPSc type observed does not simply reflect a host factor and could represent a new CWD strain. Furthermore, PrPSc of Norwegian moose can be easily discriminated from all BSE types, classical scrapie and Nor98, while showing significant overlapping only with CH1641. Bioassay in voles will help to clarify whether the different PrPSc types observed reflect the presence of a new CWD strain in Norwegian moose, and its relationships with known animal TSEs. 

References: 1Benestad et al, Vet Res (2016}47:88 

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS


please see;

***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle. 

In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.


***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle. 

P-088 Transmission of experimental CH1641-like scrapie to bovine PrP overexpression mice

Kohtaro Miyazawa1, Kentaro Masujin1, Hiroyuki Okada1, Yuichi Matsuura1, Takashi Yokoyama2

1Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Japan; 2Department of Planning and General Administration, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO

Introduction: Scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. CH1641-lke scrapie is characterized by a lower molecular mass of the unglycosylated form of abnormal prion protein (PrpSc) compared to that of classical scrapie. It is worthy of attention because of the biochemical similarities of the Prpsc from CH1641-like and BSE affected sheep. We have reported that experimental CH1641-like scrapie is transmissible to bovine PrP overexpression (TgBoPrP) mice (Yokoyama et al. 2010). We report here the further details of this transmission study and compare the biological and biochemical properties to those of classical scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice.

Methods: The details of sheep brain homogenates used in this study are described in our previous report (Yokoyama et al. 2010). TgBoPrP mice were intracerebrally inoculated with a 10% brain homogenate of each scrapie strain. The brains of mice were subjected to histopathological and biochemical analyses.

Results: Prpsc banding pattern of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was similar to that of classical scrapie affected mice. Mean survival period of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was 170 days at the 3rd passage and it was significantly shorter than that of classical scrapie affected mice (439 days). Lesion profiles and Prpsc distributions in the brains also differed between CH1641-like and classical scrapie affected mice.

Conclusion: We succeeded in stable transmission of CH1641-like scrapie to TgBoPrP mice. Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

snip...

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Phenotype Shift from Atypical Scrapie to CH1641 following Experimental Transmission in Sheep

Marion M. Simmons*, S. Jo Moore¤a, Richard Lockey¤b, Melanie J. Chaplin, Timm Konold, Christopher Vickery, John Spiropoulos

Animal and Plant Health Agency—Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, United Kingdom

¤a Current address: School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia

¤b Current address: University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom * marion.simmons@apha.gsi.gov.uk

Abstract

The interactions of host and infecting strain in ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are known to be complex, and have a profound effect on the resulting phenotype of disease. In contrast to classical scrapie, the pathology in naturally-occurring cases of atypical scrapie appears more consistent, regardless of genotype, and is preserved on transmission within sheep homologous for the prion protein (PRNP) gene. However, the stability of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes on passage across and within species is not absolute, and there are reports in the literature where experimental transmissions of particular isolates have resulted in a phenotype consistent with a different strain. In this study, intracerebral inoculation of atypical scrapie between two genotypes both associated with susceptibility to atypical forms of disease resulted in one sheep displaying an altered phenotype with clinical, pathological, biochemical and murine bioassay characteristics all consistent with the classical scrapie strain CH1641, and distinct from the atypical scrapie donor, while the second sheep did not succumb to challenge. One of two sheep orally challenged with the same inoculum developed atypical scrapie indistinguishable from the donor. This study adds to the range of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotype changes that have been reported following various different experimental donor-recipient combinations. While these circumstances may not arise through natural exposure to disease in the field, there is the potential for iatrogenic exposure should current disease surveillance and feed controls be relaxed. Future sheep to sheep transmission of atypical scrapie might lead to instances of disease with an alternative phenotype and onward transmission potential which may have adverse implications for both public health and animal disease control policies.

snip...

Despite naturally-occurring atypical scrapie being observed in a range of genotypes, successful experimental transmissions of clinical disease have so far only been reported within a particular homologous donor-recipient genotype model using sheep which are AHQ/AHQ homozygous [8,15,16]. These published transmissions represent part of a large study at APHA which has been running since 2004, investigating the potential transmissibility of atypical scrapie in a range of both homologous and cross-genotype combinations. Here we describe an unexpected and interesting finding from that study where one experimental challenge in which atypical scrapie from an ARR/ARR donor was inoculated intracerebrally into two AHQ/AHQ recipient sheep, and in one of them the resulting disease had a phenotype that was indistinguishable from CH1641 [29], a classical scrapie strain which has some BSE-like Western blot properties.


*** One of these isolates (TR316211) behaved like the CH1641 isolate, with PrPres features in mice similar to those in the sheep brain. From two other isolates (O100 and O104), two distinct PrPres phenotypes were identified in mouse brains, with either high (h-type) or low (l-type) apparent molecular masses of unglycosylated PrPres, the latter being similar to that observed with CH1641, TR316211, or BSE. Both phenotypes could be found in variable proportions in the brains of the individual mice. In contrast with BSE, l-type PrPres from "CH1641-like" isolates showed lower levels of diglycosylated PrPres. From one of these cases (O104), a second passage in mice was performed for two mice with distinct PrPres profiles. This showed a partial selection of the l-type phenotype in mice infected with a mouse brain with predominant l-type PrPres, and it was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportions of the diglycosylated band. These results are discussed in relation to the diversity of scrapie and BSE strains.


Subject: more on scrapie/BSE strain CH1641

From: tom

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Date: Sun, 10 Jan 1999 21:52:05 -0800

Content-Type: text/plain

Parts/Attachments: Parts/Attachments text/plain (37 lines) Reply Reply

Recall a forthcoming J Gen Virol Jan 1999 v80:1 - 4 says there are similarities between BSE and an experimental isolate of natural scrapie, CH1641. This might then be the long-sought missing scrapie strain that could have given rise to the BSE epidemic. It would raise additional questions about the harmlessness to humans of scrapie.

On the other hand, CH1641 happened to be one of the scrapie strains studied very recently by Collinge's group, Neurosci Lett. 1998 Oct 23;255(3):159-62. It did not have the prp-sc type identical to BSE passaged in sheep.

The CH1641 strain is mentioned only twice before in Medline abstracts (though there could be many fulltext mentions), one of these being the original naming of the strain in 1988:

The unusual properties of CH1641, a sheep-passaged isolate of scrapie.

Foster JD, Dickinson AG Vet Rec 1988 Jul 2;123(1):5-8

An isolate of scrapie designated CH1641 was identified from a natural case of scrapie in a Cheviot sheep by passage in sheep and goats. It has not been possible to transmit scrapie to mice from this source. The Sip gene which controls the incubation periods of experimental scrapie in Cheviot sheep has two alleles; sA which shortens and pA which lengthens the incubation periods of most strains of scrapie after the first experimental injection in sheep (the A group of strains). The CH1641 isolate differs from them in that the alleles of Sip act in the opposite way, with incubation being shorter in the pA homozygotes. There is some evidence that one or more genes, in addition to Sip, may be implicated in the control of scrapie incubation in sheep and the possibility of a carrier infection with CH1641 is also discussed.

Novel polymorphisms in the caprine PrP gene: a codon 142 mutation associated with scrapie incubation period.

J Gen Virol 1996 Nov;77 ( Pt 11):2885-91 Published erratum appears in J Gen Virol 1997 Mar;78(Pt 3):697 Goldmann W, Martin T, Foster J, Hughes S, Smith G, Hughes K, Dawson M, Hunter N

Age at disease onset and rate of progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in man, sheep and mice are modulated by the host genome, in particular by the PrP gene and its allelic forms. Analysis of the caprine PrP gene revealed several different alleles. Four PrP protein variants were found, three of which were goat specific with single amino acid changes at codons 142, 143 and 240. The fourth was identical to the most common sheep PrP protein variant (Ala136-Arg154-Gln171). The dimorphism at codon 142 (Ile --> Met) appeared to be associated with differing disease incubation periods in goats experimentally infected with isolates of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie CH1641 or sheep-passaged ME7 scrapie.




TSE PRION UPDATE USA 2012

re-BSE in goats can be mistaken for scrapie


Wednesday, January 18, 2012

BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE

February 1, 2012


Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie

Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:

February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147


Monday, March 21, 2011

Sheep and Goat BSE Propagate More Efficiently than Cattle BSE in Human PrP Transgenic Mice

snip...

On the other hand, this component would not be distinguishable from bovine-passaged BSE prions due to the current limits of the standard biological methods and/or the molecular tools employed here to characterize prion strains. Whatever the mechanism, the notion that a passage through an intermediate species can profoundly alter prion virulence for the human species has important public-health issues, regarding emerging and/or expanding TSEs, like atypical scrapie or CWD.

snip...

Taken all together, our results suggest that the possibility of a small ruminant BSE prion as vCJD causal agent could not be ruled out, which has important implications on public and animal health policies. On one hand, although the exact magnitude and characteristic of the vCJD epidemic is still unclear, its link with cattle BSE is supported by strong epidemiological ground and several experimental data. On the other hand, the molecular typing performed in our studies, indicates that the biochemical characteristics of the PrPres detected in brains of our sheep and goat BSE-inoculated mice seem to be indistinguishable from that observed in vCJD. Considering the similarity in clinical manifestation of BSE- and scrapie-affected sheep [48], a masker effect of scrapie over BSE, as well as a potential adaptation of the BSE agent through subsequent passages, could not be ruled out. As BSE infected sheep PrPSc have been detected in many peripheral organs, small ruminant-passaged BSE prions might be a more widespread source of BSE infectivity compared to cattle [19], [49], [50]. 

*** This fact is even more worrying since our transmission studies suggest that apparently Met129 human PrP favours a BSE agent with ovine rather than a bovine sequence. Finally, it is evident that, although few natural cases have been described and so far we cannot draw any definitive conclusion about the origin of vCJD, we can not underestimate the risk of a potential goat and/or sheep BSE agent.

snip...


Technical Abstract:

Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various antibodies, or molecular profile (electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio). Recent work on two U.S. isolates of sheep scrapie supports that at least two distinct strains exist based on differences in incubation time and genotype of sheep affected. One isolate (No. 13-7) inoculated intracerebrally caused scrapie in sheep AA at codon 136 (AA136) and QQ at codon 171 (QQ171) of the prion protein in an average of 19 months post-inoculation (PI) whereas a second isolate (No. x124) caused disease in less than 12 months after oral inoculation in AV136/QQ171 sheep. Striking differences were evident when further strain analysis was done in R111, VM, C57Bl6, and C57Bl6xVM (F1) mice. No. 13-7 did not induce disease in any mouse strain at any time post-inoculation (PI) nor were brain tissues positive by western blot (WB). Positive WB results were obtained from mice inoculated with isolate No. x124 starting at day 380 PI. Incubation times averaged 508, 559, 601, and 633 days PI for RIII, C57Bl6, VM, and F1 mice, respectively. Further passage will be required to characterize these scrapie strains in mice. This work provides evidence that multiple scrapie strains exist in U.S. sheep.


One of these isolates (TR316211) behaved like the CH1641 isolate, with PrPres features in mice similar to those in the sheep brain. From two other isolates (O100 and O104), two distinct PrPres phenotypes were identified in mouse brains, with either high (h-type) or low (l-type) apparent molecular masses of unglycosylated PrPres, the latter being similar to that observed with CH1641, TR316211, or BSE. Both phenotypes could be found in variable proportions in the brains of the individual mice. In contrast with BSE, l-type PrPres from "CH1641-like" isolates showed lower levels of diglycosylated PrPres. From one of these cases (O104), a second passage in mice was performed for two mice with distinct PrPres profiles. This showed a partial selection of the l-type phenotype in mice infected with a mouse brain with predominant l-type PrPres, and it was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportions of the diglycosylated band. These results are discussed in relation to the diversity of scrapie and BSE strains.


In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.


snip...see ;


Thursday, July 14, 2011

Histopathological Studies of "CH1641-Like" Scrapie Sources Versus Classical Scrapie and BSE Transmitted to Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)


SHEEP AND BSE

PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL

SHEEP AND BSE

A. The experimental transmission of BSE to sheep.

Studies have shown that the ''negative'' line NPU flock of Cheviots can be experimentally infected with BSE by intracerebral (ic) or oral challenge (the latter being equivalent to 0.5 gram of a pool of four cow brains from animals confirmed to have BSE).


RB264

BSE - TRANSMISSION STUDIES


Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie

Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:

February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147



***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts 

S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT


Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss


*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply;



Interspecies transmission to bovinized transgenic mice uncovers new features of a CH1641-like scrapie isolate

Kohtaro MiyazawaEmail authorView ORCID ID profile,Kentaro Masujin,Yuichi Matsuura,Yoshifumi Iwamaru,Takashi Yokoyama andHiroyuki Okada Veterinary Research201849:116

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-018-0611-1 © The Author(s) 2018 Received: 2 July 2018Accepted: 7 November 2018Published: 28 November 2018

Abstract

In animal prion diseases, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids, and scrapie in sheep and goats, a disease-associated isoform of prion protein (PrPd) accumulates in the brains of affected animals. Although the CH1641 scrapie isolate was experimentally established in the UK, a few natural CH1641-like scrapie cases have been reported in France and the UK. The molecular mass of the unglycosylated protease-resistant core of PrPd (PrPres) is known to be similar between CH1641-like scrapie and experimental BSE in sheep. We previously established an experimental CH1641-like scrapie isolate (Sh294) from a natural classical scrapie case. Here, we demonstrated that the Sh294 isolate was independent of both classical and atypical BSEs by cross-species transmission to bovine PrP overexpressing (TgBoPrP) mice and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we found that the Sh294 isolate altered its host range by the transmission to TgBoPrP mice, and we succeeded in the first stable reproduction of CH1641-like scrapie specific PrPres banding patterns with the ~12-kDa small C-terminal fragment in wild-type mice. This study provides new insight into the relationship between CH1641-like scrapie isolates and BSEs. In addition, interspecies transmission models such as we have demonstrated here could be a great help to investigate the origin and host range of animal prions.

SNIP...

DISCUSSION

The biological and biochemical properties of the experimental CH1641-like scrapie isolate (Sh294) in TgBoPrP mice were different from those of H- and C-BSE [25]. In contrast, TgBoPrP mice infected with Sh294 exhibited clinical signs and the triplet band pattern of PrPres similar to those of mice infected with L-BSE. However, the ~12-kDa small C-terminal fragment of PrPres could only be detected in TgBoPrP mice infected with Sh294. Moreover, the mean survival periods, lesion profiles, and PrPd distribution patterns in the brain were distinctly different between the mice infected with Sh294 and those infected with L-BSE. Interspecies transmission of TgBo-passaged Sh294 to wild-type (ICR) mice also demonstrated the biological differences between Sh294 and L-BSE passaged in TgBoPrP mice. It is known that L-BSE from cattle or TgBoPrP mice is unable to transmit to ICR mice [20, 27]. In contrast, TgBo-passaged Sh294 can transmit to ICR mice even though inefficiently. Since we previously reported that L-BSE could transmit to ICR mice after cross-species transmission to sheep [20], we can now compare the characteristics of the CH1641-like scrapie isolate and L-BSE in wild-type mice. The mean survival period of ICR mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE was significantly extended in comparison with that of ICR mice infected with TgBo-passaged Sh294 (Table 4). Although the glycoform profiles were similar between ICR mice infected with TgBo-passaged Sh294 and those infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE, the molecular mass of PrPres was distinctly different between them. In the histopathological analysis, florid plaques were detected in the brains of ICR mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE [20], but not in the brains of mice infected with TgBo-passaged Sh294. Thus, all our data demonstrate that the Sh294 isolate is independent of all three BSE strains, suggesting that CH1641-like scrapie isolates could not be candidates for the origin of BSEs. Indeed, several studies have suggested that spontaneously occurring atypical BSEs in cattle may have been the origin of C-BSE [28, 29, 30, 31, 32].

It is of interest to us that TgBo-passaged Sh294 is transmitted to ICR mice with the CH1641-like scrapie-specific PrPres banding patterns because this scrapie isolate cannot transmit directly from sheep to wild-type mice [19]. The biological and biochemical features of TgBo-passaged Sh294 in ICR mice were evidently different from those of sheep-passaged L-BSE. Moreover, these features were also different from all other tested laboratory scrapie strains (22L, ME7, and Chandler), mouse-adapted Japanese scrapie isolates, and the mBSE strain, which were available in our laboratory (Figures 4A, B, D, and Additional file 2) [33, 34]. To the best of our knowledge, only a group reported the transmission of French natural CH1641-like scrapie isolates from sheep to wild-type (C57BL/6) mice [35]. In contrast to our results, these isolates easily transmitted to C57BL/6 mice. However, the PrPres banding patterns and the histopathological properties observed in diseased mice exhibited a classical scrapie phenotype. This discrepancy could be explained by the co-existence of two different scrapie prions in French natural CH1641-like scrapie isolates, i.e., a classical scrapie prion and a CH1641 scrapie prion. This notion could be supported by the previous finding that some of TgOvPrP4 mice, overexpressing ovine PrPARQ, exhibited the classical scrapie PrPres banding patterns after inoculation with the French natural CH1641-like scrapie isolates [36, 37]. It has also been reported that TgOvPrP4 mice inoculated with French natural CH1641-like scrapie isolates accumulate PrPres in both the brain and spleen [38]. Although TgOvPrP4 and TgOvPrP59 transgenic mouse lines were derived from different founders, they overexpressed approximately three times as much PrPARQ in the brain under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter as that in sheep brains [21]. Since the previous report failed to detect the expression of ovine PrP mRNA in non-nervous tissues of TgOvPrP4 mice by RT-PCR [39], the precise mechanisms by which PrPd accumulates in the spleen of this transgenic mouse line infected with classical scrapie isolates remain unknown. However, considering the ovine PrPC expression level and similar response to the classical scrapie isolate, TgOvPrP59 mice may be a useful model to examine the similarity of the Sh294 isolate to French natural CH1641-like isolates. We demonstrated that none of the Sh294 inoculated mice exhibited the PrPres banding patterns of classical scrapie, even after the third passage in TgOvPrP59 mice. Moreover, splenic PrPres was detected in five out of seven TgOvPrP59 mice inoculated with the classical scrapie isolate, but not in any TgOvPrP59 mice inoculated with Sh294 (Additional file 1 and Table 2). Likewise, TgOvPrP4 mice inoculated with the British CH1641 scrapie isolate have been reported not to accumulate PrPres in their spleens [38]. These data strongly support that the experimental Sh294 isolate consisted of a single scrapie prion, similar to the CH1641 scrapie prion found in the UK. Unlike natural CH1641-like scrapie isolates, selection of a particular scrapie prion might occur through the experimental intraspecies transmission in sheep. Further transmission study of the British CH1641 scrapie isolate to TgOvPrP59 mice is needed to elucidate the similarity between the British CH1641 scrapie isolate and the Sh294 isolate.

The CH1641 scrapie prion remains poorly understood. In this study, we first demonstrated that the CH1641-like scrapie isolate was independent of BSEs, including atypical BSE. Then, we showed that the range of host species susceptible to the CH1641-like scrapie isolate changed via an interspecies transmission route. Finally, we demonstrated the successful transmission of the CH1641-like scrapie isolate (Sh294) to wild-type mice with its specific PrPres banding patterns. Our findings improve the current understanding of the relationship between CH1641-like scrapie isolates and BSEs, including atypical BSE.

 

FINLAND MOOSE FOUND DEAD IN FOREST WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE 8.3.2018 12:56 

The chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been found in a moose or European elk (Alces alces) for the first time ever in Finland. The disease was diagnosed in Kuhmo in a 15-year old moose that had died naturally. The results of the analyses carried out by Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira have been verified by a EU reference laboratory. Species of the deer family, known as “cervids”, can suffer from the chronic wasting disease, and it is always fatal. The disease is not known to have been contracted by people.

Norway was before this case the only European country where CWD has been diagnosed. The monitoring of the occurrence of the disease was intensified from the beginning of 2018 in Finland and five other EU Member States.

In Finland, the occurrence of the disease has been studied already since 2003. None of the ca. 2 500 samples analysed so far had tested positive for the disease. The monitoring of the disease will now be further intensified in the Kuhmo and Kainuu region. Hunters are going to be provided with more instructions before the start of the next hunting season, if appropriate.

The chronic wasting disease is not known to have been contracted by people. Moose meat is safe to eat and no restrictions are imposed on the sales and exportation of meat of animals of the deer family. As a precautionary measure the export of live animals of the deer family to other countries will be discontinued for now.

CWD is a slowly progressing disease of deer, elk, reindeer, and moose which always leads to death. The chronic wasting disease is a prion disease and related to the BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and other TSE diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy). The disease is common in North America. The moose found in Kuhmo did not suffer from the North American, highly contagious form of the chronic wasting disease. The disease seems to resemble most the form of cervid TSE diagnosed in Norway, which appears to be found incidentally in individual animals of the deer family.

For more information, please contact:

Leena Räsänen, Director, tel. +358 50 388 6518 (Food Safety)

Terhi Laaksonen, Head of Unit, tel. +358 40 159 5812 (Control of Animal Diseases)

Sirkka-Liisa Korpenfelt, Senior Resarcher, tel. + 358 50 351 0308 (Laboratory Analyses)

Antti Oksanen, Research Professor, tel. +358 44 561 6491 (Wild Animal Diseases)

Kajsa Hakulin, Ministerial Advisor, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, tel. +358 295 162361 (National and EU Legislation)


SATURDAY, MARCH 10, 2018

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Goes Global Finland Falls, Behind Norway and S. Korea

FINLAND REPORTS FIRST CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION IN A moose or European elk (Alces alces)


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 25, 2018 

***> Norway New additional requirements for imports of hay and straw for animal feed from countries outside the EEA due to CWD TSE Prion


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 2018 

Canada Saskatchewan New Case Of CWD TSE PRION Detected Near Melfort Released on November 7, 2018


SUNDAY, OCTOBER 28, 2018 

Alberta, Canada 2017 Fall CWD TSE Prion Surveillance Results


TUESDAY, OCTOBER 30, 2018 

Québec federal officials found third case Chronic Wasting Disease CWD domestic red deer on a farm reported Boileau


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE TSE PRION KOREA

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea 

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea

Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.

On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea.

These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called "source farm" in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the "source farm".

Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001.

All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify.

CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises.

In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.

*Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002.

*Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.

*Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program.

Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).

*In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive.

*Consequently, all cervid - 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer - were culled and one elk was found to be positive.

Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.

*Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis.

*Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2.

All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 - 15 elks and 47 elks - were culled and confirmed as negative.

Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.

*In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5.

*Consequently, all cervid - 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer - were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive.

This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer.

*Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5.

*In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo.

All cervid - 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer - of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.

: Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: shonhj@korea.kr) 2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5

http://www.prion2011.ca/files/2011TSEBookletV6Final.pdf

http://www.prion2011.ca/files/PRION_2011_-_Posters_(May_5-11).pdf



2011-05-23-097 Chronic wasting disease, cervid - Korea ex Canada To: (06) Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies; (24) Emerging diseases

************************************************* CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVID - KOREA ex CANADA *************************************************

A ProMED-mail post

Date: 16 May 2011

Source: Prion 2011, Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5 [edited]


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea. 

HyunJoo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho.

Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North American deer and Rocky Mountain elk.

The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species.

CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.

On 28 Dec 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea.

These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called "source farm" in Canada and 72 elk in 1997 which had been held in pre-export quarantine at the source farm.

Based on export information of CWD-suspected elk from Canada to Korea, a CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elk imported in 1997 were traced back; however, elk imported in 1994 were impossible to identify.

CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises.

In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.

A total of 9 elk were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002. Additional CWD cases -- 12 elk and 2 elk -- were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005. Since February 2005, when slaughtered elk were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervids for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as targets of the CWD surveillance program.

Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by the National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).

In July 2010, one out of 3 elk from Farm 1 slaughtered for human consumption were confirmed as positive. Consequently, all cervids -- 54 elk, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer -- were culled, and one elk was found to be positive. Epidemiological investigation was conducted by the Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.

Epidemiologically-related farms were searched for: 3 farms were found, and all cervids at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnostic [testing]. Three elk and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2. All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 -- 15 elk and 47 elk -- were culled and confirmed negative.

CENTAUR GLOBAL NETWORK INFORMATION 2

Further epidemiological investigation showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elk from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidence.

In December 2010, one elk was confirmed positive at Farm 5.

Consequently, all cervids -- 3 elk, 11 Manchurian Sita deer and 20 Sika deer -- were culled, and one Manchurian Sika deer and 7 Sika deer were found to be positive. This is the 1st report of CWD in these sub-species of deer.

Epidemiological investigation found that the owner of Farm 2 in the CWD outbreaks of July 2010 had co-owned Farm 5. In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervids -- 19 elk, 15 crossbreeds (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer -- of Farm 6 were culled, but all were confirmed negative.

-- Communicated by: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

[Many of the chronic wasting disease monitoring programs in North America were not in existence in the early 1990s. Most of the North American programs require some type of animal identification and often some corresponding premises identification and accompanying records of births, deaths and testing of naturally deceased and slaughtered animals. It will be interesting to follow the CWD situation in Korea. - Mod.TG]

[see also: 2010 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (02): (SK) susp. 20100518.1629 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada: (AB) 20100320.0888 2009 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada: (SK) 20090417.1462 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada: (AB) 20090327.1192 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada: (AB) 20090131.0444 2008 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (03): (SK) 20080819.2590 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (02): (AB) 20080619.1906 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK): elk 20080517.1647 2007 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (04): (SK, NS) 20071027.3497 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (03): (AB,SK) 20070117.0227 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (02): (SK) 20070112.0139 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada: (AB) 20070105.0051 2006 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (AB) 20060224.0604 2005 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (AB) (02) 20051213.3585 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (AB) 20050907.2650 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20050706.1917 2004 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20040218.0527 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20040101.0005 CENTAUR GLOBAL NETWORK INFORMATION 3 2003 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) (02) 20030314.0633 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20030206.0319 Chronic wasting disease, elk - Canada (SK) 20030115.0123 2002 ---- Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (Alberta) 20021108.5750 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20021026.5645 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA, Canada 20020527.4332 Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada 20020401.3858 2001 ---- Chronic wasting disease, wild deer - Canada (SK) (03) 20010723.1436 Chronic wasting disease, wild deer - Canada (SK) (02) 20010628.1229 Chronic wasting disease, wild deer - Canada (SK) 20010409.06971 1996 ---- Chronic wasting disease - Canada & USA (2) 19960620.1132 Chronic wasting disease - Canada & USA 19960613.1094 Chronic wasting disease - Canada 19960501.0841]



Bio.155: Distribution of PrPCWD in the Medulla Oblongata at the Level of Obex and the RPLN in Affected Cervid in the Republic of Korea

Hyun Joo Sohn,† Yoon Hee Lee, Min Jeong Kim, Hyo Jin Kim, Won Yong Lee and In Soo Cho

Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea; Anyang, Korea † Presenting author; Email: shonhj@korea.kr

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. CWD had occurred in the US and Canada , and later this disease was first detected in imported elks from Canada in 2001 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). 

As a result the Korean government has implemented the nationwide CWD surveillance since 2001. 

More CWD cases also been found in 2004, 2005 and 2010. The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) as well as the brain (obex) has also subjected to CWD diagnosis since 2004. 

Tissues samples from 2,455 cervid which had been collected from all over the country from 2001 to November of 2011 were examined for the detection of CWD by either immunohistochemistry(IHC) alone or with a combination of an Bio-Rad TeSeE ELISA. 

Obex and RPLN tissues were available from seventeen CWD-positive animals(twelve elks and five hybird deers between red deer and sika deer). 

Eleven cervid including six elks and five hybid deers showed deposits of PrPCWD in both the obex and the lymphoid tissue - RPLN. 

One elk had deposits only in the lymphoid tissue and five elks had deposits only in the obex. 

There was no deer that had deposits only in the obex. 


Friday, May 13, 2011

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea


Prion Conference 2018

O5 Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels 

Babelhadj B (1), Di Bari MA (2), Pirisinu L (2), Chiappini B (2), Gaouar SB (3), Riccardi G (2), Marcon S (2), Agrimi U (2), Nonno R (2), Vaccari G (2) (1) École Normale Supérieure Ouargla. Laboratoire de protection des écosystèmes en zones arides et semi arides University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria; (2) Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Rome, Italy (3) University Abou Bekr Bélkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria. 

Prions are responsible for fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases including CreutzfeldtJakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Following the BSE epidemic and the demonstration of its zoonotic potential, general concerns have been raised on animal prions. 

Here we report the identification of a prion disease in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria and designate it as Camel Prion Disease (CPD). In the last years, neurological symptoms have been observed in adult male and female dromedaries presented for slaughter at the Ouargla abattoir. The symptoms include weight loss, behavioral abnormalities and neurological symptoms such as tremors, aggressiveness, hyper-reactivity, typical down and upwards movements of the head, hesitant and uncertain gait, ataxia of the hind limbs, occasional falls and difficult getting up. During 2015 and 2016, symptoms suggestive of prion disease were observed in 3.1% of 2259 dromedaries presented at ante-mortem examination. Laboratory diagnosis was obtained in three symptomatic dromedaries, sampled in 2016 and 2017, by the detection of typical neurodegeneration and disease-specific prion protein (PrPSc) in brain tissues. 

Histopathological examination revealed spongiform change, gliosis and neuronal loss preferentially in grey matter of subcortical brain areas. Abundant PrPSc deposition was detected in the same brain areas by immunohistochemistry and PET-blot. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PK-resistant PrPSc, whose N-terminal cleaved PK-resistant core was characterized by a mono-glycosylated dominant form and by a distinctive N-terminal cleavage, different from that observed in BSE and scrapie. 

PrPSc was also detected, by immunohistochemistry, in all sampled lymph nodes (cervical, prescapular and lumbar aortic) of the only animal from which they were collected. 

The PRNP sequence of the two animals for which frozen material was available, showed 100% nucleotide identity with the PRNP sequence already reported for dromedary camel. 

Overall, these data demonstrate the presence of a prion disease in dromedary camelswhose nature, origin and spread need further investigations. However, our preliminary observations on the rather high prevalence of symptomatic dromedaries and the involvement of lymphoid tissues, are consistent with CPD being an infectious disease. In conclusion, the emergence of a new prion disease in a livestock species of crucial importance for millions of people around the world, makes urgent to assess the risk for humans and to develop policies able to control the spread of the disease in animals and to minimize human exposure. 


CDC

New Outbreak of TSE Prion in NEW LIVESTOCK SPECIES

Mad Camel Disease

Volume 24, Number 6—June 2018 Research 

Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria
Abstract

Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). After the BSE epidemic, and the associated human infections, began in 1996 in the United Kingdom, general concerns have been raised about animal prions. We detected a prion disease in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. Symptoms suggesting prion disease occurred in 3.1% of dromedaries brought for slaughter to the Ouargla abattoir in 2015–2016. We confirmed diagnosis by detecting pathognomonic neurodegeneration and disease-specific prion protein (PrPSc) in brain tissues from 3 symptomatic animals. Prion detection in lymphoid tissues is suggestive of the infectious nature of the disease. PrPSc biochemical characterization showed differences with BSE and scrapie. Our identification of this prion disease in a geographically widespread livestock species requires urgent enforcement of surveillance and assessment of the potential risks to human and animal health.

SNIP...

The possibility that dromedaries acquired the disease from eating prion-contaminated waste needs to be considered.
Tracing the origin of prion diseases is challenging. In the case of CPD, the traditional extensive and nomadic herding practices of dromedaries represent a formidable factor for accelerating the spread of the disease at long distances, making the path of its diffusion difficult to determine. Finally, the major import flows of live animals to Algeria from Niger, Mali, and Mauritania (27) should be investigated to trace the possible origin of CPD from other countries.
Camels are a vital animal species for millions of persons globally. The world camel population has a yearly growth rate of 2.1% (28). In 2014, the population was estimated at ≈28 million animals, but this number is probably underestimated. Approximately 88% of camels are found in Africa, especially eastern Africa, and 12% are found in Asia. Official data reported 350,000 dromedaries in Algeria in 2014 (28).
On the basis of phenotypic traits and sociogeographic criteria, several dromedary populations have been suggested to exist in Algeria (29). However, recent genetic studies in Algeria and Egypt point to a weak differentiation of the dromedary population as a consequence of historical use as a cross-continental beast of burden along trans-Saharan caravan routes, coupled with traditional extensive/nomadic herding practices (30).
Such genetic homogeneity also might be reflected in PRNP. Studies on PRNP variability in camels are therefore warranted to explore the existence of genotypes resistant to CPD, which could represent an important tool for CPD management as it was for breeding programs for scrapie eradication in sheep.
In the past 10 years, the camel farming system has changed rapidly, with increasing setup of periurban dairy farms and dairy plants and diversification of camel products and market penetration (13). This evolution requires improved health standards for infectious diseases and, in light of CPD, for prion diseases.
The emergence of another prion disease in an animal species of crucial importance for millions of persons worldwide makes it necessary to assess the risk for humans and develop evidence-based policies to control and limit the spread of the disease in animals and minimize human exposure. The implementation of a surveillance system for prion diseases would be a first step to enable disease control and minimize human and animal exposure. Finally, the diagnostic capacity of prion diseases needs to be improved in all countries in Africa where dromedaries are part of the domestic livestock.

***> IMPORTS AND EXPORTS <***

***SEE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF BANNED ANIMAL PROTEIN AKA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA DECADES AFTER POST BAN ***


2018 ARS USDA UPDATE PIGS, PIGS, PIGS, CWD, SCRAPIE, BSE, FEED BAN, FEED BAN, RUMINANT, MAMMALIAN, FEED BAN, HUMANS AND THOSE HIGH DOLLAR WHITE TG MICE and humans. ...tss

The agent of chronic wasting disease from pigs is infectious in transgenic mice expressing human PRNP

***> The successful transmission of pig-passaged CWD to Tg40 mice reported here suggests that passage of the CWD agent through pigs results in a change of the transmission characteristics which reduces the transmission barrier of Tg40 mice to the CWD agent. If this biological behavior is recapitulated in the original host species, passage of the CWD agent through pigs could potentially lead to increased pathogenicity of the CWD agent in humans.

cwd scrapie transmits to pigs by oral route

***> However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more diagnostic methods. Furthermore, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study) suggesting that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie. <*** 

 >*** Although the current U.S. feed ban is based on keeping tissues from TSE infected cattle from contaminating animal feed, swine rations in the U.S. could contain animal derived components including materials from scrapie infected sheep and goats. These results indicating the susceptibility of pigs to sheep scrapie, coupled with the limitations of the current feed ban, indicates that a revision of the feed ban may be necessary to protect swine production and potentially human health. <*** 


***> Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). 

***> Conclusions: This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge. CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. 

This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease. 

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains. 




Oral.29: Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection

Amy Nalls, Nicholas J. Haley, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Kelly Anderson, Davis M. Seelig, Dan S. Bucy, Susan L. Kraft, Edward A. Hoover and Candace K. Mathiason†

Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu

Domestic and non-domestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to one prion disease, feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), thought to be transmitted through consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated meat. Because domestic and free ranging felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in CWD affected areas, we evaluated the susceptibility of domestic cats to CWD infection experimentally. Groups of n = 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD deer brain homogenate. Between 40–43 months following IC inoculation, two cats developed mild but progressive symptoms including weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors and ataxia—ultimately mandating euthanasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the brain of one of these animals (vs. two age-matched controls) performed just before euthanasia revealed increased ventricular system volume, more prominent sulci, and T2 hyperintensity deep in the white matter of the frontal hemisphere and in cortical grey distributed through the brain, likely representing inflammation or gliosis. PrPRES and widely distributed peri-neuronal vacuoles were demonstrated in the brains of both animals by immunodetection assays. No clinical signs of TSE have been detected in the remaining primary passage cats after 80 months pi. Feline-adapted CWD was sub-passaged into groups (n=4 or 5) of cats by IC, PO, and IP/SQ routes. Currently, at 22 months pi, all five IC inoculated cats are demonstrating abnormal behavior including increasing aggressiveness, pacing, and hyper responsiveness.

*** Two of these cats have developed rear limb ataxia. Although the limited data from this ongoing study must be considered preliminary, they raise the potential for cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.


PRION CONFERENCE 2011 Introduction and Oral presentations


PRION CONFERENCE 2011 PRION BIOLOGY


PRION CONFERENCE 2011 PRIONS IN AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTS


PRION CONFERENCE 2011 MANAGING PRION RISKS



AD.63:

Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease

Amy V.Nalls,1 Candace Mathiason,1 Davis Seelig,2 Susan Kraft,1 Kevin Carnes,1 Kelly Anderson,1 Jeanette Hayes-Klug1 and Edward A. Hoover1 1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2University of Minnesota; Saint Paul, MN USA

Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 mo post-inoculation, two IC-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and progressed to terminal disease within 5 mo. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by IC, PO, and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (IP/SC) routes. Upon subpassage, feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was transmitted to all IC-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 mo. FelCWD was detected in the brains of all the symptomatic cats by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and abnormalities were seen in magnetic resonance imaging, including multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyper-intensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. 

*** Currently, 3 of 4 IP/SQ and 2 of 4 PO inoculared cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD.

*** These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to- feline transmission in nature.

PRION CONFERENCE 2013 ORAL ABSTRACTS
please note; orally (PO) 

*** 2 of 4 PO inoculared cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD 

PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)


OR-12: Chronic wasting disease transmission and pathogenesis in cervid and non-cervid Species

Edward A. Hoover, Candace K. Mathiason, Nicholas J. Haley, Timothy D. Kurt, Davis M. Seelig, Nathaniel D. Denkers, Amy V. Nalls, Mark D. Zabel, and Glenn C. Telling

Prion Research Program, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA

Since its recognition as a TSE in the late 1970s, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids has been distinguished by its facile spread and is now recognized in 18 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and South Korea. The efficient horizontal spread of CWD reflects a prion/host relationship that facilitates efficient mucosal uptake, peripheral lymphoid amplification, and dissemination by exploiting excretory tissues and their products, helping to establish indirect/environmental and well as direct (e.g., salivary) transmission. Recent studies from our group also support the likelihood of early life mother to offspring and aerosol CWD prion transmission. Studies of cervid CWD exposure by natural routes indicate that incubation period for detection of overt infection, while still uncertain, may be much longer than originally thought.

Several non-cervid species can be infected by CWD experimentally (e.g., ferrets, voles, cats) with consequent species-specific disease phenotypes. The species-adapted prions so generated can be transmitted by mucosal, i.e., more natural, routes. Whether non-cervid species sympatric with deer/elk can be infected in nature, however, remains unknown. In vitro CWD prion amplification studies, in particular sPMCA, can foreshadow in vivo susceptibility and suggest the importance of the PrPC rigid loop region in species barrier permissiveness. Trans-species CWD amplification appears to broaden the host range/strain characteristics of the resultant prions. The origins of CWD remain unknown, however, the existence of multiple CWD prion strains/ quasi-species, the mechanisms of prion shedding/dissemination, and the relationship between sheep scrapie and CWD merit further investigation.


OR-09: Canine spongiform encephalopathy—A new form of animal prion disease

Monique David, Mourad Tayebi UT Health; Houston, TX USA

It was also hypothesized that BSE might have originated from an unrecognized sporadic or genetic case of bovine prion disease incorporated into cattle feed or even cattle feed contaminated with prion-infected human remains.1

 However, strong support for a genetic origin of BSE has recently been demonstrated in an H-type BSE case exhibiting the novel mutation E211K.2 Furthermore, a specific prion protein strain causing BSE in cattle is believed to be the etiological agent responsible for the novel human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).3 Cases of vCJD have been identified in a number countries, including France, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Canada, Japan, US and the UK with the largest number of cases. Naturally occurring feline spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cats4 and spongiform encephalopathies of a number of zoo animals so-called exotic ungulate encephalopathies5,6 are also recognized as animal prion diseases, and are thought to have resulted from the same BSE-contaminated food given to cattle and humans, although and at least in some of these cases, a sporadic and/or genetic etiology cannot be ruled out. The canine species seems to display resistance to prion disease and no single case has so far been reported.7,8 Here, we describe a case of a 9 week old male Rottweiler puppy presenting neurological deficits; and histological examination revealed spongiform vacuolation characteristic of those associated with prion diseases.9

 Initial biochemical studies using anti-PrP antibodies revealed the presence of partially proteinase K-resistant fragment by western blotting. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed spongiform degeneration consistent with those found in prion disease and displayed staining for PrPSc in the cortex.

Of major importance, PrPSc isolated from the Rottweiler was able to cross the species barrier transmitted to hamster in vitro with PMCA and in vivo (one hamster out of 5). Futhermore, second in vivo passage to hamsters, led to 100% attack rate (n = 4) and animals displayed untypical lesional profile and shorter incubation period.

In this study, we show that the canine species might be sensitive to prion disease and that PrPSc isolated from a dog can be transmitted to dogs and hamsters in vitro using PMCA and in vivo to hamsters.

If our preliminary results are confirmed, the proposal will have a major impact on animal and public health and would certainly lead to implementing new control measures for ‘canine spongiform encephalopathy’ (CSE).

References

1. Colchester AC, Colchester NT. The origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the human prion disease hypothesis. Lancet 2005; 366:856-61; PMID:16139661; http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67218-2.

2. Richt JA, Hall SM. BSE case associated with prion protein gene mutation. PLoS Pathog 2008; 4:e1000156; PMID:18787697; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal. ppat.1000156.

3. Collinge J. Human prion diseases and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Hum Mol Genet 1997; 6:1699-705; PMID:9300662; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ hmg/6.10.1699.

4. Wyatt JM, Pearson GR, Smerdon TN, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Wells GA, Wilesmith JW. Naturally occurring scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy in five domestic cats. Vet Rec 1991; 129:233-6; PMID:1957458; http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.129.11.233.

5. Jeffrey M, Wells GA. Spongiform encephalopathy in a nyala (Tragelaphus angasi). Vet Pathol 1988; 25:398-9; PMID:3232315; http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030098588802500514.

6. Kirkwood JK, Wells GA, Wilesmith JW, Cunningham AA, Jackson SI. Spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Vet Rec 1990; 127:418-20; PMID:2264242.

7. Bartz JC, McKenzie DI, Bessen RA, Marsh RF, Aiken JM. Transmissible mink encephalopathy species barrier effect between ferret and mink: PrP gene and protein analysis. J Gen Virol 1994; 75:2947-53; PMID:7964604; http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317- 75-11-2947.

8. Lysek DA, Schorn C, Nivon LG, Esteve-Moya V, Christen B, Calzolai L, et al. Prion protein NMR structures of cats, dogs, pigs, and sheep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102:640-5; PMID:15647367; http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0408937102.

9. Budka H. Neuropathology of prion diseases. Br Med Bull 2003; 66:121-30; PMID:14522854; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/66.1.121. 




FELINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY FSE



*** DEFRA TO SINGELTARY ON HOUND STUDY AND BSE 2001 *** 

DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail: h.mcdonagh.defra.gsi.gov.uk GTN: FAX: Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box  Bacliff Texas USA 77518 21 November 2001 

Dear Mr Singeltary 

TSE IN HOUNDS Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding. As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. 

However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government's independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. 

As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. 

However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study. 

Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. 

The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness. 

Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. 

As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to peer review and hence it was never published. 

As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. 

Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. 

However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less critical. 

For more details see- http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/06/21005001.pdf


As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. 

Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. 

He can be contacted at the following address. 

Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK 

You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. 

Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. 

To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog. 

I hope this is helpful Yours sincerely 4 HUGH MCDONAGH BSE CORRESPONDENCE SECTION 

====================================== 

HOUND SURVEY 

I am sorry, but I really could have been a co-signatory of Gerald's minute. I do NOT think that we can justify devoting any resources to this study, especially as larger and more important projects such as the pathogenesis study will be quite demanding. If there is a POLITICAL need to continue with the examination of hound brains then it should be passed entirely to the VI Service. J W WILESMITH Epidemiology Unit 18 October 1991 Mr. R Bradley cc: Mr. G A H Wells 


3.3. Mr R J Higgins in conjunction with Mr G A Wells and Mr A C Scott would by the end of the year, indentify the three brains that were from the ''POSITIVE'' end of the lesion spectrum. 


TSE in dogs have not been documented simply because OF THE ONLY STUDY, those brain tissue samples were screwed up too. 

see my investigation of this here, and to follow, later follow up, a letter from defra, AND SEE SUSPICIOUS BRAIN TISSUE SAF's. ...TSS 


TSE & HOUNDS GAH WELLS (very important statement here...TSS) 

***> HOUND STUDY AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease. 

snip... 


76 pages on hound study; 

snip... 

http://web.archive.org/web/20030327022236/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/seac16/tab04.pdf 

The spongiform changes were not pathognomonic (ie. conclusive proof) for prion disease, as they were atypical, being largely present in white matter rather than grey matter in the brain and spinal cord. However, Tony Scott, then head of electron microscopy work on TSEs, had no doubt that these SAFs were genuine and that these hounds therefore must have had a scrapie-like disease. I reviewed all the sections myself (original notes appended) and although the pathology was not typical, I could not exclude the possibility that this was a scrapie-like disorder, as white matter vacuolation is seen in TSEs and Wallerian degeneration was also present in the white matter of the hounds, another feature of scrapie. 

38.I reviewed the literature on hound neuropathology, and discovered that micrographs and descriptive neuropathology from papers on 'hound ataxia' mirrored those in material from Robert Higgins' hound survey. Dr Tony Palmer (Cambridge) had done much of this work, and I obtained original sections from hound ataxia cases from him. This enabled me provisionally to conclude that Robert Higgins had in all probability detected hound ataxia, but also that hound ataxia itself was possibly a TSE. Gerald Wells confirmed in 'blind' examination of single restricted microscopic fields that there was no distinction between the white matter vacuolation present in BSE and scrapie cases, and that occurring in hound ataxia and the hound survey cases. 

39.Hound ataxia had reportedly been occurring since the 1930's, and a known risk factor for its development was the feeding to hounds of downer cows, and particularly bovine offal. Circumstantial evidence suggests that bovine offal may also be causal in FSE, and TME in mink. Despite the inconclusive nature of the neuropathology, it was clearly evident that this putative canine spongiform encephalopathy merited further investigation. 

40.The inconclusive results in hounds were never confirmed, nor was the link with hound ataxia pursued. I telephoned Robert Higgins six years after he first sent the slides to CVL. I was informed that despite his submitting a yearly report to the CVO including the suggestion that the hound work be continued, no further work had been done since 1991. This was surprising, to say the very least. 

41.The hound work could have provided valuable evidence that a scrapie-like agent may have been present in cattle offal long before the BSE epidemic was recognised. The MAFF hound survey remains unpublished. Histopathological support to various other published MAFF experiments 

42.These included neuropathological examination of material from experiments studying the attempted transmission of BSE to chickens and pigs (CVL 1991) and to mice (RVC 1994). 

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/witness/htm/stat067.htm 

It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405 ), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.

 snip...

 http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s324.pdf

 NEW URL ;


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE TSE PRION U.S.A.

 Michigan DNR reports 13 more cases of CWD TSE Prion with 88 total to date

Total Deer Tested and Total Positives Cases

Deer Tested for Chronic Wasting Disease Since Detection of First Positive Free-ranging Deer (May 2015)

Click the Power Bi full view arrow icon in the lower right corner to maximize the interactive dashboard. Note: If the heat map does not automatically display (lower left), double-click in its window to activate it. 

Michigan Lower Peninsula townships where free-ranging deer have tested positive for CWD


TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2018 

Michigan DNR reports 5 more cases of CWD TSE Prion with 75 total to date


TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2018 

MICHIGAN U.P. CWD Task Force continues work after deer confirmed with disease in Dickinson County


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 03, 2018 

Michigan DNR reports 70 case of CWD while michigan-sportsman.com otcarcher still spreading fake news blaming the poor squirrels


WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 31, 2018 

Michigan Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Cases Jump To 69 to Date


FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19, 2018 

Michigan Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Cases Mounts To 64


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2018 

Michigan Deer tests positive for chronic wasting disease in Dickinson County


Michigan adds another CWD TSE Prion case, total at 63 to date

Total Deer Tested and Total Positives Cases 63


WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 

Michigan adds another CWD TSE Prion case, total at 62 to date


MONDAY, AUGUST 27, 2018 

Michigan Adds Another CWD TSE Prion Case Total Increases To 61 to date


WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 2018 

Michigan Department of Natural Resources Slowing the spread of CWD UPDATE Sept 19 2018


THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 2018 

Michigan First case of chronic wasting disease suspected in Jackson County


THURSDAY, JUNE 07, 2018 

Michigan DNR to present chronic wasting disease recommendations to Natural Resources Commission Singeltary submission 


WEDNESDAY, MARCH 07, 2018 

***> Michigan DNR CWD National Perspective: Captive Herd Certification Program - Dr. Tracy Nichols

***> CURRENT STATUS OF CWD IN CAPTIVE CERVID HERDS IN 16 STATES AS OF MAY 2017

43 ELK HERDS

37 WTD HERDS

1 RED DEER HERD

6 MIX SPECIES HERDS

85 CWD-POSITIVE CAPTIVE HERDS 

snip...see



TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 2018 

Hunters and citizens invited to collaborate on Michigan's chronic wasting disease response


FRIDAY, MARCH 30, 2018 

Michigan Mecosta County man sentenced following DNR investigation Game ranch owner falsified information related to chronic wasting disease testing


what is Michigan feeding their cervid ??? 

2017 Section 21 C.F.R. 589.2000, Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed

Subject: MICHIGAN FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE BREACH APRIL 4, 2017

MICHIGAN FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE BREACH APRIL 4, 2017

FDA BSE/Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory 

11998 DET-DO MI 48846-847 OPR 4/4/2017 OAI 


NAI = NO ACTION INDICATED

OAI = OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED

VAI = VOLUNTARY ACTION INDICATED

RTS = REFERRED TO STATE

OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation... An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions....end...TSS

WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 2018

CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS FDA EMERGENCY REQUEST FOR RULE CHANGE USA Section 21 C.F.R. 589.2000


Wisconsin CWD TSE Prion

LISTEN TO THIS NICE LITTLE CWD BLUES DIDDY BY TAMI ABOUT WISCONSIN CWD TSE PRION. WOW, ANNUAL UPDATES NOW, FROM HERE ON OUT, ABOUT CWD...200,000 CWD TESTS, WITH OVER 3500 CWD POSITIVE CASES, SEEING INCREASING TRENDS IN PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION...CARCASS DISPOSAL SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE...CWD SAMPLING EFFORTS GONE DONE, WHILE CWD POSITIVES HAVE GONE UP...ALSO, 40 SELF SERVING KIOSKS ACROSS STATE AND FREE HUNTER SERVICE CWD TESTING AND SICK DEER POLICY REPORTING AND TESTING ACROSS STATE!


MONDAY, NOVEMBER 26, 2018 

Wisconsin CWD spreads on deer and elk farms as control efforts stumble


CWD, Wisconsin, Texas, and Dr. James Kroll

OPINION BLOG 

These are just two insights into the man who has been asked to provide analysis and recommended changes to Wisconsin’s deer management program. 

Kroll’s insights are from an article entitled “Which Side of the Fence Are You On?” 

by Joe Nick Patoski for a past edition of Texas Monthly. 

If nothing more, the article gives an unabashed look into the mind-set that will be providing the Wisconsin DNR with recommendations on how to change their deer management practices. 

James Kroll (also known as “Deer Dr.”) was appointed to the Wisconsin “deer czar” position last fall. 

He was hired by the Department of Administration and instructed to complete a review of the state’s deer management program. 

 Here’s a sample of the article: 

“Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.” 

Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas. 

The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. 

His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world. 

Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. 

People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. 

He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. 

He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land. 

snip...

It is interesting to note that, in 2001, the State of Texas shifted its deer management strategies toward the same leanings that Kroll has suggested for Wisconsin. 

In Texas, the change was brought about via heavy lobbying from the high-fence deer ranching industry. This pressure helped convince the Texas Parks and Wildlife to change their regulations and allow private landowners to select the own deer biologists.


FRIDAY, JUNE 01, 2012 

TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS


THURSDAY, MARCH 29, 2012 

TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK


WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 03, 2018 

WISCONSIN CAVES TO GAME FARM INDUSTRY AGAIN WHILE STATE FALLS FURTHER INTO THE ABYSS OF MAD DEER DISEASE CWD TSE PRION


TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2018 

WISCONSIN Captive CWD TSE Prion Lotto Entitlement Program Pays Out Again Indemnity From Taxpayers $330,000 To Farmers So Far This Year


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 2018 

Wisconsin CWD TSE PRION PLAN preferred option disposal in a landfill OR public land is acceptable to leave the carcass in the spot of the kill

stupid is, as stupid does, sometimes you can't fix stupid...tss


WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13, 2018 

Wisconsin DATCP NVSL confirmed 21 WTD from a deer farm Iowa County tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD)


FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 2018 

Wisconsin Deer from Now-Quarantined PA Lancaster County Farm Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion


FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 2018 

Wisconsin Stop private deer industry from trucking CWD across state Durkin: Stop private deer industry from trucking CWD across state


MONDAY, MARCH 05, 2018 

TRUCKING AROUND AND SPREADING CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION VIA MOVEMENT OF CERVID AND TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES


MONDAY, MARCH 20, 2017 

Wisconsin CWD TSE Prion Annual Roundup 441 positive 


Sunday, May 08, 2016

*** WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION SPIRALING FURTHER INTO THE ABYSS UPDATE ***

Wisconsin Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion


Wednesday, February 10, 2016

*** Wisconsin Two deer that escaped farm had chronic wasting disease CWD ***


Sunday, January 17, 2016

*** Wisconsin Captive CWD Lotto Pays Out Again indemnity payment of $298,770 for 228 white-tailed deer killed on farm ***


Mon, Nov 26, 2018 11:08 pm

Texas TPWD Reports 2 more cases of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion in Breeder Deer, Release site total jumps to 132 Confirmed to date

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 03, 2018 

Texas Reports 13 more cases of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion in Breeder Deer state total jumps to 130 Confirmed to date


MONDAY, AUGUST 14, 2017 

Singeltary on Texas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion History


THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 2018 

TEXAS TAHC How Does the Exotic CWD Susceptible Species Rule Apply To You?


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 09, 2018 

Mississippi MDWFP Third CWD TSE Prion Suspected in Second Issaquena County White-tailed Deer 11/9/2018


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 2018 

Pennsylvania Thirty-Eight Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease on Fulton and Bedford County Deer Farms


FRIDAY, JUNE 08, 2018 

Pennsylvania Two Deer on Blair County Hobby Farm, One on Lancaster County Breeding Farm Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease cwd tse prion


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 09, 2018 

Minnesota CWD TSE Prion detected four harvested samples from farmed deer quarantined farm Crow Wing County


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 09, 2018 

Minnesota Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Captive Cervid Farming SSS testing policy


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2018 

Montana three deer harvested in Blaine County have tested positive for chronic wasting disease


THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 08, 2018 

Montana Testing confirms chronic wasting disease in deer harvested in Liberty and Carbon counties 


THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 2018 

Nebraska NEFGA Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion 02106-19-40 North Platte River 279 NPR279 Lymph node sample Positive


WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 2018 

Wyoming WGFD Chronic wasting disease cwd tse prion detected in Grand Teton National Park 


WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 07, 2018 

Wyoming WGFD CWD found in a second new deer hunt area 32 near Kaycee


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 25, 2018 

Missouri MDC reports DEAD deer tests positive for CWD in Oregon County


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2018 

Illinois CWD in FY2018 Fifty-one CWD-positive deer were identified from 8,665 usable WT deer samples collected statewide


TUESDAY, OCTOBER 30, 2018 

Akansas Chronic Wasting Disease TSE Prion CWD positive deer found in Johnson County


MONDAY, AUGUST 27, 2018 

Arkansas AGFC Many CWD testing options available for 2018-19 deer season with 369 positive as of January 8, 2018


SUNDAY, OCTOBER 07, 2018 

Kansas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Update 143 Confirmed Cases To Date


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 

Colorado Parks and Wildlife seeks input on chronic wasting disease plan


THURSDAY, APRIL 12, 2018 

New Mexico Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion 2017 2018 Sample Survey Update


TUESDAY, AUGUST 07, 2018 

Cervid Health Operational Plan Fiscal Year 2018 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services Veterinary Services


SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 2018 

This Map Spells Trouble for the Future of Deer Hunting CWD TSE Prion Consumption, Exposure, and Zoonosis Potential


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 2018 

USA CJD, BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, TSE PRION END OF YEAR REPORTS September 4, 2018

prepare for the storm...


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 2018 

***> cwd, bse, scrapie, cjd, tse prion updated November 10 2018


1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8 

***> Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery. 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. 

Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of 

Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 

Bethesda, MD 20892. 

Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them. 

PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 



***> CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS PRION CONFERENCE 2018


P69 Experimental transmission of CWD from white-tailed deer to co-housed reindeer 

Mitchell G (1), Walther I (1), Staskevicius A (1), Soutyrine A (1), Balachandran A (1) 

(1) National & OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) continues to be detected in wild and farmed cervid populations of North America, affecting predominantly white-tailed deer, mule deer and elk. Extensive herds of wild caribou exist in northern regions of Canada, although surveillance has not detected the presence of CWD in this population. Oral experimental transmission has demonstrated that reindeer, a species closely related to caribou, are susceptible to CWD. Recently, CWD was detected for the first time in Europe, in wild Norwegian reindeer, advancing the possibility that caribou in North America could also become infected. Given the potential overlap in habitat between wild CWD-infected cervids and wild caribou herds in Canada, we sought to investigate the horizontal transmissibility of CWD from white-tailed deer to reindeer. 

Two white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with a brain homogenate prepared from a farmed Canadian white-tailed deer previously diagnosed with CWD. Two reindeer, with no history of exposure to CWD, were housed in the same enclosure as the white-tailed deer, 3.5 months after the deer were orally inoculated. The white-tailed deer developed clinical signs consistent with CWD beginning at 15.2 and 21 months post-inoculation (mpi), and were euthanized at 18.7 and 23.1 mpi, respectively. Confirmatory testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot demonstrated widespread aggregates of pathological prion protein (PrPCWD) in the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues of both inoculated white-tailed deer. Both reindeer were subjected to recto-anal mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy at 20 months post-exposure (mpe) to the white-tailed deer. The biopsy from one reindeer contained PrPCWD confirmed by IHC. This reindeer displayed only subtle clinical evidence of disease prior to a rapid decline in condition requiring euthanasia at 22.5 mpe. Analysis of tissues from this reindeer by IHC revealed widespread PrPCWD deposition, predominantly in central nervous system and lymphoreticular tissues. Western blot molecular profiles were similar between both orally inoculated white-tailed deer and the CWD positive reindeer. Despite sharing the same enclosure, the other reindeer was RAMALT negative at 20 mpe, and PrPCWD was not detected in brainstem and lymphoid tissues following necropsy at 35 mpe. Sequencing of the prion protein gene from both reindeer revealed differences at several codons, which may have influenced susceptibility to infection. 

Natural transmission of CWD occurs relatively efficiently amongst cervids, supporting the expanding geographic distribution of disease and the potential for transmission to previously naive populations. The efficient horizontal transmission of CWD from white-tailed deer to reindeer observed here highlights the potential for reindeer to become infected if exposed to other cervids or environments infected with CWD. 



Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years

Gudmundur Georgsson,1 Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3

Correspondence

Gudmundur Georgsson ggeorgs@hi.is

1 Institute for Experimental Pathology, University of Iceland, Keldur v/vesturlandsveg, IS-112 Reykjavı´k, Iceland

2 Laboratory of the Chief Veterinary Officer, Keldur, Iceland

3 Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Received 7 March 2006 Accepted 6 August 2006

In 1978, a rigorous programme was implemented to stop the spread of, and subsequently eradicate, sheep scrapie in Iceland. Affected flocks were culled, premises were disinfected and, after 2–3 years, restocked with lambs from scrapie-free areas. Between 1978 and 2004, scrapie recurred on 33 farms. Nine of these recurrences occurred 14–21 years after culling, apparently as the result of environmental contamination, but outside entry could not always be absolutely excluded. Of special interest was one farm with a small, completely self-contained flock where scrapie recurred 18 years after culling, 2 years after some lambs had been housed in an old sheephouse that had never been disinfected. Epidemiological investigation established with near certitude that the disease had not been introduced from the outside and it is concluded that the agent may have persisted in the old sheep-house for at least 16 years.

 
21 YEARS! 


***>>>Nine of these recurrences occurred 14–21 years after culling, apparently as the result of environmental contamination, but outside entry could not always be absolutely excluded...tss 


***> CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS PRION CONFERENCE 2018

P69 Experimental transmission of CWD from white-tailed deer to co-housed reindeer 

Mitchell G (1), Walther I (1), Staskevicius A (1), Soutyrine A (1), Balachandran A (1) 

(1) National & OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) continues to be detected in wild and farmed cervid populations of North America, affecting predominantly white-tailed deer, mule deer and elk. Extensive herds of wild caribou exist in northern regions of Canada, although surveillance has not detected the presence of CWD in this population. Oral experimental transmission has demonstrated that reindeer, a species closely related to caribou, are susceptible to CWD. Recently, CWD was detected for the first time in Europe, in wild Norwegian reindeer, advancing the possibility that caribou in North America could also become infected. Given the potential overlap in habitat between wild CWD-infected cervids and wild caribou herds in Canada, we sought to investigate the horizontal transmissibility of CWD from white-tailed deer to reindeer. 

Two white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with a brain homogenate prepared from a farmed Canadian white-tailed deer previously diagnosed with CWD. Two reindeer, with no history of exposure to CWD, were housed in the same enclosure as the white-tailed deer, 3.5 months after the deer were orally inoculated. The white-tailed deer developed clinical signs consistent with CWD beginning at 15.2 and 21 months post-inoculation (mpi), and were euthanized at 18.7 and 23.1 mpi, respectively. Confirmatory testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot demonstrated widespread aggregates of pathological prion protein (PrPCWD) in the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues of both inoculated white-tailed deer. Both reindeer were subjected to recto-anal mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy at 20 months post-exposure (mpe) to the white-tailed deer. The biopsy from one reindeer contained PrPCWD confirmed by IHC. This reindeer displayed only subtle clinical evidence of disease prior to a rapid decline in condition requiring euthanasia at 22.5 mpe. Analysis of tissues from this reindeer by IHC revealed widespread PrPCWD deposition, predominantly in central nervous system and lymphoreticular tissues. Western blot molecular profiles were similar between both orally inoculated white-tailed deer and the CWD positive reindeer. Despite sharing the same enclosure, the other reindeer was RAMALT negative at 20 mpe, and PrPCWD was not detected in brainstem and lymphoid tissues following necropsy at 35 mpe. Sequencing of the prion protein gene from both reindeer revealed differences at several codons, which may have influenced susceptibility to infection. 

Natural transmission of CWD occurs relatively efficiently amongst cervids, supporting the expanding geographic distribution of disease and the potential for transmission to previously naive populations. The efficient horizontal transmission of CWD from white-tailed deer to reindeer observed here highlights the potential for reindeer to become infected if exposed to other cervids or environments infected with CWD. 


 
TITLE: PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN REINDEER AND DEMONSTRATION OF HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION 


 
*** DECEMBER 2016 CDC EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL CWD HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION 



SEE;

Back around 2000, 2001, or so, I was corresponding with officials abroad during the bse inquiry, passing info back and forth, and some officials from here inside USDA aphis FSIS et al. In fact helped me get into the USA 50 state emergency BSE conference call way back. That one was a doozy. But I always remember what “deep throat” I never knew who they were, but I never forgot;

Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -

Confidential!!!!

As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that TSE contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!! A very frightening revelation!!!

---end personal email---end...tss



Infectivity surviving ashing to 600*C is (in my opinion) degradable but infective. based on Bown & Gajdusek, (1991), landfill and burial may be assumed to have a reduction factor of 98% (i.e. a factor of 50) over 3 years. CJD-infected brain-tissue remained infectious after storing at room-temperature for 22 months (Tateishi et al, 1988). Scrapie agent is known to remain viable after at least 30 months of desiccation (Wilson et al, 1950). and pastures that had been grazed by scrapie-infected sheep still appeared to be contaminated with scrapie agent three years after they were last occupied by sheep (Palsson, 1979).


Dr. Paul Brown Scrapie Soil Test BSE Inquiry Document


Using in vitro Prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission. 

Claudio Soto Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. 

Prion and prion-like proteins are misfolded protein aggregates with the ability to selfpropagate to spread disease between cells, organs and in some cases across individuals. I n T r a n s m i s s i b l e s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathies (TSEs), prions are mostly composed by a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc), which propagates by transmitting its misfolding to the normal prion protein (PrPC). The availability of a procedure to replicate prions in the laboratory may be important to study the mechanism of prion and prion-like spreading and to develop high sensitive detection of small quantities of misfolded proteins in biological fluids, tissues and environmental samples. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA is a platform technology that may enable amplification of any prion-like misfolded protein aggregating through a seeding/nucleation process. In TSEs, PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of one single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. Using PMCA we have been able to detect PrPSc in blood and urine of experimentally infected animals and humans affected by vCJD with high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we have expanded the principles of PMCA to amplify amyloid-beta (Aβ) and alphasynuclein (α-syn) aggregates implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. Experiments are ongoing to study the utility of this technology to detect Aβ and α-syn aggregates in samples of CSF and blood from patients affected by these diseases.

=========================

***>>> Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

========================

Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis. 



New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication 



Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production 



Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area 



A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing 



Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals 



PPo4-4: 

Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial 




Discussion Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible disease because it has been reported in naïve, supposedly previously unexposed sheep placed in pastures formerly occupied by scrapie-infected sheep (4, 19, 20). 

Although the vector for disease transmission is not known, soil is likely to be an important reservoir for prions (2) where – based on studies in rodents – prions can adhere to minerals as a biologically active form (21) and remain infectious for more than 2 years (22). 

Similarly, chronic wasting disease (CWD) has re-occurred in mule deer housed in paddocks used by infected deer 2 years earlier, which was assumed to be through foraging and soil consumption (23). 

Our study suggested that the risk of acquiring scrapie infection was greater through exposure to contaminated wooden, plastic, and metal surfaces via water or food troughs, fencing, and hurdles than through grazing. 

Drinking from a water trough used by the scrapie flock was sufficient to cause infection in sheep in a clean building. 

Exposure to fences and other objects used for rubbing also led to infection, which supported the hypothesis that skin may be a vector for disease transmission (9). 

The risk of these objects to cause infection was further demonstrated when 87% of 23 sheep presented with PrPSc in lymphoid tissue after grazing on one of the paddocks, which contained metal hurdles, a metal lamb creep and a water trough in contact with the scrapie flock up to 8 weeks earlier, whereas no infection had been demonstrated previously in sheep grazing on this paddock, when equipped with new fencing and field furniture. 

When the contaminated furniture and fencing were removed, the infection rate dropped significantly to 8% of 12 sheep, with soil of the paddock as the most likely source of infection caused by shedding of prions from the scrapie-infected sheep in this paddock up to a week earlier. 

This study also indicated that the level of contamination of field furniture sufficient to cause infection was dependent on two factors: stage of incubation period and time of last use by scrapie-infected sheep. 

Drinking from a water trough that had been used by scrapie sheep in the predominantly pre-clinical phase did not appear to cause infection, whereas infection was shown in sheep drinking from the water trough used by scrapie sheep in the later stage of the disease. 

It is possible that contamination occurred through shedding of prions in saliva, which may have contaminated the surface of the water trough and subsequently the water when it was refilled. 

Contamination appeared to be sufficient to cause infection only if the trough was in contact with sheep that included clinical cases. 

Indeed, there is an increased risk of bodily fluid infectivity with disease progression in scrapie (24) and CWD (25) based on PrPSc detection by sPMCA. 

Although ultraviolet light and heat under natural conditions do not inactivate prions (26), furniture in contact with the scrapie flock, which was assumed to be sufficiently contaminated to cause infection, did not act as vector for disease if not used for 18 months, which suggest that the weathering process alone was sufficient to inactivate prions. 

PrPSc detection by sPMCA is increasingly used as a surrogate for infectivity measurements by bioassay in sheep or mice. 

In this reported study, however, the levels of PrPSc present in the environment were below the limit of detection of the sPMCA method, yet were still sufficient to cause infection of in-contact animals. 

In the present study, the outdoor objects were removed from the infected flock 8 weeks prior to sampling and were positive by sPMCA at very low levels (2 out of 37 reactions). 

As this sPMCA assay also yielded 2 positive reactions out of 139 in samples from the scrapie-free farm, the sPMCA assay could not detect PrPSc on any of the objects above the background of the assay. 

False positive reactions with sPMCA at a low frequency associated with de novo formation of infectious prions have been reported (27, 28). 

This is in contrast to our previous study where we demonstrated that outdoor objects that had been in contact with the scrapie-infected flock up to 20 days prior to sampling harbored PrPSc that was detectable by sPMCA analysis [4 out of 15 reactions (12)] and was significantly more positive by the assay compared to analogous samples from the scrapie-free farm. 

This discrepancy could be due to the use of a different sPMCA substrate between the studies that may alter the efficiency of amplification of the environmental PrPSc. 

In addition, the present study had a longer timeframe between the objects being in contact with the infected flock and sampling, which may affect the levels of extractable PrPSc. 

Alternatively, there may be potentially patchy contamination of this furniture with PrPSc, which may have been missed by swabbing. 

The failure of sPMCA to detect CWD-associated PrP in saliva from clinically affected deer despite confirmation of infectivity in saliva-inoculated transgenic mice was associated with as yet unidentified inhibitors in saliva (29), and it is possible that the sensitivity of sPMCA is affected by other substances in the tested material. 

In addition, sampling of amplifiable PrPSc and subsequent detection by sPMCA may be more difficult from furniture exposed to weather, which is supported by the observation that PrPSc was detected by sPMCA more frequently in indoor than outdoor furniture (12). 

A recent experimental study has demonstrated that repeated cycles of drying and wetting of prion-contaminated soil, equivalent to what is expected under natural weathering conditions, could reduce PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period in hamsters inoculated with soil samples (30). 

This seems to apply also to this study even though the reduction in infectivity was more dramatic in the sPMCA assays than in the sheep model. 

Sheep were not kept until clinical end-point, which would have enabled us to compare incubation periods, but the lack of infection in sheep exposed to furniture that had not been in contact with scrapie sheep for a longer time period supports the hypothesis that prion degradation and subsequent loss of infectivity occurs even under natural conditions. 

In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. 

These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes. 

Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification 


Wednesday, December 16, 2015 

*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission *** 


Friday, December 14, 2012

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

snip.....

In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration's BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.

Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:

1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and

2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.

The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.

Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.

There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.

snip.....

36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).

The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.

snip.....

The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).

snip.....

In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.

snip.....

In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible... For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.

snip.....

Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.

snip.....


TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2017 

*** EXTREME USA FDA PART 589 TSE PRION FEED LOOP HOLE STILL EXIST, AND PRICE OF POKER GOES UP ***


TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION


THIS April, 4, 2017 

violation of the mad cow 21 CFR 589.2000 OAI is very serious for the great state of Michigan, some 20 years post FDA mad cow feed of August 1997. if would most likely take a FOIA request and a decade of wrangling to find out more. 

TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION 

I would kindly like to comment on this FDA BSE/Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)4 format, for reporting these breaches of BSE TSE prion protocols, from the extensive mad cow feed ban warning letters the fda use to put out for each violations. simply put, this excel format sucks, and the FDA et al intentionally made it this difficult to follow the usda fda mad cow follies. this is an intentional format to make it as difficult as possible to follow these breaches of the mad cow TSE prion safety feed protocols. to have absolutely no chronological or numerical order, and to format such violations in a way that they are almost impossible to find, says a lot about just how far the FDA and our fine federal friends will go through to hide these continued violations of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban, and any breaches of protocols there from. once again, the wolf guarding the henhouse $$$

NAI = NO ACTION INDICATED

OAI = OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED

VAI = VOLUNTARY ACTION INDICATED

RTS = REFERRED TO STATE

OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions. 

2016


ONE more thing, please remember, the label does not have to say ''deer ration'' for cervid to be pumped up with. you can get the same ''high protein'' from many sources of high protein feed for animals other than cattle, and feed them to cervid...

Saturday, August 29, 2009

FOIA REQUEST FEED RECALL 2009 Product may have contained prohibited materials Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009


Friday, September 4, 2009

FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009


WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 2018 

CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS FDA EMERGENCY REQUEST FOR RULE CHANGE USA Section 21 C.F.R. 589.2000


TUESDAY, JULY 10, 2018 CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS *** 

''but feeding of other ruminant protein, including scrapie-infected sheep, can continue to pigs.'' 

CONFIDENTIAL 

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS 


***>10 years post mad cow feed ban August 1997

10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007
 
Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST
 
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II
 
PRODUCT
 
Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007
 
CODE
 
Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007
 
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
 
Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.
 
Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
 
REASON
 
Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
 
42,090 lbs.
 
DISTRIBUTION
 
WI
 
___________________________________
 
PRODUCT
 
Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007
 
CODE
 
The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.
 
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
 
Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.
 
REASON
 
Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
 
9,997,976 lbs.
 
DISTRIBUTION
 
ID and NV
 
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007
 
http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/EnforcementReports/2007/ucm120446.htm

USDA 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AND HOW NOT TO FIND BSE CASES (OFFICIAL DRAFT OIG REPORT) 

snip... 


CATTLE With CNS Symptoms Were NOT Always Tested 

snip... 

Between FYs 2002 and 2004, FSIS condemned 680 cattle of all ages due to CNS symptoms. About 357 of these could be classified as adult. We could validate that ONLY 162 were tested for BSE (per APHIS records. ... 

snip... 

WE interviewed officials at five laboratories that test for rabies. Those officials CONFIRMED THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED TO SUBMIT RABIES-NEGATIVE SAMPLES TO APHIS FOR BSE TESTING. A South Dakota laboratory official said they were not aware they could submit rabies-negative samples to APHIS for BSE testing. A laboratory official in another State said all rabies-negative cases were not submitted to APHIS because BSE was ''NOT ON THEIR RADAR SCREEN." Officials from New York, Wisconsin, TEXAS, and Iowa advised they would NOT submit samples from animals they consider too young. Four of the five States contacted defined this age as 24 months; Wisconsin defined it as 30 months. TEXAS officials also advised that they do not always have sufficient tissue remaining to submit a BSE sample. ... 

snip... 

FULL TEXT 54 PAGES OF HOW NOT TO FIND BSE IN USA ; 

http://www.house.gov/reform/min/pdfs_108_2/pdfs_inves/pdf_food_usda_mad_cow_july_13_ig_rep.pdf 

USDA/FDA MAD COW PROTEIN IN COMMERCE 2006

MAD COW FEED RECALL USA SEPT 6, 2006 1961.72 TONS IN COMMERCE AL,
TN, AND WV

Date: September 6, 2006 at 7:58 am PST

PRODUCT
a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6;
b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6;
c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6;
d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6.
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone
on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. Firm initiated recall is
complete.
REASON
Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based
protein.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
477.72 tons
DISTRIBUTION
AL
______________________________

PRODUCT
a) Dairy feed, custom, Recall # V-134-6;
b) Custom Dairy Feed with Monensin, Recall # V-135-6.
CODE
None. Bulk product
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Recalling Firm: Burkmann Feed, Greeneville, TN, by Telephone beginning on
June 28, 2006.
Manufacturer: H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL. Firm initiated
recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of dairy feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone
meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
1,484 tons
DISTRIBUTION
TN and WV

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00968.html

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALLS ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006 KY, LA,
MS, AL, GA, AND TN 11,000+ TONS
Date: August 16, 2006 at 9:19 am PST

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE - CLASS II
______________________________

PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-115-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Hiseville Feed & Seed Co., Hiseville, KY, by telephone and letter on or
about July 14, 2006. FDA initiated recall is ongoing.
REASON
Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain
ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
Approximately 2,223 tons
DISTRIBUTION
KY

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-116-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Rips Farm Center, Tollesboro, KY, by telephone and letter on July 14, 2006.
FDA initiated recall is ongoing.
REASON
Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain
ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
1,220 tons
DISTRIBUTION
KY

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-117-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Kentwood Co-op, Kentwood, LA, by telephone on June 27, 2006. FDA initiated
recall is completed.
REASON
Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients
that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone
meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
40 tons
DISTRIBUTION
LA and MS

______________________________

PRODUCT
Bulk Dairy Feed, Recall V-118-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Cal Maine Foods, Inc., Edwards, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. FDA
initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients
that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone
meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
7,150 tons
DISTRIBUTION
MS

______________________________

PRODUCT
Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-119-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Walthall County Co-op, Tylertown, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. Firm
initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and
bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
87 tons
DISTRIBUTION
MS

______________________________

PRODUCT
Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-120-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm
initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and
bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
350 tons
DISTRIBUTION
AL and MS

______________________________

PRODUCT
a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;
b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;
c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;
d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD
Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;
e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags,
Recall # V-125-6;
f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags,
Recall # V-126-6;
g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher,
50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6
CODE
All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit
on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006.
Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated
recall is ongoing.
REASON
Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based
protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
7,541-50 lb bags
DISTRIBUTION
AL, GA, MS, and TN

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006

###


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ENFORCE/2006/ENF00964.html


Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL MI MAMMALIAN PROTEIN VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN
COMMERCE 27,694,240 lbs
Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:14 pm PST
PRODUCT
Bulk custom dairy feds manufactured from concentrates, Recall # V-113-6
CODE
All dairy feeds produced between 2/1/05 and 6/16/06 and containing H. J.
Baker recalled feed products.
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Vita Plus Corp., Gagetown, MI, by visit beginning on June 21, 2006. Firm
initiated recall is complete.
REASON
The feed was manufactured from materials that may have been contaminated
with mammalian protein.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
27,694,240 lbs
DISTRIBUTION
MI

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

###

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00963.html

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125
TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006
Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST
PRODUCT
a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;
b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated,
net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;
c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;
d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated,
Recall # V-103-6;
e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend,
Recall # V-104-6;
f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted,
Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;
g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020,
Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;
h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete
Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated,
Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs,
Recall # V-107-6;
i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying
Chickens, Recall # 108-6;
j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;
k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED,
net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;
l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs,
Recall # V-111-6;
m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs,
Recall # V-112-6
CODE
Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and
visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

REASON

Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based
protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

125 tons

DISTRIBUTION

AL and FL


END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

###

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00963.html

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL KY VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE ?????
Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:19 pm PST
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-114-6
CODE
None

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Burkmann Feeds LLC, Glasgow, KY, by letter on July 14, 2006. Firm initiated
recall is ongoing.

REASON

Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak, which may contain
ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

?????

DISTRIBUTION

KY

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

###


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00963.html

CJD WATCH MESSAGE BOARD
TSS
MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE
Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22
71.248.128.67


RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II
______________________________

PRODUCT
a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals,
Recall # V-079-6;
b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg),
Recall # V-080-6;
c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL
FEED, Recall # V-081-6;
d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6
CODE
a) Bulk
b) None
c) Bulk
d) Bulk

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and
by press release on June 16, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON

Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone
meal.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

10,878.06 tons

DISTRIBUTION

Nationwide

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006

###


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00960.html

***> IMPORTS AND EXPORTS <***

***SEE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF BANNED ANIMAL PROTEIN AKA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA DECADES AFTER POST BAN ***




Sunday, March 20, 2016

Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed ***UPDATED MARCH 2016*** Singeltary Submission


SEE MAD COW FEED VIOLATIONS AFER MAD COW FEED VIOLATIONS ;


TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION


Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0764 for Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards Singeltary Comment Submission


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 

Cervid to human prion transmission 5R01NS088604-04 Update


***2018***

Cervid to human prion transmission 

Kong, Qingzhong 

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Abstract 

Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. 

We hypothesize that: 

(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues; 

(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence; 

(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans; and 

(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches. 

Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of humanized Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental human CWD samples will also be generated for Aim 3. 

Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1. 

Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental human CWD samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. 

Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

Public Health Relevance

There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

 Funding Agency

Agency

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Institute

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

Type

Research Project (R01)

Project #

5R01NS088604-04

Application #

9517118

Study Section

Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND)

Program Officer Wong, May

Project Start 2015-09-30 Project End 2019-07-31 Budget Start 2018-08-01 Budget End 2019-07-31 Support Year 4 Fiscal Year 2018 Total Cost Indirect Cost Institution Name Case Western Reserve University Department Pathology Type Schools of Medicine DUNS # 077758407 City Cleveland State OH Country United States Zip Code 44106

 Related projects

NIH 2018 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 

NIH 2017 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 

NIH 2016 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 

NIH 2015 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University $337,507


ZOONOTIC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE

here is the latest;

PRION 2018 CONFERENCE 

Oral transmission of CWD into Cynomolgus macaques: signs of atypical disease, prion conversion and infectivity in macaques and bio-assayed transgenic mice 

Hermann M. Schatzl, Samia Hannaoui, Yo-Ching Cheng, Sabine Gilch (Calgary Prion Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada) Michael Beekes (RKI Berlin), Walter Schulz-Schaeffer (University of Homburg/Saar, Germany), Christiane Stahl-Hennig (German Primate Center) & Stefanie Czub (CFIA Lethbridge). To date, BSE is the only example of interspecies transmission of an animal prion disease into humans. The potential zoonotic transmission of CWD is an alarming issue and was addressed by many groups using a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Evidence from these studies indicated a substantial, if not absolute, species barrier, aligning with the absence of epidemiological evidence suggesting transmission into humans. Studies in non-human primates were not conclusive so far, with oral transmission into new-world monkeys and no transmission into old-world monkeys. Our consortium has challenged 18 Cynomolgus macaques with characterized CWD material, focusing on oral transmission with muscle tissue. Some macaques have orally received a total of 5 kg of muscle material over a period of 2 years. 

After 5-7 years of incubation time some animals showed clinical symptoms indicative of prion disease, and prion neuropathology and PrPSc deposition were detected in spinal cord and brain of some euthanized animals. PrPSc in immunoblot was weakly detected in some spinal cord materials and various tissues tested positive in RT-QuIC, including lymph node and spleen homogenates. To prove prion infectivity in the macaque tissues, we have intracerebrally inoculated 2 lines of transgenic mice, expressing either elk or human PrP. At least 3 TgElk mice, receiving tissues from 2 different macaques, showed clinical signs of a progressive prion disease and brains were positive in immunoblot and RT-QuIC. Tissues (brain, spinal cord and spleen) from these and pre-clinical mice are currently tested using various read-outs and by second passage in mice. Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were so far negative for clear clinical prion disease (some mice >300 days p.i.). In parallel, the same macaque materials are inoculated into bank voles. 

Taken together, there is strong evidence of transmissibility of CWD orally into macaques and from macaque tissues into transgenic mouse models, although with an incomplete attack rate. 

The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology. 

Our ongoing studies will show whether the transmission of CWD into macaques and passage in transgenic mice represents a form of non-adaptive prion amplification, and whether macaque-adapted prions have the potential to infect mice expressing human PrP. 

The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD.. 

***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD. <*** 


READING OVER THE PRION 2018 ABSTRACT BOOK, LOOKS LIKE THEY FOUND THAT from this study ; 

P190 Human prion disease mortality rates by occurrence of chronic wasting disease in freeranging cervids, United States 

Abrams JY (1), Maddox RA (1), Schonberger LB (1), Person MK (1), Appleby BS (2), Belay ED (1) (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA (2) Case Western Reserve University, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), Cleveland, OH, USA.. 

SEEMS THAT THEY FOUND Highly endemic states had a higher rate of prion disease mortality compared to non-CWD states. 

AND ANOTHER STUDY; 

P172 Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Prion Disease 

Wang H(1), Cohen M(1), Appleby BS(1,2) (1) University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (2) National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Cleveland, Ohio.. 

IN THIS STUDY, THERE WERE autopsy-proven prion cases from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center that were diagnosed between September 2016 to March 2017, 

AND 

included 104 patients. SEEMS THEY FOUND THAT The most common sCJD subtype was MV1-2 (30%), followed by MM1-2 (20%), 

AND 

THAT The Majority of cases were male (60%), AND half of them had exposure to wild game. 

snip...see more on Prion 2017 Macaque study from Prion 2017 Conference and other updated science on cwd tse prion zoonosis below...terry 



just out CDC...see;

Research Susceptibility of Human Prion Protein to Conversion by Chronic Wasting Disease Prions 

Marcelo A. Barria

Adriana Libori, Gordon Mitchell, and Mark W. Head Author affiliations: National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (M.A. Barria, A. Libori, M.W. Head); National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (G. Mitchell) M. A. Barria et al. 

ABSTRACT 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal neurodegenerative disease and a serious animal health issue for deer and elk in North America. The identification of the first cases of CWD among free-ranging reindeer and moose in Europe brings back into focus the unresolved issue of whether CWD can be zoonotic like bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay to determine whether CWD prions from elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in North America can convert the human prion protein to the disease-associated form. 

We found that prions can convert, but the efficiency of conversion is affected by polymorphic variation in the cervid and human prion protein genes. In view of the similarity of reindeer, elk, and white-tailed deer in North America to reindeer, red deer, and roe deer, respectively, in Europe, a more comprehensive and thorough assessment of the zoonotic potential of CWD might be warranted. 


Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions 

Marcelo A. Barria, Aru Balachandran, Masanori Morita, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Rona Barron, Jean Manson, Richard Knight, James W. Ironside, and Mark W. Headcorresponding author 

snip... 

The conversion of human PrPC by CWD brain homogenate in PMCA reactions was less efficient when the amino acid at position 129 was valine rather than methionine. 

***Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype. 

snip... 

However, we can say with confidence that under the conditions used here, none of the animal isolates tested were as efficient as C-type BSE in converting human PrPC, which is reassuring. 

***Less reassuring is the finding that there is no absolute barrier to the conversion of human PrPC by CWD prions in a protocol using a single round of PMCA and an entirely human substrate prepared from the target organ of prion diseases, the brain. 


Prion 2017 Conference Abstracts 

CWD 2017 PRION CONFERENCE 

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 

21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. 

Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. 

Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). 

Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. 

We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. 

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. 

Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. 

All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. 

Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. 

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. 

Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. 

Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 

PRION 2017 

DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 

Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE 

DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 

VIDEO PRION 2017 CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 

*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO 



ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION 

10. ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION AKA MAD DEER ELK DISEASE IN HUMANS, has it already happened, that should be the question... 

''In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids.'' Scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (II)

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Antonia Ricci Ana Allende Declan Bolton Marianne Chemaly Robert Davies Pablo Salvador Fernández Escámez ... See all authors 

First published: 17 January 2018 https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5132 ; 

also, see; 

8. Even though human TSE‐exposure risk through consumption of game from European cervids can be assumed to be minor, if at all existing, no final conclusion can be drawn due to the overall lack of scientific data. In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids. It might be prudent considering appropriate measures to reduce such a risk, e.g. excluding tissues such as CNS and lymphoid tissues from the human food chain, which would greatly reduce any potential risk for consumers.. However, it is stressed that currently, no data regarding a risk of TSE infections from cervid products are available. 

snip... 

The tissue distribution of infectivity in CWD‐infected cervids is now known to extend beyond CNS and lymphoid tissues. While the removal of these specific tissues from the food chain would reduce human dietary exposure to infectivity, exclusion from the food chain of the whole carcass of any infected animal would be required to eliminate human dietary exposure. 


zoonosis zoonotic cervid tse prion cwd to humans, preparing for the storm 

***An alternative to modeling the species barrier is the cell-free conversion assay which points to CWD as the animal prion disease with the greatest zoonotic potential, after (and very much less than) BSE..116*** 


 To date there is no direct evidence that CWD has been or can be transmitted from animals to humans. 

However, initial findings from a laboratory research project funded by the Alberta Prion Research Institute (APRI) and Alberta Livestock Meat Agency (ALMA), and led by a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) scientist indicate that CWD has been transmitted to cynomolgus macaques (the non-human primate species most closely related to humans that may be used in research), through both the intracranial and oral routes of exposure. 

Both infected brain and muscle tissues were found to transmit disease. 

Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) was asked to consider the impact of these findings on the Branch’s current position on CWD in health products and foods. 

Summary and Recommendation: 

snip...

Health Portfolio partners were recently made aware of initial findings from a research project led by a CFIA scientist that have demonstrated that cynomolgus macaques can be infected via intracranial exposure and oral gavage with CWD infected muscle. 

These findings suggest that CWD, under specific experimental conditions, has the potential to cross the human species barrier, including by enteral feeding of CWD infected muscle. 


*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK *** 

We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. 

In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 

***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 

Student Presentations Session 2 

The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions 

Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. 

These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. 

The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. 

We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. 

We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. 

***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders 


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2017 

CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat 


SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 2018 

CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018


Subject: CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION IS THE USA AND NORTH AMERICA'S MAD COW DISEASE. 

THE USDA INC ET AL WORKED VERY HARD CONCEALING BSE TSE PRION IN CATTLE. they almost succeeded $$$

BUT CWD TSE PRION IN CERVIDS IS A DIFFERENT BEAST, THE COVER UP THERE, USDA INC COULD NOT CONTAIN.

SPORADIC CJD IS 85%+ OF ALL HUMAN TSE PRION DISEASE.

SPORADIC CJD HAS NOW BEEN LINKED TO TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL BSE, SCRAPIE, AND CWD.

SPORADIC/SPONTANEOUS TSE HAS NEVER BEEN PROVEN.

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.*** 


CDC CWD TSE PRION UPDATE USA JANUARY 2018

As of January 2018, CWD in free-ranging deer, elk and/or moose has been reported in at least 22 states in the continental United States, as well as two provinces in Canada. In addition, CWD has been reported in reindeer and moose in Norway, and a small number of imported cases have been reported in South Korea. The disease has also been found in farmed deer and elk. CWD was first identified in captive deer in the late 1960s in Colorado and in wild deer in 1981. By the 1990s, it had been reported in surrounding areas in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming. Since 2000, the area known to be affected by CWD in free-ranging animals has increased to at least 22 states, including states in the Midwest, Southwest, and limited areas on the East Coast.. It is possible that CWD may also occur in other states without strong animal surveillance systems, but that cases haven’t been detected yet. Once CWD is established in an area, the risk can remain for a long time in the environment. The affected areas are likely to continue to expand. Nationwide, the overall occurrence of CWD in free-ranging deer and elk is relatively low. However, in several locations where the disease is established, infection rates may exceed 10 percent (1 in 10), and localized infection rates of more than 25 percent (1 in 4) have been reported. The infection rates among some captive deer can be much higher, with a rate of 79% (nearly 4 in 5) reported from at least one captive herd. As of January 2018, there were 186 counties in 22 states with reported CWD in free-ranging cervids... 

Chronic Wasting Disease Among Free-Ranging Cervids by County, United States, January 2018 

snip.... 


*** 2017-2018 CWD TSE Prion UPDATE


*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. 


Transmission Studies

Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and compared with natural cases {the following was written but with a single line marked through it ''first passage (by this route)}....TSS

resulted in a more rapidly progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through contamination of inoculum (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey. Transmission occurred in ALL of these species with the shortest incubation period in the ferret.

snip.... 



Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease▿ 

Brent Race#, Kimberly Meade-White#, Richard Race and Bruce Chesebro* + Author Affiliations

In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species. 


Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease 

Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure. 


*** now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago, and then the latest on the zoonotic potential from CWD to humans from the TOKYO PRION 2016 CONFERENCE.

see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Dear Sir/Madam,

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

-----Original Message-----

From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM


Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM .......snip........end..............TSS

Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.

snip...

*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,

snip... full text ; 


> However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people. 

key word here is 'reported'. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can't, and it's as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it's being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. ...terry 

*** LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ ***

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 




SEE; Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Monday, May 23, 2011

CDC Assesses Potential Human Exposure to Prion Diseases Travel Warning

Public release date: 23-May-2011

Contact: Francesca Costanzo adajmedia@elsevier.com 215-239-3249 Elsevier Health Sciences

CDC assesses potential human exposure to prion diseases Study results reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association

Philadelphia, PA, May 23, 2011 – Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have examined the potential for human exposure to prion diseases, looking at hunting, venison consumption, and travel to areas in which prion diseases have been reported in animals. Three prion diseases in particular – bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or “Mad Cow Disease”), variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) – were specified in the investigation. The results of this investigation are published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

“While prion diseases are rare, they are generally fatal for anyone who becomes infected. More than anything else, the results of this study support the need for continued surveillance of prion diseases,” commented lead investigator Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta.”But it’s also important that people know the facts about these diseases, especially since this study shows that a good number of people have participated in activities that may expose them to infection-causing agents.”

Although rare, human prion diseases such as CJD may be related to BSE. Prion (proteinaceous infectious particles) diseases are a group of rare brain diseases that affect humans and animals. When a person gets a prion disease, brain function is impaired. This causes memory and personality changes, dementia, and problems with movement. All of these worsen over time. These diseases are invariably fatal. Since these diseases may take years to manifest, knowing the extent of human exposure to possible prion diseases could become important in the event of an outbreak.

CDC investigators evaluated the results of the 2006-2007 population survey conducted by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). This survey collects information on food consumption practices, health outcomes, and demographic characteristics of residents of the participating Emerging Infections Program sites. The survey was conducted in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, as well as five counties in the San Francisco Bay area, seven counties in the Greater Denver area, and 34 counties in western and northeastern New York.

Survey participants were asked about behaviors that could be associated with exposure to the agents causing BSE and CWD, including travel to the nine countries considered to be BSE-endemic (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain) and the cumulative length of stay in each of those countries. Respondents were asked if they ever had hunted for deer or elk, and if that hunting had taken place in areas considered to be CWD-endemic (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming or southwestern Nebraska). They were also asked if they had ever consumed venison, the frequency of consumption, and whether the meat came from the wild.

The proportion of survey respondents who reported travel to at least one of the nine BSE endemic countries since 1980 was 29.5%. Travel to the United Kingdom was reported by 19.4% of respondents, higher than to any other BSE-endemic country. Among those who traveled, the median duration of travel to the United Kingdom (14 days) was longer than that of any other BSE-endemic country.. Travelers to the UK were more likely to have spent at least 30 days in the country (24.9%) compared to travelers to any other BSE endemic country. The prevalence and extent of travel to the UK indicate that health concerns in the UK may also become issues for US residents.

The proportion of survey respondents reporting having hunted for deer or elk was 18.5% and 1.2% reported having hunted for deer or elk in CWD-endemic areas. Venison consumption was reported by 67.4% of FoodNet respondents, and 88.6% of those reporting venison consumption had obtained all of their meat from the wild. These findings reinforce the importance of CWD surveillance and control programs for wild deer and elk to reduce human exposure to the CWD agent. Hunters in CWD-endemic areas are advised to take simple precautions such as: avoiding consuming meat from sickly deer or elk, avoiding consuming brain or spinal cord tissues, minimizing the handling of brain and spinal cord tissues, and wearing gloves when field-dressing carcasses.

According to Abrams, “The 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey provides useful information should foodborne prion infection become an increasing public health concern in the future. The data presented describe the prevalence of important behaviors and their associations with demographic characteristics. Surveillance of BSE, CWD, and human prion diseases are critical aspects of addressing the burden of these diseases in animal populations and how that may relate to human health.”

###

The article is “Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey” by Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH; Ryan A. Maddox, MPH; Alexis R Harvey, MPH; Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD; and Ermias D. Belay, MD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 111, Issue 6 (June 2011) published by Elsevier.

In an accompanying podcast CDC’s Joseph Y. Abrams discusses travel, hunting, and eating venison in relation to prion diseases. It is available at http://adajournal.org/content/podcast. ;


Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH , Alexis R. Harvey, MPH , Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD , Ermias D. Belay, MD

Accepted 15 November 2010. Abstract Full Text PDF References .

Abstract

The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5% reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD–endemic area. More than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison, 59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission. 


 PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ; 

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011. 


NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II 


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Spongiform Encephalopathy in Captive Wild ZOO BSE INQUIRY 


 BSE INQUIRY

CJD9/10022

October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane 

BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended.. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all. 


*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). ***

There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02)..

The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).

snip...

It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).

snip...

In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...

snip...

In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)

snip...see full report ; 



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 26, 2018 

***> Wisconsin CWD spreads on deer and elk farms as control efforts stumble



WITH the recent findings that Scrapie will transmit to Macaque by oral route, that Scrapie and CWD TSE Prion will transit to pigs orally, recent outbreak documented of TSE Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria, atypical TSE Prion still being documented, and again just recently in the USA, of another atypical BSE case, and this discovery was only documented by testing 20k head of cattle from some 100M head of cattle in any given year in the USA, the continued denial that atypical BSE and atypical Scrapie are a transmissible disease (science has shown otherwise) this is concerning to me. Science and scientific policy makers have forgotten what Gibbs, Gajdusek, Hadlow, Alper, Zigas, even Gordon with the infamous Scrapie vaccine blunder, a discovery of valuable importance, and so many others i am failing to remember now, what some found long ago, like Dr. Gibbs, he tried to warn us about scrapie zoonosis potential, yet that went ignored for decades and decades. we/scientist/officials/the world, knows the USA FDA PART 589 TSE PRION FEED ban has failed terribly, the BSE testing has failed terribly, and the surveillance there from has failed, SRM removal breaches, all proven by the OIG or the GAO, and others. But yet, we find ourselves now debating the issue of these same risk factors for scrapie, the same risk factors that we all knew were there, with science staring us in the face, we still deny scientific facts all in the name of corporate interest. let's not continue to make these same mistakes. human and animal life is at stake here. we must remove corporate/government/lobbyist interest from the scientific policy making and regulations there from for the TSE Prion, all of them. ...Terry S. Singeltary SR.
 

 O3 Experimental studies on prion transmission barrier and TSE pathogenesis in large animals 

 Rosa Bolea(1), Acín C(1)Marín B(1), Hedman C(1), Raksa H(1), Barrio T(1), Otero A(1), LópezPérez O(1), Monleón E(1),Martín-Burriel(1), Monzón M(1), Garza MC(1), Filali H(1),Pitarch JL(1), Garcés M(1), Betancor M(1), GuijarroIM(1), GarcíaM(1), Moreno B(1),Vargas A(1), Vidal E(2), Pumarola M(2), Castilla J(3), Andréoletti O(4), Espinosa JC(5), Torres JM(5), Badiola JJ(1). 

1Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, VeterinaryFaculty, Universidad de Zaragoza; Zaragoza,Spain.2 RTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB) 3 4 INRA, ÉcoleVétérinaire, Toulouse, France.5CIC bioGUNE, Prion researchlab, Derio, Spain CISA- INIA, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain. 

Experimental transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) has been understood and related with several factors that could modify the natural development of these diseases. In fact, the behaviour of the natural disease does not match exactly in each animal, being modified by parameters such as the age at infection, the genotype, the breed or the causative strain. Moreover, different TSE strains can target different animal species or tissues, what complicate the prediction of its transmissibility when is tested in a different species of the origin source. The aim of the experimental studies in large animals is to homogenize all those factors, trying to minimize as much as possible variations between individuals. These effects can be flattened by experimental transmission in mice, in which a specific strain can be selected after several passages. With this objective, several experimental studies in large animals have been developed by the presenter research team. 

Classical scrapie agent has been inoculated in cow, with the aim of demonstrate the resistance or susceptibility of this species to the first well known TSE; Atypical scrapie has been inoculated in sheep (using several routes of infection), cow and pig, with the objective of evaluating the potential pathogenicity of this strain; Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) has been inoculated in goats aiming to demonstrate if the genetic background of this species could protect against this strain; goat BSE and sheep BSE have been inoculated in goats and pigs respectively to evaluate the effect of species barrier; and finally atypical BSE has been inoculated in cattle to assess the transmissibility properties of this newly introduced strain. 

Once the experiments have been carried out on large animal species, a collection of samples from animals studied were inoculated in different types of tg mice overexpressing PrPcin order to study the infectivity of the tissues, and also were studied using PMCA. 

In summary, the parameters that have been controlled are the species, the strain, the route of inoculation, the time at infection, the genotype, the age, and the environmental conditions. 

To date, 

***> eleven of the atypical scrapie intracerebrally inoculated sheep have succumbed to atypical scrapie disease; 

***> six pigs to sheep BSE; 

***> one cow to classical scrapie; 

***> nine goats to goat BSE and 

***> five goats to classical BSE. 

***> PrPSC has been demonstrated in all cases by immunohistochemistry and western blot. 

=====> PRION CONFERENCE 2018 



why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. 

***> I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. 

***> Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...


ZOONOSIS OF SCRAPIE TSE PRION

 O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). 

Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. 

We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health. 

=============== 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases*** 

=============== 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 

============== 


***Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

***Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 


PRION 2016 TOKYO

Saturday, April 23, 2016

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

Taylor & Francis

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion... Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 

 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. 

***> I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. 

***> Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...

R. BRADLEY


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 


***> Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility. <***

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period 

Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 11573 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract 

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

SNIP...

Discussion We describe the transmission of spongiform encephalopathy in a non-human primate inoculated 10 years earlier with a strain of sheep c-scrapie. Because of this extended incubation period in a facility in which other prion diseases are under study, we are obliged to consider two alternative possibilities that might explain its occurrence. We first considered the possibility of a sporadic origin (like CJD in humans). Such an event is extremely improbable because the inoculated animal was 14 years old when the clinical signs appeared, i.e. about 40% through the expected natural lifetime of this species, compared to a peak age incidence of 60–65 years in human sporadic CJD, or about 80% through their expected lifetimes. Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.

The second possibility is a laboratory cross-contamination. Three facts make this possibility equally unlikely. First, handling of specimens in our laboratory is performed with fastidious attention to the avoidance of any such cross-contamination. Second, no laboratory cross-contamination has ever been documented in other primate laboratories, including the NIH, even between infected and uninfected animals housed in the same or adjacent cages with daily intimate contact (P. Brown, personal communication). Third, the cerebral lesion profile is different from all the other prion diseases we have studied in this model19, with a correlation between cerebellar lesions (massive spongiform change of Purkinje cells, intense PrPres staining and reactive gliosis26) and ataxia. The iron deposits present in the globus pallidus are a non specific finding that have been reported previously in neurodegenerative diseases and aging27. Conversely, the thalamic lesion was reminiscent of a metabolic disease due to thiamine deficiency28 but blood thiamine levels were within normal limits (data not shown). The preferential distribution of spongiform change in cortex associated with a limited distribution in the brainstem is reminiscent of the lesion profile in MM2c and VV1 sCJD patients29, but interspecies comparison of lesion profiles should be interpreted with caution. It is of note that the same classical scrapie isolate induced TSE in C57Bl/6 mice with similar incubation periods and lesional profiles as a sample derived from a MM1 sCJD patient30.

We are therefore confident that the illness in this cynomolgus macaque represents a true transmission of a sheep c-scrapie isolate directly to an old-world monkey, which taxonomically resides in the primate subdivision (parvorder of catarrhini) that includes humans. With an homology of its PrP protein with humans of 96.4%31, cynomolgus macaque constitutes a highly relevant model for assessing zoonotic risk of prion diseases. Since our initial aim was to show the absence of transmission of scrapie to macaques in the worst-case scenario, we obtained materials from a flock of naturally-infected sheep, affecting animals with different genotypes32. This c-scrapie isolate exhibited complete transmission in ARQ/ARQ sheep (332 ± 56 days) and Tg338 transgenic mice expressing ovine VRQ/VRQ prion protein (220 ± 5 days) (O. Andreoletti, personal communication). From the standpoint of zoonotic risk, it is important to note that sheep with c-scrapie (including the isolate used in our study) have demonstrable infectivity throughout their lymphoreticular system early in the incubation period of the disease (3 months-old for all the lymphoid organs, and as early as 2 months-old in gut-associated lymph nodes)33. In addition, scrapie infectivity has been identified in blood34, milk35 and skeletal muscle36 from asymptomatic but scrapie infected small ruminants which implies a potential dietary exposure for consumers.

Two earlier studies have reported the occurrence of clinical TSE in cynomolgus macaques after exposures to scrapie isolates. In the first study, the “Compton” scrapie isolate (derived from an English sheep) and serially propagated for 9 passages in goats did not transmit TSE in cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque or chimpanzee within 7 years following intracerebral challenge1; conversely, after 8 supplementary passages in conventional mice, this “Compton” isolate induced TSE in a cynomolgus macaque 5 years after intracerebral challenge, but rhesus macaques and chimpanzee remained asymptomatic 8.5 years post-exposure8. However, multiple successive passages that are classically used to select laboratory-adapted prion strains can significantly modify the initial properties of a scrapie isolate, thus questioning the relevance of zoonotic potential for the initial sheep-derived isolate. The same isolate had also induced disease into squirrel monkeys (new-world monkey)9. A second historical observation reported that a cynomolgus macaque developed TSE 6 years post-inoculation with brain homogenate from a scrapie-infected Suffolk ewe (derived from USA), whereas a rhesus macaque and a chimpanzee exposed to the same inoculum remained healthy 9 years post-exposure1. This inoculum also induced TSE in squirrel monkeys after 4 passages in mice. Other scrapie transmission attempts in macaque failed but had more shorter periods of observation in comparison to the current study. Further, it is possible that there are differences in the zoonotic potential of different scrapie strains.

The most striking observation in our study is the extended incubation period of scrapie in the macaque model, which has several implications. Firstly, our observations constitute experimental evidence in favor of the zoonotic potential of c-scrapie, at least for this isolate that has been extensively studied32,33,34,35,36. The cross-species zoonotic ability of this isolate should be confirmed by performing duplicate intracerebral exposures and assessing the transmissibility by the oral route (a successful transmission of prion strains through the intracerebral route may not necessarily indicate the potential for oral transmission37). However, such confirmatory experiments may require more than one decade, which is hardly compatible with current general management and support of scientific projects; thus this study should be rather considered as a case report.

Secondly, transmission of c-BSE to primates occurred within 8 years post exposure for the lowest doses able to transmit the disease (the survival period after inoculation is inversely proportional to the initial amount of infectious inoculum). The occurrence of scrapie 10 years after exposure to a high dose (25 mg) of scrapie-infected sheep brain suggests that the macaque has a higher species barrier for sheep c-scrapie than c-BSE, although it is notable that previous studies based on in vitro conversion of PrP suggested that BSE and scrapie prions would have a similar conversion potential for human PrP38.

Thirdly, prion diseases typically have longer incubation periods after oral exposure than after intracerebral inoculations: since humans can develop Kuru 47 years after oral exposure39, an incubation time of several decades after oral exposure to scrapie would therefore be expected, leading the disease to occur in older adults, i.e. the peak age for cases considered to be sporadic disease, and making a distinction between scrapie-associated and truly sporadic disease extremely difficult to appreciate.

Fourthly, epidemiologic evidence is necessary to confirm the zoonotic potential of an animal disease suggested by experimental studies. A relatively short incubation period and a peculiar epidemiological situation (e.g., all the first vCJD cases occurring in the country with the most important ongoing c-BSE epizootic) led to a high degree of suspicion that c-BSE was the cause of vCJD. Sporadic CJD are considered spontaneous diseases with an almost stable and constant worldwide prevalence (0.5–2 cases per million inhabitants per year), and previous epidemiological studies were unable to draw a link between sCJD and classical scrapie6,7,40,41, even though external causes were hypothesized to explain the occurrence of some sCJD clusters42,43,44. However, extended incubation periods exceeding several decades would impair the predictive values of epidemiological surveillance for prion diseases, already weakened by a limited prevalence of prion diseases and the multiplicity of isolates gathered under the phenotypes of “scrapie” and “sporadic CJD”.

Fifthly, considering this 10 year-long incubation period, together with both laboratory and epidemiological evidence of decade or longer intervals between infection and clinical onset of disease, no premature conclusions should be drawn from negative transmission studies in cynomolgus macaques with less than a decade of observation, as in the aforementioned historical transmission studies of scrapie to primates1,8,9. Our observations and those of others45,46 to date are unable to provide definitive evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of CWD, atypical/Nor98 scrapie or H-type BSE. The extended incubation period of the scrapie-affected macaque in the current study also underscores the limitations of rodent models expressing human PrP for assessing the zoonotic potential of some prion diseases since their lifespan remains limited to approximately two years21,47,48. This point is illustrated by the fact that the recently reported transmission of scrapie to humanized mice was not associated with clinical signs for up to 750 days and occurred in an extreme minority of mice with only a marginal increase in attack rate upon second passage13. The low attack rate in these studies is certainly linked to the limited lifespan of mice compared to the very long periods of observation necessary to demonstrate the development of scrapie. Alternatively, one could estimate that a successful second passage is the result of strain adaptation to the species barrier, thus poorly relevant of the real zoonotic potential of the original scrapie isolate of sheep origin49. The development of scrapie in this primate after an incubation period compatible with its lifespan complements the study conducted in transgenic (humanized) mice; taken together these studies suggest that some isolates of sheep scrapie can promote misfolding of the human prion protein and that scrapie can develop within the lifespan of some primate species.

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free... Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.


Singeltary on Scrapie and human transmission way back, see;


BSE INQUIRY 

1979 SILENCE ON CJD AND SCRAPIE 

1980 SILENCE ON CJD AND SCRAPIE 

*** 1981 NOVEMBER 


1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8 

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates. 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC. 

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation. 

snip... 

***> The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 

PMID: 6997404 


12/10/76 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE 

Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY 

snip... 

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie 

A] The Problem Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries. The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. 

A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep. It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible. 

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. 

This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. 

One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" 

The problem is emphasized by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias" Whether true or not. 

the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. 

First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. 

Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the Scrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously. 

snip... 76/10.12/4.6 


Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4. 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire). 


Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4. 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire). 


RB3.20 IN CONFIDENCE 

TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEE 

1. Kuru and CJD have been successfully transmitted to chimpanzees but scrapie and TME have not. 

2. We cannot say that scrapie will not transmit to chimpanzees. There are several scrapie strains and I am not aware that all have been tried (that would have to be from mouse passaged material). Nor has a wide enough range of field isolates subsequently strain typed in mice been inoculated by the appropriate routes (i/c, i/p and i v); 

3. I believe the proposed experiment to determine transmissibility, if conducted, would only show the susceptibility or resistance of the chimpanzee to infection/disease by the routes used and the result could not be interpreted for the predictability of the susceptibility for man. Proposals for prolonged oral exposure of chimpanzees to milk from cattle were suggested a long while ago and rejected. 

4. In view of Dr Gibbs‘ probable use of Chimpazees Mr Wells‘ comments (enclosed) are pertinent. I have yet to receive a direct communication from Dr Schellekers but before any collaboration or provision of material we should identify the Gibbs' proposals and objectives. 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severely would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis. 

A negative result would take a lifetime to determine but that would be a shorter period than might be available for human exposure and it would still not answer the question regarding mans' susceptibility. In the meantime no doubt the negativity would be used defensively. It would however be counterproductive if the experiment finally became positive- We may learn more about public reactions following next Monday‘s meeting. 

CVO (+ Mr. Wells’ comments) Dr. T W A Little Dr. B J Shreeve R Bradley September 1990 90/9.23/1/1 


why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. 

***> I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...

R. BRADLEY


Wednesday, February 16, 2011 

IN CONFIDENCE SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES IN CONFIDENCE 


2018

***> Unexpected prion phenotypes in experimentally transfused animals: predictive models for humans? 

Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol & Jean-Philippe Deslys 

Pages 162-169 | Received 06 Jul 2018, Accepted 24 Jul 2018, Accepted author version posted online: 06 Aug 2018, Published online: 16 Aug 2018

ABSTRACT 

The recently reevaluated high prevalence of healthy carriers (1/2,000 in UK) of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (v-CJD), whose blood might be infectious, suggests that the evolution of this prion disease might not be under full control as expected. 

After experimental transfusion of macaques and conventional mice with blood derived from v-CJD exposed (human and animal) individuals, we confirmed in these both models the transmissibility of v-CJD, but we also observed unexpected neurological syndromes transmissible by transfusion: despite their prion etiology confirmed through transmission experiments, these original cases would escape classical prion diagnosis, notably in the absence of detectable abnormal PrP with current techniques. 

It is noteworthy that macaques developed an original, yet undescribed myelopathic syndrome associating demyelination and pseudo-necrotic lesions of spinal cord, brainstem and optical tract without affecting encephalon, which is rather evocative of spinal cord disease than prion disease in human medicine. 

These observations strongly suggest that the spectrum of human prion diseases may extend the current field restricted to the phenotypes associated to protease-resistant PrP, and may notably include spinal cord diseases.

KEYWORDS: (5-10): prion, vCJD, macaque, mouse, spinal cord disease, myelopathy, transfusion, abnormal PrP, demyelination, spongiform change

This article refers to:

Additional information

Funding

The original laboratory work was funded by European Commission [Fifth Framework Programme, QLK1-CT-2002-01096], French Research Funding Agency (Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR) [ANR-10-BLAN-1330 01], Health Canada [4500216567] and MacoPharma.


***> It is noteworthy that macaques developed an original, yet undescribed myelopathic syndrome associating demyelination and pseudo-necrotic lesions of spinal cord, brainstem and optical tract without affecting encephalon, which is rather evocative of spinal cord disease than prion disease in human medicine. 

***> These observations strongly suggest that the spectrum of human prion diseases may extend the current field restricted to the phenotypes associated to protease-resistant PrP, and may notably include spinal cord diseases. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7, 2018 

Unexpected prion phenotypes in experimentally transfused animals: predictive models for humans?


MONDAY, NOVEMBER 06, 2017 

Experimental transfusion of variant CJD-infected blood reveals previously uncharacterised prion disorder in mice and macaque


FRIDAY, OCTOBER 05, 2018

More Politicians and Very Young People Struck Down With Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD mad cow type TSE Prion USA


Sunday, September 16, 2018 

Mother to Offspring Transmission of TSE PRION DISEASE and risk factors there from


WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 05, 2018 

Edmonton woman one of the youngest diagnosed with CJD at 35 years old and pregnant


Volume 2: Science 

4. The link between BSE and vCJD 

Summary 

4.29 The evidence discussed above that vCJD is caused by BSE seems overwhelming. Uncertainties exist about the cause of CJD in farmers, their wives and in several abattoir workers. It seems that farmers at least might be at higher risk than others in the general population. 1 Increased ascertainment (ie, increased identification of cases as a result of greater awareness of the condition) seems unlikely, as other groups exposed to risk, such as butchers and veterinarians, do not appear to have been affected. 

***The CJD in farmers seems to be similar to other sporadic CJD in age of onset, in respect to glycosylation patterns, and in strain-typing in experimental mice. 

***Some farmers are heterozygous for the methionine/valine variant at codon 129, and their lymphoreticular system (LRS) does not contain the high levels of PrPSc found in vCJD. 

*** It remains a remote possibility that when older people contract CJD from BSE the resulting phenotype is like sporadic CJD and is distinct from the vCJD phenotype in younger people.


***>Some farmers are heterozygous for the methionine/valine variant at codon 129, and their lymphoreticular system (LRS) does not contain the high levels of PrPSc found in vCJD.<*** 

SATURDAY, JUNE 23, 2018

***> Diagnosis of Methionine/Valine Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 

Cervid to human prion transmission 5R01NS088604-04 Update


Sunday, September 16, 2018 

Mother to Offspring Transmission of TSE PRION DISEASE and risk factors there from 


WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 17, 2018 

PRICE OF TSE PRION POKER GOES UP spectrum of human prion diseases may extend the current field and may notably include spinal cord diseases 


SATURDAY, OCTOBER 06, 2018 

Evaluation of iatrogenic risk of CJD transmission associated with corneal transplantation


SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2018 

Emerging Diseases, Infection Control & California Dental Practice Act


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 

Case Western Reserve researchers to examine skin prions in fatal neurodegenerative disease $2.9 million NIH grant focuses on transmission and diagnostic testing


WEDNESDAY, JULY 04, 2018 

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS IN ENGLAND June 2018


MONDAY, JUNE 18, 2018

Ecuador Six Case series of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a third-level hospital in Quito


HUMAN MAD COW DISEASE nvCJD TEXAS CASE NOT LINKED TO EUROPEAN TRAVEL CDC

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Confirmed Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (variant CJD) Case in Texas

Updated: October 7, 2014

CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) have completed the investigation of the recently reported fourth vCJD case in the United States. It confirmed that the case was in a US citizen born outside the Americas and indicated that the patient's exposure to the BSE/vCJD agent most likely occurred before he moved to the United States; the patient had resided in Kuwait, Russia and Lebanon. The completed investigation did not support the patient's having had extended travel to European countries, including the United Kingdom, or travel to Saudi Arabia. The specific overseas country where this patient’s infection occurred is less clear largely because the investigation did not definitely link him to a country where other known vCJD cases likely had been infected.



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 

A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK 1995 revisited 2018 a review of science


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined¹ (September 18, 2018)


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 2018 

USA CJD, BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, TSE PRION END OF YEAR REPORTS September 4, 2018

prepare for the storm...


Tuesday, March 20, 2018 

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), sporadic creutzfeldt jakob disease sCJD, the same disease, what if?


SUNDAY, OCTOBER 21, 2018 

Surveillance for variant CJD: should more children with neurodegenerative diseases have autopsies? Singeltary Review


JUST OUT CDC;

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

***> Eyes of CJD patients show evidence of prions Finding could help early diagnosis, raise concern for eye exams and transplants.


Singeltary 1999

 ***> THE EYES HAVE IT, CJD, AND THEY COULD BE STEALING THEM FROM YOUR LOVED ONE!...year 1999

i said that 20 years ago about this very thing. but did anyone listen...no!

prepare for the storm...terry

Subject: RE-The Eyes Have It (cjd) and they could be stealing them from your loved one... "pay back time" 

Date: Sat, 16 Sep 2000 10:04:26 -0700 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." 

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 

To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Greetings List Members,

I hate to keep kicking a madcow, but this still is very disturbing to me. Not only for the recipient of the cornea's, but as well, for the people whom would be operated on, using the same tools that were used to put those stolen cornea's in the recipient with. No history of this donor or his family (re-ffi), or anything would be known, using stolen organs and or tissue's. I just think this is not only wrong, but very dangerous to a great many other people, as this is one of the most infectious tissues of TSE's. It seems that this practice of stealing organ/tissue happens more than we think. Anyway, the family of the victim which had their cornea's stolen, are now suing. In the example I used with my Mother, if 3 months before, she would have been in a catastrophic accident (car wreck, whatever), no autopsy (for whatever reason), no family (for whatever reason), she lay in the morgue, and after 4 hours, they come steal the cornea's, lot of people could have been infected, just because of lack of medical history of donor/family. It may be hypothetical, but very real. We need to stop the spread of this disease.

kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA 

===========================================

Previous story--

Cadaver corneal transplants -- without family permission...

Cadaver corneal transplants -- without family permission Houston, Texas channel 11 news 28 Nov 99

Reported by Terry S. Singeltary Sr.son of CJD victim

"It was a story about how the Lions eye bank were harvesting corneas from victims in the Morgue, without their consent. Under Texas law, this appears to be legal (remember Texas has the Veggie liable law). Even if Family says no, this appears to happen, from what the news story said.

They said the only way to prevent this, is to fill out a form, stating not to have this done. So if you don't fill out the form, they can do this. How many people don't know about the form? 

 This is not only disgusting and appalling, it could be highly infectious. Without proper background checking of the donors, on their physical history, checking on past dementia, and/or family history, some of these unfortunate victims, could be passing a human TSE. 

 Response Jill Spitler Clevelland Eye Bank: 

 "No, we are not stealing.........Yes, you do have such a law in the state of Texas, but not all your state Eye Banks utilize the law. The Eye Bank that you're speaking of is only one of 43 certified Eye Bank throughout the USA. 

 And there are measure taken per the Medical Standards of the Eye Bank Association of America, the certifying body for eye banks and per FDA regulations to address those concerns that you speak of. 

 I would suggest that those interested/concern with transplant contact their local agencies. The Eye Bank Association of America has a web. site . Further if anyone has problems contacting or finding out about their local organization(s), call me or e-mail me I would be glad to help. My e-mail address isjill@clevelandeyebank.org

 Terry Singeltary responds: 

 "Explain this to the family in Houston who went to their loved ones funeral, only to find out that the loved one that was in the casket, had their corneas removed without their permission, without the consent of the victim or it's family. They would not have known it, only for the funny look the victim had. So, they questioned, only to find out, the corneas, had in fact, been removed without consent. 

 I call that stealing, regardless what the law states. This type of legal grave robbing is not a logical thing to do without knowing any type of background of the victims medical past, which really will not prove anything due to the incubation period. Eye tissue being potentially a highly infective source, there are risks here. 

 Should they not at least know of the potential ramifications of TSE's (the person receiving the corneas)? 

 Should there not be some sort of screening? 

 Should there be some sort of moral issue here? 

 If this is the case, and in fact, they can come take your corneas, without your consent, then what will they start taking next, without your consent? 

 Lets look at a hypothetical situation: 

 What would happen if my Mom (DOD 12-14-97 hvCJD) would have gotten into a car wreck and died, before the symptoms of CJD appeared. Not much money, so there was no autopsy. What would have happened to that recipient of those infecting corneas?" 

 Comment (webmaster): Actual transmission of CJD by means of corneal transplant may or may not be rare. The incidence of infectivity in older people could be fairly high; this is not to be confused with the lower incidence of symptomatic (clinical) CJD. It is very unlikely that familial CJD would have been diagnosed in earlier generations; however, without interviewing the family even known kindreds would not be excluded. 

 In blood donation, a much stricter policy is followed, even though corneal transplant may be far more dangerous (being a direct link to the brain and not going through purification steps). 

 Since highly sensitive tests for pre-clinical CJD are now available, it would make sense to screen corneas for CJD, just as they are screened for AIDS, hepatitus, and a host of other conditions. 



Eye procedure raises CJD concerns

BySTEVE MITCHELL, Medical Correspondent

WASHINGTON, Nov. 18 (UPI) -- A New York man who died from a rare brain disorder similar to mad cow disease in May underwent an eye procedure prior to his death that raises concerns about the possibility of transmitting the fatal disease to others, United Press International has learned.

The development comes on the heels of the announcement Thursday by U.S. Department of Agriculture officials of a possible second case of mad cow disease in U.S. herds.

Richard Da Silva, 58, of Orange County, N.Y., died from Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, an incurable brain-wasting illness that strikes about one person per million.

Richard's wife Ann Marie Da Silva told UPI he underwent a check for the eye disease glaucoma in 2003, approximately a year before his death. The procedure involves the use of a tonometer, which contacts the cornea -- an eye tissue that can contain prions, the infectious agent thought to cause CJD.

Ann Marie's concern is that others who had the tonometer used on them could have gotten infected.

A 2003 study by British researchers suggests her concerns may be justified. A team led by J.W. Ironside from the National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit at the University of Edinburgh examined tonometer heads and found they can retain cornea tissue that could infect other people -- even after cleaning and decontaminating the instrument.

"Retained corneal epithelial cells, following the standard decontamination routine of tonometer prisms, may represent potential prion infectivity," the researchers wrote in the British Journal of Ophthalmology last year. "Once the infectious agent is on the cornea, it could theoretically infect the brain."

Prions, misfolded proteins thought to be the cause of mad cow, CJD and similar diseases, are notoriously difficult to destroy and are capable of withstanding most sterilization procedures.

Laura Manuelidis, an expert on these diseases and section chief of surgery in the neuropathology department at Yale University, agreed with the British researchers that tonometers represent a potential risk of passing CJD to other people.

Manuelidis told UPI she has been voicing her concern about the risks of corneas since 1977 when her own study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed the eye tissue, if infected, could transmit CJD.

At the time the procedure was done on Richard Da Silva, about a year before he died, she said it was "absolutely" possible he was infectious.

The CJD Incidents Panel, a body of experts set up by the U.K. Department of Health, noted in a 2001 report that procedures involving the cornea are considered medium risk for transmitting CJD. The first two patients who have a contaminated eye instrument used on them have the highest risk of contracting the disease, the panel said.

In 1999, the U.K. Department of Health banned opticians from reusing equipment that came in contact with patients' eyes out of concern it could result in the transmission of variant CJD, the form of the disease humans can contract from consuming infected beef products.

Richard Da Silva was associated with a cluster of five other cases of CJD in southern New York that raised concerns about vCJD.

None of the cases have been determined to stem from mad cow disease, but concerns about the cattle illness in the United States could increase in light of the USDA announcement Thursday that a cow tested positive on initial tests for the disease. If confirmed, this would be the second U.S. case of the illness; the first was detected in a Washington cow last December. The USDA said the suspect animal disclosed Thursday did not enter the food chain. The USDA did not release further details about the cow, but said results from further lab tests to confirm the initial tests were expected within seven days.

Ann Marie Da Silva said she informed the New York Health Department and later the eye doctor who performed the procedure about her husband's illness and her concerns about the risk of transmitting CJD via the tonometer.

The optometrist -- whom she declined to name because she did not want to jeopardize his career -- "didn't even know what this disease was," she said.

"He said the health department never called him and I called them (the health department) back and they didn't seem concerned about it," she added. "I just kept getting angrier and angrier when I felt I was being dismissed."

She said the state health department "seems to have an attitude of don't ask, don't tell" about CJD.

"There's a stigma attached to it," she said. "Is it because they're so afraid the public will panic? I don't know, but I don't think that the answer is to push things under the rug."

New York State Department of Health spokeswoman Claire Pospisil told UPI she would look into whether the agency was concerned about the possibility of transmitting CJD via tonometers, but she had not called back prior to story publication.

Disposable tonometers are readily available and could avoid the risk of transmitting the disease, Ironside and colleagues noted in their study. Ann Marie Da Silva said she asked the optometrist whether he used disposable tonometers and "he said 'No, it's a reusable one.'"

Ironside's team also noted other ophthalmic instruments come into contact with the cornea and could represent a source of infection as they are either difficult to decontaminate or cannot withstand the harsh procedures necessary to inactivate prions. These include corneal burrs, diagnostic and therapeutic contact lenses and other coated lenses.

Terry Singletary, whose mother died from a type of CJD called Heidenhain Variant, told UPI health officials were not doing enough to prevent people from being infected by contaminated medical equipment.

"They've got to start taking this disease seriously and they simply aren't doing it," said Singletary, who is a member of CJD Watch and CJD Voice -- advocacy groups for CJD patients and their families.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention spokeswoman Christine Pearson did not return a phone call from UPI seeking comment. The agency's Web site states the eye is one of three tissues, along with the brain and spinal cord, that are considered to have "high infectivity."

The Web site said more than 250 people worldwide have contracted CJD through contaminated surgical instruments and tissue transplants. This includes as many as four who were infected by corneal grafts. The agency noted no such cases have been reported since 1976, when sterilization procedures were instituted in healthcare facilities.

Ironside and colleagues noted in their study, however, many disinfection procedures used on optical instruments, such as tonometers, fail. They wrote their finding of cornea tissue on tonometers indicates that "no current cleaning and disinfection strategy is fully effective."

Singletary said CDC's assertion that no CJD cases from infected equipment or tissues have been detected since 1976 is misleading.

"They have absolutely no idea" whether any cases have occurred in this manner, he said, because CJD cases often aren't investigated and the agency has not required physicians nationwide report all cases of CJD.

"There's no national surveillance unit for CJD in the United States; people are dying who aren't autopsied, the CDC has no way of knowing" whether people have been infected via infected equipment or tissues, he said.

Ann Marie Da Silva said she has contacted several members of her state's congressional delegation about her concerns, including Rep. Sue Kelly, R-N.Y., and Sen. Charles Schumer, D-N.Y.

"Basically, what I want is to be a positive force in this, but I also want more of a dialogue going on with the public and the health department," she said.


Friday, December 04, 2009

New guidance on decontamination of trial contact lenses and other contact devices has been revealed for CJD AND vCJD


SUNDAY, JANUARY 17, 2016 

Of Grave Concern Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2018 

CDC Eyes of CJD patients show evidence of prions concerns for iatrogenic transmission


>>> The only tenable public line will be that "more research is required’’ <<< 

>>> possibility on a transmissible prion remains open<<< 


O.K., so it’s about 23 years later, so somebody please tell me, when is "more research is required’’ enough time for evaluation ? 

Re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015) 

snip...see full Singeltary Nature comment here; 

Alzheimer's disease

let's not forget the elephant in the room. curing Alzheimer's would be a great and wonderful thing, but for starters, why not start with the obvious, lets prove the cause or causes, and then start to stop that. think iatrogenic, friendly fire, or the pass it forward mode of transmission. think medical, surgical, dental, tissue, blood, related transmission. think transmissible spongiform encephalopathy aka tse prion disease aka mad cow type disease... 

Commentary: Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy





Self-Propagative Replication of Ab Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease 

*** Singeltary comment PLoS *** 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ? 

Posted by flounder on 05 Nov 2014 at 21:27 GMT 


IN CONFIDENCE

5 NOVEMBER 1992

TRANSMISSION OF ALZHEIMER TYPE PLAQUES TO PRIMATES

[9. Whilst this matter is not at the moment directly concerned with the iatrogenic CJD cases from hgH, there remains a possibility of litigation here, and this presents an added complication. 

There are also results to be made available shortly 

(1) concerning a farmer with CJD who had BSE animals, 

(2) on the possible transmissibility of Alzheimer’s and 

(3) a CMO letter on prevention of iatrogenic CJD transmission in neurosurgery, all of which will serve to increase media interest.]




P132 Aged cattle brain displays Alzheimer’s-like pathology that can be propagated in a prionlike manner
Ines Moreno-Gonzalez (1), George Edwards III (1), Rodrigo Morales (1), Claudia Duran-Aniotz (1), Mercedes Marquez (2), Marti Pumarola (2), Claudio Soto (1) 
snip...
These results may contribute to uncover a previously unsuspected etiology surrounding some cases of sporadic AD. However, the early and controversial stage of the field of prion-like transmission in non-prion diseases added to the artificial nature of the animal models utilized for these studies, indicate that extrapolation of the results to humans should not be done without further experiments. 
P75 Determining transmissibility and proteome changes associated with abnormal bovine prionopathy 
Dudas S (1,2), Seuberlich T (3), Czub S (1,2) 
1. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, NCAD Lethbridge Laboratory, Canada 2. University of Calgary, Canada 3. University of Bern, Switzerland. 
In prion diseases, it is believed that altered protein conformation encodes for different pathogenic strains. Currently 3 different strains of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are confirmed. Diagnostic tests for BSE are able to identify animals infected with all 3 strains, however, several diagnostic laboratories have reported samples with inconclusive results which are challenging to classify. It was suggested that these may be novel strains of BSE; to determine transmissibility, brain material from index cases were inoculated into cattle. 
In the first passage, cattle were intra-cranially challenged with brain homogenate from 2 Swiss animals with abnormal prionopathy. The challenged cattle incubated for 3 years and were euthanized with no clinical signs of neurologic disease. Animals were negative when tested on validated diagnostic tests but several research methods demonstrated changes in the prion conformation in these cattle, including density gradient centrifugation and immunohistochemistry. Currently, samples from the P1 animals are being tested for changes in protein levels using 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry. It is anticipated that, if a prionopathy is present, this approach should identify pathways and targets to decipher the source of altered protein conformation. In addition, a second set of cattle have been challenged with brain material from the first passage. Ideally, these cattle will be given a sufficient incubation period to provide a definitive answer to the question of transmissibility. 
=====prion 2018===
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 2018 

Amydis Awarded Prion Disease Grant from NIH


***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts 

S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT


Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss


*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply;



CJD QUESTIONNAIRE



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 2018 

Benefit cuts hit mad cow disease sufferer A girl born severely disabled from vCJD may lose her home under universal credit


2006-2007

HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

TSEs have been rampant in the USA for decades in many species, and they all have been rendered and fed back to animals for human/animal consumption. 

I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2007. 

With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, surgical, blood, medical, cosmetics etc. 

I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route. 

This would further have to be broken down to strain of species and then the route of transmission would further have to be broken down. 

Accumulation and Transmission are key to the threshold from subclinical to clinical disease, and of that, I even believe that physical and or blunt trauma may play a role of onset of clinical symptoms in some cases, but key to all this, is to stop the amplification and transmission of this agent, the spreading of, no matter what strain. 

BUT, to continue with this myth that the U.K. strain of BSE one strain in cows, and the nv/v CJD, one strain in humans, and that all the rest of human TSE is one single strain i.e. sporadic CJD (when to date there are 6 different phenotypes of sCJD), and that no other animal TSE transmits to humans, to continue with this masquerade will only continue to spread, expose, and kill, who knows how many more in the years and decades to come. 

ONE was enough for me, My Mom, hvCJD, DOD 12/14/97 confirmed, which is nothing more than another mans name added to CJD, like CJD itself, Jakob and Creutzfeldt, or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, just another CJD or human TSE, named after another human. 

WE are only kidding ourselves with the current diagnostic criteria for human and animal TSE, especially differentiating between the nvCJD vs the sporadic CJD strains and then the GSS strains and also the FFI fatal familial insomnia strains or the ones that mimics one or the other of those TSE? 

Tissue infectivity and strain typing of the many variants of the human and animal TSEs are paramount in all variants of all TSE. 

There must be a proper classification that will differentiate between all these human TSE in order to do this. 

With the CDI and other more sensitive testing coming about, I only hope that my proposal will some day be taken seriously.

My name is Terry S. Singeltary Sr. and I am no scientist, no doctor and have no PhDs, but have been independently researching human and animal TSEs since the death of my Mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease on December 14, 1997 'confirmed'.

...END

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 

To the Editor: 

In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally. 

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex 

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. 


Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.


BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL

BMJ

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well....

02 January 2000

Terry S Singeltary

retired


US scientists develop a possible test for BSE

BMJ 1999; 319 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7220.1312b (Published 13 November 1999) Cite this as: BMJ 1999;319:1312

Rapid responses Response

Re: vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.

15 November 1999

Terry S Singeltary

NA

medically retired


January 28, 2003; 60 (2) VIEWS & REVIEWS

Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

Ermias D. Belay, Ryan A. Maddox, Pierluigi Gambetti, Lawrence B. Schonberger

First published January 28, 2003, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000036913.87823.D6

Abstract

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) attracted increased attention in the mid-1980s because of the emergence among UK cattle of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which has been shown to be transmitted to humans, causing a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The BSE outbreak has been reported in 19 European countries, Israel, and Japan, and human cases have so far been identified in four European countries, and more recently in a Canadian resident and a US resident who each lived in Britain during the BSE outbreak. To monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD, such as vCJD, in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been conducting surveillance for human TSEs through several mechanisms, including the establishment of the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. Physicians are encouraged to maintain a high index of suspicion for vCJD and use the free services of the pathology center to assess the neuropathology of clinically diagnosed and suspected cases of CJD or other TSEs.

Received May 7, 2002. Accepted August 28, 2002.


RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) 

Published March 26, 2003

26 March 2003

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?


Reply to Singletary Ryan A. Maddox, MPH Other Contributors: Published March 26, 2003 

Mr. Singletary raises several issues related to current Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance activities. Although CJD is not a notifiable disease in most states, its unique characteristics, particularly its invariably fatal outcome within usually a year of onset, make routine mortality surveillance a useful surrogate for ongoing CJD surveillance.[1] In addition, because CJD is least accurately diagnosed early in the course of illness, notifiable-disease surveillance could be less accurate than, if not duplicative of, current mortality surveillance.[1] However, in states where making CJD officially notifiable would meaningfully facilitate the collection of data to monitor for variant CJD (vCJD) or other emerging prion diseases, CDC encourages the designation of CJD as a notifiable disease.[1] Moreover, CDC encourages physicians to report any diagnosed or suspected CJD cases that may be of special public health importance (e.g., vCJD, iatrogenic CJD, unusual CJD clusters).

As noted in our article, strong evidence is lacking for a causal link between chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk and human disease,[2] but only limited data seeking such evidence exist. Overall, the previously published case-control studies that have evaluated environmental sources of infection for sporadic CJD have not consistently identified strong evidence for a common risk factor.[3] However, the power of a case-control study to detect a rare cause of CJD is limited, particularly given the relatively small number of subjects generally involved and its long incubation period, which may last for decades. Because only a very small proportion of the US population has been exposed to CWD, a targeted surveillance and investigation of unusual cases or case clusters of prion diseases among persons at increased risk of exposure to CWD is a more efficient approach to detecting the possible transmission of CWD to humans. In collaboration with appropriate local and state health departments and the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, CDC is facilitating or conducting such surveillance and case- investigations, including related laboratory studies to characterize CJD and CWD prions.

Mr. Singletary also expresses concern over a recent publication by Asante and colleagues indicating the possibility that some sporadic CJD cases may be attributable to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).[4] The authors reported that transgenic mice expressing human prion protein homozygous for methionine at codon 129, when inoculated with BSE prions, developed a molecular phenotype consistent with a subtype of sporadic CJD. Although the authors implied that BSE might cause a sporadic CJD-like illness among persons homozygous for methionine, the results of their research with mice do not necessarily directly apply to the transmission of BSE to humans. If BSE causes a sporadic CJD-like illness in humans, an increase in sporadic CJD cases would be expected to first occur in the United Kingdom, where the vast majority of vCJD cases have been reported. In the United Kingdom during 1997 through 2002, however, the overall average annual mortality rate for sporadic CJD was not elevated; it was about 1 case per million population per year. In addition, during this most recent 6-year period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of UK sporadic CJD deaths.[3, 5] Furthermore, surveillance in the UK has shown no increase in the proportion of sporadic CJD cases that are homozygous for methionine (Will RG, National CJD Surveillance Unit, United Kingdom, 2003; personal communication).

References

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Diagnosis and reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. JAMA 2001;285:733-734.

2. Belay ED, Maddox RA, Gambetti P, Schonberger LB. Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States. Neurology 2003;60:176-181.

3. Belay ED. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans. Annu Rev Microbiol 1999;53:283-314.

4. Asante EA, Linehan JM, Desbruslais M, et al. BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein. EMBO J 2002;21:6358-6366.

5. The UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit. CJD statistics. Available at: http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures.htm. Accessed February 18, 2003.

Competing Interests: None declared.


doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1 Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Newsdesk

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

Available online 29 July 2003. 

Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2003, Page 463 

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem..” ............................ 



the British disease...NOT, the UKBSEnvCJD only theory was/is bogus $$$



*** USA sporadic CJD MAD COW DISEASE HAS HUGE PROBLEM Video
 
*** sporadic CJD linked to mad cow disease
 
*** you can see video here and interview with Jeff's Mom, and scientist telling you to test everything and potential risk factors for humans ***
 


Singeltary on TSE Prion



spontaneous TSE Prion disease
 
Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period
 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
 


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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